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Scientific Contributions Of The Ben May Laboratory For Cancer Research | by The University of Chicago



Contains a collection of articles on Cancer research of the Ben May Laboratory at The University of Chicago. The principal aim of the Laboratory in its first decade has been to provide opportunity for young scientists to unfold in a climate where they might enjoy maximal encouragement-privileges without responsibility.

TitleThe Scientific Contributions Of The Ben May Laboratory For Cancer Research
AuthorThe University of Chicago
PublisherThe University of Chicago
Year1951-1961
Copyright1961, The University of Chicago
AmazonThe Scientific Contributions Of The Ben May Laboratory For Cancer Research
-Preface
Discovery Is Our Business It was on a late winter afternoon in 1951, in the Battle House, Mobile, Alabama, after an interview lasting five minutes, that Mr. Ben May consented to serve as patron o...
-I. Endocrine Approaches To The Cancer Problem
Through the efforts of many workers, it has been established that steroids and related polycyclic hydrocarbons have a pertinent relationship to cancer. Under special conditions aromatic hydrocarbons c...
-Adrenal Support Of Human Mammary Cancer
Cancer of the breast is one of the most noble of the problems of cancer; in the United States it has the highest rate of incidence of any cancer of either sex. In 1896, Beatson (Lancet, 2:104, 1896...
-Steroid-Induced Growth In Hypophysectomized Rats
These experiments were undertaken to correlate the growth-promoting activity of steroids with their molecular structure as an approach to the elucidation of mechanism of action of steroids. For the pr...
-Liver Is A Hormonal Target
One of the considerations leading to these experiments was that hydrogen atoms at critical sites of the steroid molecule are of decisive importance in the promotion of cell growth by compounds exertin...
-Portal Vein And Reproductive Function
This work (62) originated with the observation that there was a very high incidence of abortion in rats subjected earlier to section of the portal vein and which subsequently had become pregnant. The ...
-II. Experimental Mammary Cancer. Considerations
Whereas advances of considerable magnitude have been made in the clinical treatment of far-advanced mammary cancer, these arose at the bedside exclusively through clinical investigation. The laborator...
-Characteristics Of Induced Mammary Cancers
The mammary cancers in intact rats are ecru in color and rather firm. Hemorrhage and necrosis are observed in very large tumors but are absent at earlier stages. The growths, differing in physiologic ...
-Hormonal Dependence In Experimental Mammary Cancer
This was a newly recognized property of mammary cancer in experimental animals. Many of the established mammary cancers underwent a considerable diminution in size or disappeared after appropriate hor...
-III. Studies On The Role Of Hormones In Vigor, Growth, And Disease. Vigor
The muscle work test (Ingle, D.J. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med., 31: 163, 1933) has been useful as a quantitative index of vigor for more than twenty-five years. When the gastrocnemius muscle of an a...
-The Effect Of Pituitary Extracts Upon The Work Performance Of Adrenalectomized-Hypophysectomized Rats
Identification of vasopressin as a principle affecting work (105).-This study was carried out with the collaboration of Professor C. H. Li of the University of California. The rats were subjected to t...
-Factors Affecting Tumor Growth
Weights Of Tumors In Overfed Rats (Pp) Adult male rats were tube-fed a medium carbohydrate diet. All were implanted with Walker carcinoma (bilateral intramuscular implants). The rats were matched i...
-Regeneration Of Liver
We are interested in liver regeneration as an example of normal controlled growth. Why does a liver regenerate when part of it is removed? Why does regeneration stop when a normal mass of liver is res...
-Renal-Cardiovascular Pathologic Changes In Aging Female Breeder Rats (189)
One hundred female rats were obtained from the Sprague-Dawley Company when they were twelve to fifteen months old. These were discarded breeders which had each cast six or more litters. We were primar...
-Cold Stress
If Selye's hypothesis as to the etiology of the adaptation diseases is correct, it should be possible to cause diseases by the exposure of experimental animals to naturally occurring forms of stress...
-IV. Physiology Of Male Accessory Glands Of Reproduction
The principal and probably sole function of the prostate gland and seminal vesicle is to secrete the bulk of the seminal plasma. The physiology of these organs is, therefore, of obvious importance in ...
-Seminal Fructose
The main reducing and yeast-fermentable sugar in the seminal fluid of most mammals is D-fructose (Mann, T. The Biochemistry of Semen. London: Constable & Co., 1954). Depending on the species, seminal ...
-Coagulation Of Semen
The seminal fluid of many species clots soon after ejaculation, and the vaginal plug which forms after coitus in most rodents is composed of coagulated semen. Human semen is emitted in a gelatinous fo...
-Metabolism Of Prostate Gland And Seminal Vesicle
In the rat, the respiration (but not the glycolysis) of slices of the ventral prostate gland falls to about 60 per cent of its normal value within 72 hours after castration and is restored to normal l...
-Enzymatic Oxidation Of Reduced Ribosyl Nicotinamide
In the course of studies on the oxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotides by the accessory glands, it was found (136a) that the rat seminal vesicle contained a highly active, soluble enzyme that catal...
-V. Enzymatic Mechanisms In Steroid Metabolism. Pseudomonas Testosteroni
A new experimental approach to the study of the metabolism of steroids was launched in 1952, when the first microbial enzymes capable of carrying out highly specific and quantitative conversions of th...
-Hydroxy Steroid Dehydrogenases
The first enzymatic reaction to be demonstrated with cell-free preparations of steroid-induced P. testosteroni was the diphosphopyridine nucleotide-dependent oxidation of testosterone to 4-androstene-...
-Enzymatic Microanalysis Of Steroid Hormones
The isolation from P. testosteroni of adequate quantities of purified and highly active hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases of known specificity pointed the way for the development of precise and specific m...
-Δ^5-3-Ketosteroid Isomerase
The structure of cholesterol and other related sterols is characterized by the presence of an alcoholic hydroxyl group at C-3 and a double bond at C-5. In contrast, many hormonally active steroids, al...
-Enzymatic Introduction Of Steroid Double Bonds
The introduction of unsaturation into steroid ring A is of interest in connection with the aromatization involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic estrogens and the enhanced physiological activity of A...
-Enzymatic Formation Of Steroid Ring D Lactones
Among the many microbiological transformations of steroids which have been described, the formation of steroid ring D lactones stands out by virtue of its unusual nature and potentially interesting me...
-Hydrogen Transport By Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
The hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are a family of widely distributed pyridine nucleotide-linked enzymes which catalyze the freely reversible interconversion of various hydroxy- and ketosteroids. Detai...
-Oxidation Of Phenolic Estrogens By Metallo-Enzymes
The reactivity of various natural and synthetic phenolic estrogens with copper- and iron-containing oxidases was studied (183, 184, 198, 202). Low concentrations of many phenolic estrogens were found ...
-VI. Fate Of Steroid Estrogens In Target Tissues
Elucidation of the process by which the steroid sex hormones exert their remarkable stimulation of the growth of certain mammalian tissues is one of the major problems of current interest to biologica...
-Nature Of The Radioactive Material In The Tissues
To determine the chemical nature of the radioactive material present in the tissues, the radioactivity was first separated into volatile, protein-bound, ether-soluble (free steroid) and water-soluble ...
-Importance Of Steroid Oxidation Reactions In Uterine Tissue
The absence of any significant amount of tritiated estrone in uterine tissue following the administration of tritiated estradiol does not necessarily imply that no oxidation of the 17-hydroxyl group h...
-VII. Steroid Hormone Analogues
The steroid sex hormones are known to exhibit a multiplicity of physiological activities. In addition to their primary hormonal action of stimulating certain responsive tissues to grow or secrete, the...
-Fluorinated Steroids
Since fluorine is a highly electronegative atom, it was hoped that steroid hormones in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by a fluorine atom would be rather similar in electronic and dipole characteri...
-Total Synthesis Of Equilenin Derivatives
The estrogenic hormones equilin and equilenin are unique substances excreted only by members of the equine family. Because of their relative unavailability, these steroids, which possess unsaturation ...
-Physiological Properties Of Hormone Analogues
Although the complete biological evaluation of many of the foregoing hormone analogues is still in progress, certain observations in this regard may be summarized briefly. As discussed in more detail ...
-VIII. Fatty Acid Oxidation And Oxidative Phosphorylation. Fatty Acid Oxidation By Isolated Mitochondria
In the period between 1945 and 1948 studies were carried out on the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by particulate enzyme preparations derived from liver and heart. It was shown that a two-carbon ...
-IX. The Biosynthesis Of Complex Lipids
In 1952 there was no information on the detailed chemical pathways leading to the biosynthesis of complex lipids such as lecithin. Since compounds of this type are found in every kind of living cell, ...
-X. Metabolism Of Phosphoproteins. Isolation Of Radioactive Phosphoserine From Ehrlich Ascites Tumor
Isolated washed Ehrlich ascites tumor cells when incubated in the presence of inorganic phosphate labeled with P32 incorporated this label into a phos-phoprotein fraction with a specific activity abou...
-Enzymatic Phosphorylation Of Proteins
With the chemical identification of the metabolically active components of the phosphoprotein fraction, it was decided to study the possible physiological significance of the rapid phosphorylation and...
-XI. Studies On The Sulfhydryl Groups Of Proteins. Sulfhydryl-Disulfide Interchange Reactions
As an outgrowth of studies of the effect of disease on the heat coagulability of serum proteins, it was observed that the single sulfhydryl group of human or bovine plasma albumin exerts a marked infl...
-Sulfhydryl Groups And Protein Structure
In the course of the previously described studies on viscosity changes in urea solutions of bovine plasma albumin (28), it was noted that the viscosity immediately after exposure to urea invariably is...
-XII. Studies In Organophosphorous Chemistry
It is well established that many of the substrates of intermediary metabolism undergo enzymatic reaction only in the form of phosphate esters, even though the reaction may take place at a site removed...
-XIII. Enzymes In Human Body Fluids
A comprehensive review published 12 years ago (Huggins, C, and Tala-lay, P. Advances in Internal Medicine, 3:275, 1949) listed 8 enzymes in human blood serum that had been studied in relation to disea...
-XIV. The Metabolism Of Tumors. Metabolism Of Ascites Cancer Cells
Ascites tumors provide an almost pure culture of highly malignant cancer cells whose metabolism, unlike that of solid tumors, can be studied in vitro without cell damage. The first measurements of the...
-Metabolic Patterns In Experimental Mammary Cancer
The mammary cancers which are rapidly induced by the oral administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to rats are often hormone-dependent, and provide unique tools for the study of hormonal inf...
-Oxidative Phosphorylation In Tumors
A high rate of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis is the only biochemical feature which is common to all malignant tissues. The transformation of glucose into lactic acid in tumors undoubtedly takes pla...
-Dissertations Of The Ben May Laboratory
d1. Brush, j. S. A Study of the Sulfhydryl Group in Bovine Plasma Albumin. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1956. d2. BuBtrrz, C. The Enzymatic Phosphorylation of Glycerol. Ph.D. disserta...
-Dissertations Of The Ben May Laboratory. Part 2
34. Huggins, C. Augmentation and Depression of Estriol-induced Growth of the Uterus by Progesterone. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med., 92:304-5,1956. 35. Huggins, C. On the Surgical Treatment of Adva...
-Dissertations Of The Ben May Laboratory. Part 3
86. Inglb, D. J. The Role of the Adrenal Cortex in Homeostasis. Pediatrics, 17: 407-13, 1956. 87. Ingle, D.J. Experimental Steroid Diabetes. Diabetes, 5:187-93, 1956. 88. Ingle, D.J. Urinary Glu...
-Dissertations Of The Ben May Laboratory. Part 4
136. Levy, H. R.; Talalay, P.; and Vbnnbsland, B. The Steric Course of Enzymatic Reactions at Meso Carbon Atoms. Application of Hydrogen Isotopes. Progress in Stereochemistry, Vol. 3. (In press, 1961....
-Selected Papers
Huggins, C, and Bergenstal, D. M. Inhibition of Human Mammary and Prostatic Cancers by Adrenalectomy.........147 Cancer Research, 12:134-41, 1952 Huggins, C. Control of Cancers of Man by Endocri...
-Inhibition Of Human Mammary And Prostatic Cancers By Adrenalectomy
Charles Huggins and Delbert M. Bergenstal (Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and the Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago 37, III.). It is known that excision of the adrenal ...
-Inhibition Of Human Mammary And Prostatic Cancers. Part 2
Cortisone has made possible this satisfactory replacement regimen. In our experience 25 mg. of cortisone acetate by mouth twice daily and the oral ingestion of 3 gm. of sodium chloride in most cases g...
-Inhibition Of Human Mammary And Prostatic Cancers. Part 3
There was a considerable uniformity of response to ACTH and cortisone acetate. The findings of Taylor et al. (84) were confirmed in that the patients had an improved sense of well-being, an increase o...
-Protocols. Prostatic Cancer
Case 1.-E.S., age 63, atrophy of primary prostatic cancer with active osseous metastases. Orchiectomy May, 1947, with recurrence of pain in back and rectum in 1950. Complete relief of pain after adren...
-Control Of Cancers Of Man By Endocrinologic Methods. A Review
Charles Huggins (Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, III.). In certain patients it is clinically possible to induce a profound regression of widely disseminated ...
-Cancer Of The Prostate
Prostatic cancer is a common disease of the elderly human male; its natural course has been well established. In the study of Bumpus (3) there were 485 patients who received no form of treatment. The ...
-Cancer Of The Prostate. Part 2
A further advance was made in 1952 when it was shown (14) that the administration of cortisone to patients in relapse after conventional anti-androgenic measures can cause some regression of the disea...
-Cancer Of The Prostate. Part 3
Lawrence and Tobias (S3) have investigated the effects of external radiation (a beam of protons derived from the cyclotron) of the hypophysis in mammary cancer. While some decrease of function of the ...
-Cancer Of The Prostate. Part 4
16. Huggins, C, and Bergenstal, D. M. Surgery of the Adrenals. J.A.M.A.. 147:101-6, 1951. 17. -. Inhibition of Human Mammary and Prostatic Cancers by Adrenalectomy. Cancer Research, 12:134-41, 1952...
-Mammary Cancer Induced By A Single Feeding Of Poly-Nuclear Hydrocarbons, And Its Suppression
By Prof. CHARLES HUGGINS, LORRAINE C. GRAND and FILOMENA P. BRILLANTES Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Chicago One of the most remarkable experiments in cancer research ...
-Induction Of Mammary Cancer
Female rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were used in all the experiments, with 10 rats in each experimental group ; unless stated otherwise, the animals were age 50 days and weighed 140-150 gm. when ...
-Suppression Of Mammary Cancer
At 50 days of age, normal female rats were fed a single, dose of 3-MC (100 mgm.) and divided into groups. This feeding was the only experimental variable in the control rats which were maintained as...
-The Role Of The Adrenal Cortex In The Aetiology Of Various Diseases
W.A.J. Crane, G. F. Wilgram and D. J. Ingle Department of Pathology, University of Sheffield and Department of Physiology, University of Chicago. The concept that derailment of adrenal cortical fun...
-Renal-Cardiovascular Diseases. Pathological Effects Of Steroids
Certain synthetic steroids have a greater pathogenic potency than the natural secretory products of the adrenal cortex. Desoxycorticosterone acetate, 2-methyl-9a-chlorocortisol, and other powerful sod...
-Renal-Cardiovascular Diseases. Pathological Effects Of Steroids. Continued
Salt-Loading During most of this century some clinical investigators have considered that a higher than necessary dietary intake of sodium chloride plays some role in the cardiovascular diseases in...
-Diabetes
After Long and Lukens (1936) had shown in classical studies that adrenalectomy ameliorates diabetes in laboratory animals, it was found in man that the development of adrenal cortical insufficiency in...
-Cancer
It is now well known that an increase or a decrease in the amount of one hormone or another or a change in their balance affects the incidence and rate of growth of certain tumours. Castration, for ex...
-Cancer. Continued
Summary Our personal experience in the experimental production of some of the so-called adaptation diseases is reviewed. From our studies of hypertensive renal and cardiovascular disease, diabet...
-Role Of The Adrenal Cortex In Pathogenesis
By DWIGHT J. INGLE, Ph.D. Connections between the function of the adrenal cortex and some of the great diseases have been suspected ever since the association between adrenal cortical tumors and th...
-Supporting Evidence
Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, aldosteronism, adrenal virilism and the related mixed syndromes are known diseases of the adrenal glands and will not be discussed here. We are concerned with th...
-A Measure Of Doubt Renal-Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathologic Effects of Steroids: Some of the artificial steroids have greater pathogenic potency than do naturally occurring hormones. Desoxycorti-costerone, 2 -methyl-9-chlorocortisol, and...
-Aids To Decision
Production of Renal-Cardiovascular Disease in Adrenalectomized Rats: Crane, Baker and Ingle11 have demonstrated renal-cardiovascular changes in adrenalectomized rats exposed to cold. All the rats were...
-Permissive Role Of Hormones
The concept of permissive hormone action was first used in an attempt to explain those experimental and clinical situations in which a biologic response or the overt signs of a disease disappeared or ...
-Sulfhydryl-Disulfide Interchange
This biological chain reaction explains aspects of protein denaturation, blood clotting, and mitosis. Elwood V. Jensen. Recently it has become evident that a variety of phenomena involving prote...
-Sulfhydryl-Disulfide Interchange. Continued
A number of observations confirm the occurrence of disulfide interchange during thermal denaturation of proteins. The effect of oxidizing and reducing agents on the viscosity and turbidity of heated /...
-Peptide Reactions
In the foregoing examples, protein disulfide groups appear to participate in interchange reactions under conditions of denaturation. No doubt most disulfide groups in native proteins are either hinder...
-Peptide Reactions. Continued
The observation that small amounts of sulfhydryl-blocking reagents prevent the formation of urea-insoluble fibrin clots led Loewy and Edsall (47) to propose that fibrin-/ is cross-linked by intermolec...
-References And Notes
1. E. V. Jensen. V. D. Hospelhorn, D. F. Tap-ley. C. Huggins, J. Biol. Chem. 185, 411 (1950). 2. J. D. Ferry and P. R. Morrison, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 388 (1947). 3. C. Huggins. D. F. Tapley, E....
-Fate Of Steroid Estrogens In Target Tissues
Elwood V. Jensen and Herbert I. Jacobson2 The Ben May laboratory for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Through the fog which envelops our understanding of the general...
-Tritiation Of Steroid Estrogens
I shall say only a brief word about the preparation of tritiated estrogens. We obtained estradiol labeled in the 6,7-position by the catalytic reduction of 6-dehydroestradiol (Fig. 1). Reduction with ...
-Incorporation Pattern Of Radioactive Estrogens
The first question we wished to answer with our radioactive hormone was how much actually goes to the tissues which grow. In the young rat, a single dose of estradiol which gives a well-defined but no...
-Nature Of Radioactive Material In Uterus And Liver
The next problem is the nature of the radioactive material in the tissues and whether this is different in uterus and vagina from that in other tissues. Immature female rats were injected intravenousl...
-Hormone Antagonism
As discussed in some detail by Dr. Drill, it is well established that certain steroids can exert a marked inhibitory effect on the physiological actions of other steroids. One such example is the abil...
-Hormone Antagonism. Continued
K. E. Paschkis: I have one question and one comment. The question is with regard to localization. You didn't have the breast tissue on your slide; did you investigate how much of the injected dose goe...
-The Enzymatic Oxidation Of Fatty Acids
Eugene P. Kennedy and Albert L. Lehninger. The Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and Department of Biochemistry University of Chicago, Chicago In the past few years, dramatic advances have bee...
-Fatty Acid Oxidase System Of Animal Tissues
Munoz and Leloir (50, 44) were the first investigators to demonstrate fatty acid oxidation in cell-free preparations of liver. Using preparations of particulate material from guinea pig liver, they fo...
-Fatty Acid Oxidase System Of Animal Tissues. Part 2
It is probable that some of the differences noted by Green and his colleagues between the behavior of the cyclophorase system and data earlier reported by Lehninger may depend upon somewhat differe...
-Fatty Acid Oxidase System Of Animal Tissues. Part 3
A variety of experimental evidence indicates that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is closely related to the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Three main points may be considered. Firs...
-Mechanism Of Acetoacetate Formation
That acetoacetate is formed in liver slices by more or less random condensation of active acetate intermediates arising during oxidative removal of 2-carbon fragments from the fatty acid, was shown by...
-Mechanism Of Acetoacetate Formation. Continued
Strongly in favor of this conception of a difference in reactivity of G units from the terminal methyl end vs. all others derived from the fatty acid chain are the data of Geyer and his coworkers (16-...
-Fatty Acid Metabolism Of Clostridium Kluyveri
The metabolism of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium kluyveri has for some years been the subject of detailed study by H. A. Barker and his colleagues at the University of California. In last year's Sy...
-Fatty Acid Metabolism Of Clostridium Kluyveri. Continued
Secondly, the role of acetoacetate must be considered. Again, this compound itself cannot be a true intermediate since it cannot be reduced to butyrate under hydrogen, under conditions suitable for sy...
-The Isolation Of Radioactive Phosphoserine From "Phosphoprotein" Of The Ehrlich Ascites Tumor
By EUGENE P. KENNEDY and SYLVIA WAGNER SMITH (From the Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois) In a study of the synthet...
-The Isolation Of Radioactive Phosphoserine. Part 2
About 60 to 67 per cent of the radioactivity of the hydrolysate was found to be present as esterified phosphorus compounds after removal of inorganic phosphate. Furthermore, the specific activity of t...
-The Isolation Of Radioactive Phosphoserine. Part 3
The specific activity of the crystalline phosphoserine so obtained was not altered significantly by three recrystallizations from aqueous ethanol. The melting point of the product was 168-170 wit...
-The Function Of Cytidine Coenzymes In The Biosynthesis Of Phospholipides
BY EUGENE P. KENNEDY and SAMUEL B. WEISS† (From the Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois) (Received for publication...
-The Function Of Cytidine Coenzymes. Part 2
Experimental Enzymatic Incorporation of P-choline into Lecithin-When homogenates of rat liver were incubated with P-choline-P82 in the presence of MgClj, phosphate buffer, and a preparation of amor...
-The Function Of Cytidine Coenzymes. Part 3
This conclusion also offered an explanation for the experiments in which ATP, formed in situ from crystalline AMP by oxidative phosphorylation, was ineffective in supporting the conversion of P-cholin...
-The Function Of Cytidine Coenzymes. Part 4
Table V. Conversion Of Cdp-Choline And Cdp-Ethanolamine To Phospholipides Experiment No. Radioactivity incorporated into lipide, total counts ...
-The Function Of Cytidine Coenzymes. Part 5
The incubation mixture used in the experiments on the enzymatic synthesis of CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine contained the following components in a volume of 2.0 ml.: 20 pmoles of MgCl2, 100 pmoles ...
-The Function Of Cytidine Coenzymes. Part 6
It has been found that surface-active agents, such as bile salts, digitonin, or Tween 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate), promote the reversible dissociation of a,-diglyceride from the en...
-Phosphonic Acids. III.1 Hydroxyl Substituted Propylphosphonic Acids 2,3
By Seymour Preis, Terrell C. Myers and Elwood V. Jensen Received July 1, 1955 The peroxide-catalyzed addition of diethyl phosphite to iso-propenyl acetate yields diethyl -acetoxypropylphos...
-The Steric And Molecular Specificity Of Steroid Dehydrogenases
Paul Talalay† and H. Richard Levy ‡ The Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago Absolute steric specificity is an intrinsic and almost univer...
-Steric Specificity Of Hydrogen Transfer
Vennesland, Westheimer and their colleagues have made the fundamental observation that pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenases promote the direct transfer of hydrogen between substrate and positi...
-Equilibrium Constants, Free Energy Changes And Conformation
The availability of highly purified and very active specific hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases provided the opportunity for the accurate measurements of the equilibrium constants of these reactions, and h...
-Analytical Applications
Enzymic resolutions of racemic compounds. Wettstein and colleagues (Vischer et al., 1956) have made ingenious use of the optical specificity of microbiological transformations for the resolution of ra...
-Δ-Dehydrogenases And Δ-Reductases
The enzymic mechanism of the addition and removal of hydrogen at adjacent carbon atoms of steroids is only partially understood. These reactions include the hydrogenation of 4- and 1-dehyd...
-Activation Of Hydrogen Transfer Between Pyridine Nucleotides By Steroid Hormones
It will be shown in this paper that a soluble enzyme from human placenta promotes the transfer of hydrogen between two pyridine nucleotide coenzymes and that this reaction is activated by minute quant...
-Activation Of Hydrogen Transfer Between Pyridine Nucleotides. Part 2
Experiments With Fractionated Enzymes The material precipitated from crude placental extracts by the addition of ammonium sulfate to 40 per cent saturation contained active, TPN-linked isocitric an...
-Activation Of Hydrogen Transfer Between Pyridine Nucleotides. Part 3
Table 2*. Oxidation Of Estradiol 17 By Ammonium Sulfate Of Placental Fractions * The activities were measured by observing the reduction of pyridine nucleotide at 340 mµ in systems of 3.0...
-Activation Of Hydrogen Transfer Between Pyridine Nucleotides. Part 4
This reaction is made possible by the dual nucleotide specificity of the dehydrogenat-ing enzyme. The placental hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which oxidizes estradiol 17/3 is not alone in this c...
-I. Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Participation Of Steroid Hormones In The Enzymatic Transfer Of Hydrogen 1
Paul Talalay2 and H. G. Williams-Ashman The Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois I. Introduction The over-all metabo...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 2
A 17 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase has been obtained as an adaptive enzyme from Pseudotnonas testosteroni and purified (83) to a considerable extent (activity = 30-50 µmoles DPN reduced per minu...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 3
In this formulation, the steroid functions in a catalytic manner as a coenzyme or hydrogen carrier. Some evidence that the transhydrogenase and dehydrogenase reactions are catalyzed by the same pro...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 4
These studies have now been extended to include several other analogs of DPN and TPN, and preliminary measurements have been carried out to determine the affinities of the enzyme for these nucleotides...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 5
We have recently examined the heat stability of the placental enzyme system. Purified placental 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, stabilized with estradiol-17, was subjected to stepwise hea...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 6
6. Purification Langer and Engel (74) have described a fiftyfold purification of placental 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. A somewhat different procedure, which results in about hundredfold ...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 7
ii. Hydrogen transport between nucleotides by 3a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. With knowledge of the pyridine nucleotide and analog specificity of this dehydrogenase, it was possible (111) to demonstr...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 8
DPNH Pyridine aldehyde-DPN Rate of redu acceptor nu (µmoles/m protei ction of cleotide in./mg.n) (umoles) (umoles) No steroid...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 9
The precise specificity and multiplicity of the particulate transhydrogenases of animal tissues remains to be clarified through extensive purification of the individual proteins. 3. Transhydrogenat...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 10
In conclusion, some attempts to detect steroid-mediated hydrogen transfers in androgen-sensitive tissues of the male genital tract may be worthy of mention, in that they stress some of the difficultie...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 11
(b) Mueller (88) found that the incorporation of formate into the protein of isolated uterine horns was stimulated by the in vitro addition of either 2-hydroxy- or 4-hydroxy-estradiol-17, but no...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 12
2. Model Experiments With Peroxidases Peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of hydrogen donors upon the addition of hydrogen peroxide. But under certain circumstances, peroxidases will function as aer...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 13
This oxidase system was bound to cytoplasmic particles and appeared to have many properties in common with the uterine peroxidase described by Stotz et al. (80, 84). Both activities were negligible in...
-Mechanisms Of Hormone Action. Part 14
34. Graubard, M., and Pincus, G. 1941. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US. 27, 149. 35. Graubard, M., and Pincus, G. 1942. Endocrinology 30, 265. 36. Hagerman, D. D., and Villee, C. A. 1952. Arch. Bioche...
-Clinical And Experimental Studies On Serum Pyridine Nucleotide-Linked Dehydrogenases In Liver Damage
By S. K. Wolfson, Jr., Jean A. Spencer, R. L. Sterkel, and H. G. Williams-Ashman Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research and Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, II...
-Clinical And Experimental Studies On Serum Pyridine Nucleotide. Part 2
In portal cirrhosis, serum ICD was usually within the normal range and was never elevated to values greater than three times the normal mean, even in paiients in hepatic coma. In cases of extrahepatic...
-Clinical And Experimental Studies On Serum Pyridine Nucleotide. Part 3
Determinations were also made of the activities of AD and PD in the livers of these animals. In order to minimize both the destruction of pyridine nucleotides and the oxidation of DPNH by other enzyma...







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