Al'tona, the largest and richest city in the Prussian province of Sleswick-Holstein, is situated on the steep right bank of the Elbe, just below Hamburg, so that the two cities are divided only by the state-boundaries. Altona lies higher than Hamburg, and is much healthier. Of public buildings, the most notable are the churches of the Trinity (1743) and St John (1873); and of four monuments, there is one to Blucher (1832). Invested with special privileges in 1664, and burnt by the Swedes in 1713, Altona was annexed to Prussia in 1866. Pop. (1840) 28,095; (1860) 45,524; (1890) 143,249; (1900) 161,501.


Altoo'na, a city of Pennsylvania, U.S., at the eastern base of the Alleghanies, 117 miles E. of Pittsburgh. It contains large locomotive works and machine-shops in connection with the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, employing 5000 hands. Pop. (1870) 10,610; (1900) 38,973.


Altorf, or Altdorf, the chief town in the Swiss canton Uri, at the head of the Lake of Lucerne, and on the St Gothard road and railway. There is a colossal statue of William Tell in this the scene of his chief exploits. Pop. 3000. - Altorf, or Altdorf, in Middle Franconia (pop. 4000), was the seat of a university from 1623 to 1809.


Altotting, a very ancient place of pilgrimage in Upper Bavaria, not far from the river Inn, 31 miles N. of Traunstein. A chapel contains the wonder-working black image of the Virgin, dating from the 8th century, and a rich treasure of gold, silver, and precious stones. Another chapel contains the tomb of Tilly. Pop. 4232.


Altrincham (Al'tring-am), a town of Cheshire, on Bowdon Downs, 8 miles SW. of Manchester by rail, is situated on the Bridgewater Canal. It has manufactures of artificial manures, and an iron-foundry; but the chief employment is raising fruits and vegetables for the Manchester market. Pop. 17,100.


Altrive, the home and death-place of Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, in Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire.


Alum-Bagh (Alambagh), a domain 4 miles from Lucknow, comprised a palace, mosque, and park; and in 1857 was converted by the rebels into a fort. It was taken by the British in September; and on evacuating Lucknow, Sir James Outram with 3500 men held it against 30,000 sepoys and 50,000 volunteers, until in March, Sir Colin Campbell reconquered Lucknow, and relieved the Alum-Bagh. Havelock had been buried within the walls in November 1857.

Alum Bay

Alum Bay, Isle of Wight, near the Needles, a bay with fantastically variegated cliffs.


Alva, a town in what since 1891 is Clackmannanshire, at the base of the Ochils, 7 3/4 miles ENE. of Stirling by rail (1863). It has extensive manufactures of shawls and tweeds. Immediately behind the village is Alva Glen, noted for its picturesque beauty and magnificent waterfall. Pop. 5000.


Alvara'do, a town of Mexico, on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the river Alvarado, 40 miles SE. of Vera Cruz; pop. 6000.