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Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction | by Laura I. Baldt



A practical manual for school and home

TitleClothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction
AuthorLaura I. Baldt
PublisherJ. B. Lippincott Company
Year1917
Copyright1916, J. B. Lippincott Company
AmazonClothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction

By Laura I. Baldt, B.S., Instructor, Department Of Textiles And Clothing, School Of Practical Arts,

Teachers College, Columbia University

7 Colored Plates, 262 Illustrations In Text

Clothing For Women Selection Design Construction 2

Lippincott's Home Manuals

Edited By Benjamin R. Andrews, Ph.D.

-Preface
This book presents practical working directions for the design and construction of women's clothing, including various kinds of outer- and undergarments. It includes problems embracing the fundamental...
-Part I. Selection Of Clothing. Chapter I. Clothing Budgets And Buying What And How To Buy
Income And Income Spending Incomes are earned through the labor of the member, or members, of a family upon whom this responsibility falls; they are spent by the earner, or some member of the family ...
-What Clothing Should Denote
Clothing And Circumstances Well-ordered clothing should, first of all, denote fitness to circumstances. We may dress as richly as our circumstances permit, but should let the keynote of that richness...
-Planning A Wardrobe
Allowance For Clothing It is the custom of many, and should be with all, to make a budget or plan for spending the income, so that a portion may be saved for education, travel, recreation, investment...
-Planning A Wardrobe. Continued
Accessories Collars, cuffs, ties, belts, girdles, camisole or under-bodice, scarfs, nets, parasol, fan, hairpins and combs. Three Ways Of Buying Whether the wardrobe be composed of made-to-order, m...
-Purchase Of Ready-To-Wear Garments
Hosiery Buy hosiery of the best wearing quality the allowance permits, of proper size (many buy too short a length), and of sufficient number to admit of daily changes, in order to save strain of wea...
-Purchase Of Ready-To-Wear Garments. Continued
Umbrella And Handbag Silk umbrellas do not give long service for school or business use. There are various other coverings of cotton mixtures which are not unattractive, but are serviceable; union is...
-Clothing Budget
Clothing budgets can be, at best, but suggestive plans upon which the individual consumer may base her own expenditures. The following budget is suggested as a plan for a business or professional woma...
-Made At Home Costs
The following estimates are listed as a guide for calculating approximate quantities of material, and the cost of the same for garments to be made at home. The list states the exact amount expended on...
-Chapter II. Fabrics - Facts For Consumers
In order to become wise and intelligent buyers, not only of fabrics, but of ready-to-wear garments as well, purchasers should have a practical knowledge of the textile field. They should know, first, ...
-Fibers And Their Production
Cotton fiber from which cotton cloth is made, is the soft, white, downy substance, or seed hairs, which enclose the seeds of the cotton plant, within the pod or boll until ripened (Fig. 1). Under th...
-Weaving
Weaving is the process of interlacing threads by which cloth is made. Two sets of threads are used, called: 1. Warp, and 2. Woof or filling; the weaving is accomplished by a machine called a loom, of ...
-Weaving. Part 2
Selvedge Every time the woof goes back and forth, it passes around the outer warp thread, thus forming the Selvedge on each side of the cloth. Fancy Weaves For fancy weaving more heddles and someti...
-Weaving. Part 3
Designs For Weaving The weaver on a hand loom and the one who sets up the power loom (harness or Jacquard) must have some guide or design to follow so that the warp threads may be threaded through...
-Effect Of Weave, Finish And Color Design Upon The Cost Of Garments
1. Surface Treatment. - The attractive glossy surface of broadcloth and kindred fabrics is obtained after the cloth has been woven, by means of additional processes which greatly add to the cost of it...
-Adulteration
Tests For Adulteration Fabrics made of pure fiber, especially of wool, silk, or linen, are very expensive because of the cost of production. Consumers have demanded less expensive materials than form...
-Adulteration. Part 2
Staple Materials This table lists materials which are used in the construction of under- and outer-garments, classified as to, fiber, weave, price, width, and description. Standard materials in gener...
-Adulteration. Part 3
Laces And Embroideries Following is a list of a few familiar laces and embroideries suitable for decoration of undergarments, lingerie blouses, dresses, etc. Prices of such have a wide range, therefo...
-Findings
One should become familiar not only with the materials used in the construction of garments, but also with the numerous findings necessary for finishing edges, trimming, and fastening garments. The ...
-Labor In Textile Industries
It is highly important that the purchaser should know of conditions which attend the laborers engaged in the preparation of fibers, the manufacture of fabrics, and wearing apparel, so that they may ai...
-Labor In Textile Industries. Continued
Suggestive Questions 1. With what facts should a girl become familiar in order to learn how to buy wisely and economically? 2. Name the four principal fibers of which cloths are made. Tell some of t...
-Part II. Clothing Design. Color. Pattern Making. Use Of Patterns. Simple Problems In Clothing Design. Chapter III. Principles Of Clothing Design
The study of the relation of line and form, color and composition in dress, opens to the learner delightful possibilities of enjoyable achievements which are beyond all comparison with an unreasoning...
-Form
Contour The human form is, from the artist's point of view, the most beautiful form. An artistic conception of an ideal womanly form is a figure seven and one-half or eight heads high (the head from ...
-Form. Continued
Individuality In Clothing Someone has said that The delicate human eye, with common sense behind it, is the best dress critic a woman can have. With an accepted ideal of form, and principles of des...
-Principles Of Design Illustrated By Historic Costumes
The two-fold aim of clothing design is to express the beauty of the human form and make the garment a work of art, independently of the form on which it is worn. The first ideal is based on the struct...
-References Clothing Design
Blank, Charles, Art and Ornament in Dress. Ballard, A. S., Science of Dress. Crane, Lucy, Art and the Foundation of Taste. Boston, 1885. Crawford, Lena R., Art, the Foundation of Domestic Art. Jour...
-Chapter IV. Color
Through color, beauty in clothing becomes as fundamental an expression of the art impulse as painting, music, poetry or the dance. Color is the first thing which attracts or repels in a costume. It ma...
-Color. Part 2
Color Theory Where there is light there is color. Color is refracted light, that is, light broken up into its component parts. Every ray of light is composed of a group of perfectly balanced color wa...
-Color. Part 3
Complementary Colors Colors which balance or complete each other, that is, when complementary color rays are combined they produce white, and when complementary color pigments are mixed their chroma ...
-Color. Part 4
Materials For developing the color problems it is best to get the most reliable pigments possible, preferably moist water-colors in tubes. A limited palette of standard red, yellow, blue, Chinese wh...
-Color. Part 5
Exercise 4 Name the value of colors in objects about the room according to corresponding number in value scale. A Chart Of Chromas Use same color scale as in chart of values (red). Mount one-inch s...
-Exercises In Color Perception Through Synthesis And Analysis
Exercise 5 Using varied illustrative material classify colors according to hue, value and chroma - orally - students verify each other's answers. Exercise 6 Memorize color by classification, that i...
-Exercises In Color Perception Through Synthesis And Analysis. Part 2
Exercise 10 Take several examples of color combinations and notate or record as to hue values and chromas. Exercise II - Copy in flat washes a series of combinations or schemes from beautiful exampl...
-Exercises In Color Perception Through Synthesis And Analysis. Part 3
Exercise 15 Try experiments with colored papers and fabrics and discuss the results. This law of simultaneous contrast should have important consideration in choosing the hues for a costume in relat...
-Exercises In Color Perception Through Synthesis And Analysis. Part 4
Exercise 18 Experiment with color in relation to various complexions, by a process of selection, rejection, subordination and emphasis. Take notes and form conclusions. A well-proportioned figure wi...
-Exercises In Color Perception Through Synthesis And Analysis. Part 5
Exercise 19 Exercises in color designs for different complexions and for figures and for various occasions may be carried out in traced fashion drawings, or may be simply discussed and criticised. R...
-Chapter V. Pattern Making Shirtwaist As Fundamental Pattern
Drafting patterns to individual measures is a step of preparation toward becoming a designer of clothing, a step which not only trains both eye and. hand to greater accuracy, the eye to keener appreci...
-Pattern Making Shirtwaist As Fundamental Pattern. Part 2
Note If one places the thumb under the arm and the first finger on the bone at the shoulder, in taking the width of back and width of chest measures, it is easier to locate a point at which to begin ...
-Pattern Making Shirtwaist As Fundamental Pattern. Part 3
Pocket Use draft of pocket given under mannish shirt, or middy blouse. Have shirtwaist pattern corrected. Draft to own measure a shirtwaist, sleeve, cuff, and neck band. Second Draft To Individual M...
-Testing Shirtwaist Pattern
To Cut Out In Muslin See Fig. 38 for suggestion. Place the cut ends of the muslin together. Front Lay the broad end of the front of the pattern to the cut ends of the goods, fold back one inch on e...
-Testing Shirtwaist Pattern. Part 2
To Fit Waist Clip underarm seam at waist line, and two inches above and below to let it spring so as to provide for good fitting; also sleeve seam at inside curve. Put waist on, with seams inside, la...
-Testing Shirtwaist Pattern. Part 3
Neck Band Only one thickness is necessary for fitting. Turn shoulder seams toward front. Fold band on tracing and baste. Find center of band, place to center of neck, on right side of waist, pin edge...
-Patterns For Undergarments Designed From Drafted Patterns
Corset Cover Pattern Directions are here given for designing a corset cover pattern from a drafted shirtwaist pattern (Fig. 40). No other measures are necessary than those already used in drafting th...
-Patterns For Undergarments Designed From Drafted Patterns. Continued
Suggestive Questions 1. What measures should be taken to draft a shirtwaist and sleeve pattern? 2. Can you explain the reason for each measure ? Tell the method of taking them? 3. Trace a relations...
-Chapter VI. Pattern Making: Mannish Shirt And Middy Blouse
Mannish Shirt This pattern is for a strictly tailored garment built on the lines of a man's shirt, adapted to the measures and construction lines of the shirtwaist pattern. The shirt is much fuller t...
-To Draft Shirt
Back (Fig. 45) AA equals line of indefinite length. AB equals length of back. BB equals construction line, two-thirds of AA. AG equals one-half of AB. CC equals construction line, equals AA. AD ...
-To Draft Shirt. Continued
No Equals - . - . line for placing on lengthwise thread of goods. Middy Blouse Pattern (Fig. 173) - The middy blouse being a garment to be worn for sports and gymnasium work, should be of the easies...
-To Draft Blouse
Back (Fig. 47) AX equals full length. AA equals construction line (indefinite length). XX equals line for lower edge of middy. AB equals length of back (to waist; short line). AG equals one-half ...
-Chapter VII. Pattern Making: Skirts And Undergarments
Skirt Patterns Various types of skirts may be called to mind, wide and narrow, plain and gored, plaited and gathered. The plain skirt is made up of several straight widths of material joined together...
-To Draft Skirt
AB equals one-half hip measure minus one-eighth of one-half width around bottom. AC equals one-tenth of one-half width around bottom. CD equals one-half of AB. DE equals the difference between cente...
-To Draft Skirt. Part 2
To Make Divisions Measure on hip lines from center front, one-quarter hip measure minus one inch. At bottom, from center front, one-quarter width at bottom., minus one to two inches. Connect points ...
-To Draft Skirt. Part 3
Side And Front Gore Find center of whole hip, move point forward three-quarter inch; at bottom, find one-half remainder of bottom line after taking panel off. Connect these points with straight line,...
-Draft Of Circular Flounce For Petticoat (Fig. 56)
Measures Required Practice 1. Depth of flounce 12 inches 2. Width at top 72 inches 3. Width at bottom 112 ...
-Draft Of Circular Flounce For Petticoat (Fig. 56). Part 2
To Make Divisions Front Panel, measure from center front one-twelfth hip measure on hip line. At the bottom, twice the amount at hip. Back Gore or Panel, same as front. Draw lines through points ju...
-Draft Of Circular Flounce For Petticoat (Fig. 56). Part 3
Umbrella Skirt Another treatment of gores which keeps the skirt close about the knees, but flaring around the feet, is shown in Fig, 59B. It is used in skirts having as many as seven or more gores. T...
-Patterns For Undergarments
Kimono Night-Gown The draft of a kimono night-gown is here explained and illustrated (Fig. 60). The break in the illustration is made for the same reason explained on p. 102. This type of gown can be...
-To Draft Gown (Fig. 60a)
AB equals length of gown (from highest point of shoulder to floor). AG equals one-half armhole plus two inches. AD equals four to five inches. AE equals three to four inches. FIG. 60. - Draft o...
-To Draft Drawers (Fig. 61 A)
Fold paper lengthwise AB equals length to bend of knee (on fold). AG equals one-half AB plus two and three-quarter inches. AD equals one-quarter waist measure plus one-half inch. DE equals two inches...
-To Draft Drawers
Fold paper lengthwise AB equals length to bend of knee. AG equals one-half AB minus two and one-half inches. AD equals one-quarter waist measure plus two inches. Fig. 62. - Draft of pattern for ci...
-Chapter VIII. Simple Problems In Clothing Design. Equipment And Materials For Designing Clothing
Fashion'Books. Costume Prints and Post Cards. Sketches........... Traced from historic costume books in libraries and museums. For simple designs, from magazines, folders and catalogues from stores...
-Simple Problems In Clothing Design. Equipment And Materials For Designing Clothing. Part 2
Designing Without Patterns Exercises in laying box plaits, hems, measuring tucks, and the decoration of ruffles and the body parts of undergarments, afford abundant opportunity for fine application o...
-Equipment And Materials For Designing Clothing. Part 3
Problem III (a) Plan a design for a hem (using other paper) having shaped edges; indicate the kind of finish to be used on the edge. (6) A design for a hem having a shaped upper edge (Fig. 125). Tuc...
-Equipment And Materials For Designing Clothing. Part 4
Problem I Using strips of paper four and one-half by ten inches, design models of plaits, box plaits and inverted box plaits. (The latter are the same as two side plaits laid so as to face each other...
-Equipment And Materials For Designing Clothing. Part 5
Problem III Design a circular flounce for a petticoat, one to be cut in sections, which are to be joined with lace insertion, and center decorations to be placed in each section of the flounce. Band...
-Outer-Garments
Designing Skirts From Flat Pattern Various types of skirts may be designed from a plain six-gored pattern. For practice exercises in this work, draft a half-size six-gored skirt to standard measures;...
-Outer-Garments. Part 2
Four-Gore Skirt, Panel Front And Back Cut the front and back the same as for a six-gored skirt, and combine the first and second side gore to make one gore; a dart will need to be taken out of the ce...
-Outer-Garments. Part 3
Skirt Problem I Design in pattern or tissue paper a four-gore skirt having seams center front, hip and center back, a skirt whose width at the bottom is in keeping with the prevailing style. Proble...
-Outer-Garments. Part 4
Inverted Plaits (1) To add to the center back of a gored skirt place back of pattern with front edge on lengthwise thread of goods. If plaits are being added to the seams, allow for these. Then place...
-Outer-Garments. Part 5
Designing Straight Plaited Skirts Without Use Of Pattern For stripes and plaids (Fig. 68C). (1) Take measure as for drafting skirt pattern. (2) Cut enough straight widths of material (each to equal t...
-Designing Waists From Flat Pattern
Tucked or Plaited Waist (Fig. 69). - Use a plain shirtwaist pattern that has been tested and corrected. Plan the kind of opening to be used in the waist, a box plait or coat opening. Indicate by lines...
-Designing Sleeves From Flat Pattern
Various types of sleeves may be developed from the shirtwaist, and tight-fitted sleeves. Designing from Shirtwaist Sleeve. Bishop or Bell Sleeve. - Very full at hand, hanging loose over a close puffe...
-Designing From Fitted Sleeve Pattern
Leg-O'-Mutton Sleeve This sleeve is in one piece, with one seam on inside of arm. It has more or less fulness at the top, which clings to the arm or puffs out at the top in great fulness, according t...
-Miscellaneous Designs
Sailor Collar From Shirtwaist Pattern Place center of back of pattern on lengthwise edge of paper. Place front so that shoulder seam meets shoulder seam of back at armholes and neck; separate shoulde...
-Miscellaneous Designs. Part 2
Marking Seams Waist: trace waist, neck and armhole lines, also the point at bust on front and side front; trace all around each piece of the pattern, from the waist line up and waist line down. Sleev...
-Miscellaneous Designs. Part 3
Possible Necessary Alterations If the waist is good in line but appears generally loose, stitch inside the bastings on all seams; if tight, the reverse. If too loose, only at the waist, take in the s...
-Miscellaneous Designs. Part 4
To Baste Sleeve In Waist Measure one-half to three-quarter inch back of shoulder seam and fold armhole in half; at the opposite point place pins to mark point for front seam of sleeve. Lay shoulder s...
-Miscellaneous Designs. Part 5
Draping Waists A simple waist to be used for a corset cover or shirtwaist may be draped as follows: Lay box plait for front opening. Mark the center of the box plait, place tape about waist line of f...
-Miscellaneous Designs. Part 6
Draping Sleeves Sleeves may be draped over a cardboard form (Fig. 81), or over a stuffed sleeve (Fig. 78). The stuffed sleeve has the advantage of showing the shape of the arm. The cardboard sleeve i...
-Designing Collars And Cuffs
In designing collars, the same consideration must be given to the kind of material being used that is given to designs for other parts of the garment. The neck arrangement must serve as a frame for th...
-Designing Collars And Cuffs. Continued
To Drape A Gored Skirt With Panel Front Pin the material with lengthwise thread down the center front of figure. Pin at the waist. Mark off the desired widths at hip and bottom, conforming to the fig...
-Chapter IX. Commercial Patterns: Purchase And Use
Commercial patterns are cut according to a series of average measurements. These cannot, of course, account for the irregularities of form as well as the drafted-to-individual-measure pattern, but as ...
-Measures For Waist
Bust, around fullest part of bust, an easy measure for a shirtwaist, a close measure for a tight-fitted waist. Length of hack, from bone in shoulder to bottom of tape in waist (placed around waist to...
-Alteration Of Patterns
Shirtwaist Pattern To Increase Bust Measure Draw a line straight down from the center of the shoulder, through the waist line on both pieces of the pattern. Cut through these lines and separate the ...
-Alteration Of Patterns. Part 2
To Decrease Waist And Hip Measure Lay a fold lengthwise through the centre of each side gore, take an equal amount from each gore, in all one-half the necessary amount (Fig. 91D). To Increase Waist ...
-Alteration Of Patterns. Part 3
Tight-Fitted Waist Pattern This should be tested as carefully as the shirtwaist pattern. The principles applied to alterations in shirtwaists will also apply to this type of waist. In testing the bus...
-Part III. Construction Of Clothing. Chapter X. Equipment And Tools, Processes Involved In The Construction Of Garments
The purpose in learning to make underclothing is threefold: (1) To gain an understanding of economic values through the purchase and handling of materials, (2) to learn to appreciate and express throu...
-Equipment And Tools, Processes Involved In The Construction Of Garments. Continued
(C) Waist Line Continued. 2. Bands.. 1. Material 2. Beading 3. Insertion 4. Tape 5. Elastic (silk petticoat) 6. Belting (silk petticoat) 3. Facings.. l. Lengthwise a. Corset cover b. ...
-Designing Undergarments
The first thing to be considered when planning a suit of underwear is the type of garment to be made. Dear to every woman's heart is a dainty bit of lingerie, and it is right that it should be so, but...
-Designing Undergarments. Continued
Night-Dresses The cut of the dress may be either kimono (body and sleeves in one), or the regulation night-dress with gathered sleeves; the length of the sleeves and line of the neck may please the f...
-Tools And Equipment
Tools We should become familiar at the very outset with the names of the tools we shall need, their use, and the manner of taking care of them. Following is a list of such: Needed in clothing constr...
-Tools And Equipment. Part 2
The Sewing Machine Can you imagine an engineer who is so unfamiliar with the parts of his engine, and their relation to each other, that his ear will not detect at once the slightest break in the rhy...
-Tools And Equipment. Part 3
Bobbin Winder An attachment on the arm of the machine near the balance wheel, upon which the bobbin is placed; the end of thread from the spool is wound around the bobbin and then the winder is press...
-Chapter XI. Constructive Processes: Stitches
Running Stitch Form: A line made by a portion of sewing thread passed over and under an equal or unequal number of threads in the cloth. Use: (1) Basting, (2) seaming, (3) tucking, (4) gathering. T...
-Constructive Processes: Stitches. Part 2
Gathering Even or uneven variety of running stitch; even when pulled, uneven when stroked. 14 Use: For setting a piece of cloth into a shorter space, as an apron, petticoat, or drawers into a band, ...
-Constructive Processes: Stitches. Part 3
Shirring Several rows of gathers, at various distances apart, drawn up, for the purpose of ornamentation, yoke effect in skirts and waists, etc. Stitches do not have to lie one directly under the oth...
-Constructive Processes: Stitches. Part 4
Overhanding Form: Slanting stitch on the wrong side, straight stitch on the right side. Use: To make flat, strong, but almost invisible seams in underclothing and bed linen, hemming table linens and...
-Constructive Processes: Stitches. Part 5
Plain Stitch Form: A slanting stitch through the cloth and fold. Stitch slants on right side also. Use: To hold folded edges in place, as hems, facings, fells, lace, etc. To make: Conceal end of th...
-Constructive Processes: Stitches. Part 6
Slip-Stitch Used where an entirely invisible sewing is desired for fastening hems, folds, facings, etc. To make: Use a small knot, take up very small stitch on under side of fold of hem, and only pa...
-Constructive Processes: Stitches. Part 7
Buttons To sew on a garment, conceal the knot of the thread (which should be double) under the button. Place a pin on top of the button, and sew back and forth across this in order to keep the thread...
-Chapter XII. Constructive Processes: Cutting, Basting, Seams, Finishes
1. Preparation of the Material. - The ends of the cloth must be straightened before placing patterns for cutting. To do this, clip through one selvedge, then with the left thumb on top of the cloth, t...
-Constructive Processes: Cutting, Basting, Seams, Finishes. Part 2
(A) Plain Seam Appearance: Two raw edges, with row of stitching or machine stitching, three-eighth to one-half inch from edges, Which are afterward neatly trimmed and overcast (for undergarments). ...
-Constructive Processes: Cutting, Basting, Seams, Finishes. Part 3
(A) Plain Hem The edge to be hemmed must be trimmed evenly; then fold toward the wrong side one-eighth to one-quarter inch, depending on the width of the hem; crease the fold firmly and fold again th...
-Constructive Processes: Cutting, Basting, Seams, Finishes. Part 4
(B) Scalloping (Embroidered) See chapter on Embroidery. Banding A flat trimming used for plain petticoats. Cut enough bias strips of material (see Cutting, p. 391), twice the depth desired plus one...
-Constructive Processes: Cutting, Basting, Seams, Finishes. Part 5
Bias Ruffles These are used on silk or sateen petticoats. Do not allow as much fulness for a bias ruffle as for a straight one; 16 one and one-quarter to one and one-third times the space is sufficie...
-Openings And Plackets
1. Box plaits are used as a decorative means of fastening on corset covers, underbodices and night-dresses which fasten in front, instead of slipping over the head. Buttonholes are worked in the box p...
-Openings And Plackets. Part 2
Straight Facings For Corset Covers Should there be a scant quantity of material in making a corset cover, straight facings may be used in place of cutting box plaits and hems in one with the garment....
-Openings And Plackets. Part 3
Corset Cover A bias facing is sometimes used to finish the arm-hole of a corset cover before sewing on lace. It is a strong finish, but not as attractive as the French hem, unless made very narrow an...
-Openings And Plackets. Part 4
Facings Discussed under Openings and Plackets. Peplum A peplum is a circular piece, four to five inches deep, set into the band of a corset cover to keep it in place. It is cut circular to do away ...
-Openings And Plackets. Part 5
(3) Rolled Edge, Beading And Lace The edge of the garment is sometimes rolled and whipped, to gather fulness to place, beading is then overhanded to the rolled edge and lace overhanded to the beading...
-Embroidered Edging, Insertion Or Entre-Deux
(1) Embroidered edge or beading, the correct size for the neck, may be used to hold the gathers in place and serve for a facing as well. Place two rows of gathers around the top of the garment, one-qu...
-Embroidered Edging, Insertion Or Entre-Deux. Continued
To Join Lace When joining fine lace, for the neck of corset covers, night-dresses, lingerie waists, lay one end of the lace on top of the other, so that one pattern covers the other, matching exactly...
-Chapter XIII. Construction Of Undergarments: Corset Covers And Petticoats. Corset Covers
Suitable materials Batiste Berkeley cambric Cotton crepe Linen Longcloth Nainsook Suitable trimmings 1. Lace edging. Lace insertion Lace beading (a) Valenciennes. . French German (b) Cluny (c)...
-Construction Of Undergarments: Corset Covers And Petticoats. Corset Covers. Continued
(4) To Baste For Fitting (a) Follow directions for basting shirtwaists. Seams on wrong side, p. 96. (b) Gather across back within two inches of the underarm seams and on the fronts from the center t...
-Petticoats
Suitable materials Berkeley cambric Long cloth Nainsook Crepe (cotton) Suitable trimming for same 1. Self-trimming (a) Bands (b) Flounces 2. Embroidered edging Embroidered insertion Embroidered ...
-Petticoats. Part 2
Designing Petticoat Petticoats may be cut upon various lines. Either four- or five-gored patterns are satisfactory for general wear. If the outer-garment with which the petticoat is to be worn is of ...
-Petticoats. Part 3
Patterns Use either a drafted-to-measure or commercial pattern. If using the latter, buy pattern according to the hip measure, because it is easier to fit from the hip to the waist than to fit at the...
-Petticoats. Part 4
Placket Facings The simple, continuous facing (bound) (Fig. 139), is the best to use on this type of petticoat. Face brilliantine with either sateen or silk of the same color. The material itself wou...
-Chapter XIV. Construction Of Undergarments: Drawers; Night-Dresses. Drawers
Suitable materials To be used for body of drawers; lighter material for ruffles Batiste Berkeley cambric Linen Longcloth Nainsook Cotton crepe Suitable trimming for same 1. Self-trimming (a) Hem...
-Construction Of Undergarments: Drawers; Night-Dresses. Drawers. Part 2
Quantity Of Material And Cost The calculation of these enters into the problem of design, else design and garment may not fit into the scheme of one's expenditures. To calculate the quantity of mater...
-Construction Of Undergarments: Drawers; Night-Dresses. Drawers. Part 3
Seams Hemmed or stitched fells are used on drawers. Stitch and finish the seams of the legs (one-quarter inch finished). Baste center seam (leave until fitted, after which stitch and finish like othe...
-Night-Dresses
Suitable materials Batiste Berkeley cambric Cotton crepe. . 1. White 2. Colored 3. Figured Flannelette or Outing flannel For winter wear Linen (handkerchief) Longcloth Nainsook Suitable tri...
-Night-Dresses. Part 2
Quantity Of Material And Trimmings The quantity of material for the body part of the dress may be calculated by measuring from the highest point for the shoulder to the floor in front, adding the des...
-Night-Dresses. Part 3
Basting Seams Baste seams with regard to the type to be used. Fells (hemmed or stitched) are best for the shoulder seam because they are flat, and either fells or French seams may be used on the unde...
-Night-Dresses. Part 4
Binding Sleeve Cut a bias strip of material long enough to go around the armhole and one inch wide. Beginning at underarm seam, baste the binding to the armhole, the right side of the binding to the ...
-Other Types Of Night-Gowns
Kimono Night-Gown This is a comfortable kind of gown, requiring little time to make, but not as serviceable as the one with sleeves, unless made with a gusset, set into sleeve, and underarm seams. Fi...
-Other Types Of Night-Gowns. Continued
Sacque-Front Gown When a high-neck gown without a yoke is desired, deep tucks (two on each side centre back) or three narrow box plaits are good decoration for the back, adding fulness as well. The f...
-Combination Garments
Chemise This garment may take the place of a corset cover and short under-petticoat. It always has some fulness at the waist line. Envelope Chemise This takes the place of corset cover and drawers;...
-References Sewing And Garment Construction
Blackmore, B. L., Cutting and Making Garments. New York, Longmans. 90 cents. Butterick, The Dressmaker. New York, Butterick Co. Hapgood, Olive C, School Needlework. New York, Ginn. 50 cents. Hasluck,...
-Chapter XV. Construction Of Outer-Garments: Middy Blouse; Mannish Shirt
The Middy Blouse Because of the comfort and the freedom of movement it insures, the middy blouse is to be recommended for wear at school, gymnasium, camp, and for both indoor and outdoor sports (Fig....
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Middy Blouse; Mannish Shirt. Part 2
Reading Pattern Follow very carefully the directions given on p. 182, for the purchase, reading, and testing of commercial patterns. Take the length measure from the highest point of the shoulder at ...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Middy Blouse; Mannish Shirt. Part 3
Facing For Opening Of Blouse Place the right side of the facing to the right side of the blouse, baste a narrow seam to within one-quarter inch of the end of the opening; lay the seam over the first ...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Middy Blouse; Mannish Shirt. Part 4
Sleeves Box plaits are sometimes used to finish the sleeve at the hand. Baste according to markings on pattern, stitch to place, finishing stitching according to individual taste (Fig. 176). Baste un...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Middy Blouse; Mannish Shirt. Part 5
Mannish Shirt This shirt for women, constructed on the lines of a man's shirt, makes an attractive garment for school or outing wear. It is suitable for more occasions than the middy blouse. Made up ...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Middy Blouse; Mannish Shirt. Part 6
Stitching Shirt Remove cuff and collar band, open underarm seam and stitch box plait one-quarter inch from each edge, the hem directly on the inner edge, and back and front yoke on the edge, also one...
-Chapter XVI. Construction Of Outer-Garments: Tailored Waist
Suitable Materials Linen (heavy). Madras. Poplin. Percale. Indian Head Muslin. Khaki Cloth. Habutai Silk. Silk Broadcloth. Silk Duck. Unshrinkable Flannel. The severity of the tailored waist ha...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Tailored Waist. Part 2
Basting Waist Together Mark waist, neck and armhole lines and center shoulder points with colored thread. Begin with underarm seam, pinning waist lines together first, and keep traced lines together ...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Tailored Waist. Part 3
Collar With severely tailored waists are worn close-fitting collars of linen, stiffly starched, or made of the same material as the waist. The pattern for such is in two pieces, a stand, and the coll...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Tailored Waist. Part 4
Cuffs Any one of three types of cuffs may be used on tailored shirt sleeves. Interlined Cuff An interlining may be used for one or two reasons; to make a soft cuff firmer or when fashion decrees, s...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Tailored Waist. Part 5
Placing Sleeve In Armhole In order to place a sleeve correctly, it is necessary to have some point in the armhole at which to set the seam of the sleeve, as well as points between which to scatter th...
-Construction Of Outer-Garments: Tailored Waist. Part 6
Coat Or Hem Opening This finish is made by folding back the material of the front to the wrong side without turning the edge in, and basting one-quarter inch from the edge of the fold. This edge is ...
-Chapter XVII. Outer-Garments: Tailored Skirts. Tailored Skirt Of Linen Or Cotton Suitable Materials
Linen Linen Crash Ramie Linen Pique Poplin Indian Head Muslin Purchase the necessary quantity of material of the quality selected. It is not necessary to shrink heavy linens before making up. Cot...
-Tailored Skirt Of Linen Or Cotton Suitable Materials. Part 2
To Baste Tuck Opening Baste tuck on right hand side. Mark center front line on both pieces of front. Lay pieces together so that one center front line lies directly on top of the other, letting tuck ...
-Tailored Skirt Of Linen Or Cotton Suitable Materials. Part 3
Making Alterations Remove the skirt. Trace all alterations along the line of the seams. Open seams and trace the corresponding seams, and re-baste. Mark all changes in hip, waist or finishing lines w...
-Tailored Skirt Of Linen Or Cotton Suitable Materials. Part 4
Stitching And Finishing Seams A tailored seam implies an outside stitching. There are numerous ways of making this effective. Following are methods of finishing several types of tailored seams: 1. P...
-Tailored Skirt Of Linen Or Cotton Suitable Materials. Part 5
Finishing Skirt At Waist Line For a normal waist line finish, with separate belt of linen tacked to place, use a piece of thin-twilled belting, which has been shrunk. Place hooks and eyes temporarily...
-Tailored Skirt Of Linen Or Cotton Suitable Materials. Part 6
Finish Of Skirt With Raised Waist Line There are two methods of placing to belt, either of which has its advantage. For both, have belt prepared, correct waist measure, with hooks and eyes. (1) Use r...
-Chapter XVIII. Outer-Garments: Lingerie Blouse And Dress
Suitable Materials Batiste (plain or embroidered), in white or color. Voile (plain or embroidered), in white or color. Crepe (plain or embroidered), in white or color. Handkerchief linen, in white or...
-Outer-Garments: Lingerie Blouse And Dress. Part 2
Cutting, Basting And Fitting Waist Follow the directions for these processes given on p. 96. Note carefully the placing of the pattern for a back or front opening. Make all necessary alterations afte...
-Outer-Garments: Lingerie Blouse And Dress. Part 3
Collars If the waist is to have a high closing, turn the lower edge of the collar up three-eighth inch; place this folded edge to the neck line of the waist, baste to place. Let the end of the collar...
-Lingerie Dress
Suggestive Materials Lawn (Persian or linen), in white or color. Dimity (striped or cross-barred), white or figured. Swiss (embroidered), in white or colors. Batiste (plain or embroidered), in white ...
-Lingerie Dress. Part 2
Alteration Make all alterations, bearing in mind the necessity for having an easy fit in all washable materials, especially if you have not shrunken them before making the garment. When the alteratio...
-Lingerie Dress. Part 3
Plackets Like all other plackets, that on a lingerie dress should be as inconspicuous as possible. If the skirt is of sheer material and very full, a continuous (bound) placket facing may be used. Cu...
-Lingerie Dress. Part 4
Sleeves, Collars, Cuffs, Vests In the section on lingerie waists, directions will be found for the completion of the remaining portions of the dress. Suggestive Questions 1. Name material suitable ...
-Chapter XIX. Outer-Garments Of Woolen Material
The construction of two types of garment, (1) a tailored skirt, and (2) a simple dress, suitable for school or street wear, will be considered. Give considerable thought to the choice of materials an...
-Tailored Skirt Of Woolen Material Suitable Materials
Serge (fine or heavy twill). Cheviot. Tweed. Poplin. Whip-cord. Broadcloth. The design for the skirt should be chosen with regard to simplicity of line. It should have no decoration aside from b...
-Tailored Skirt Of Woolen Material Suitable Materials. Part 2
Fitting Skirt Observe the rules for fitting skirts (p. 333). Fit the skirt easily, to allow for the taking up of the material in machine stitching and pressing. Where changes have to be made, place p...
-Tailored Skirt Of Woolen Material Suitable Materials. Part 3
Belt For a skirt with a raised waist line, use a ribbed silk belting as deep as the raise in the skirt above the normal line. The belt, if wide, may be fitted with darts, the greater amount taken out...
-Simple Dress Of Wool
Suitable Materials Albatross. Challis. Cashmere. Henrietta. Serge (fine twill). Diagonal weaves. Whip-cord. Poplin, Broadcloth. Trimmings Braid. Button. Satin. Silk. Velvet. Self-trimming. Findings ...
-Simple Dress Of Wool. Part 2
Fitting Dress The dress should be tried on before stitching, but little fitting should be necessary if a trial pattern has first been carefully worked out in muslin. If the skirt and waist are to be ...
-Simple Dress Of Wool. Part 3
Laying And Finishing Hem The hem of the skirt may be laid and finished like that of the tailored skirt (Fig. 215), where the material is heavy, but where light weight woolen materials, such as challi...
-Simple Dress Of Wool. Part 4
Placket And Facing Sleeves that fit snugly at the wrist should have the seam left open two inches above the bottom of the sleeve, to allow the hand to slip through easily. When the placket is finishe...
-Simple Dress Of Wool. Part 5
Placing Sleeves In Waist Several methods of placing sleeves are here explained in order to meet the varying changes in the fashion and cuts of gowns. Sleeves that have fulness at the top, whether one...
-Simple Dress Of Wool. Part 6
Finish Of Front Of Waist The front of the waist is sometimes finished with a hem on each side. Place a strip of cambric or silk inside the hem to make it firm for sewing fasteners on. This may be pla...
-Simple Dress Of Wool. Part 7
Trimming All trimming, such as revers, folds, cords, braids, passementerie, etc., should be basted to such places as are indicated in fitting the dress, but these should not be sewed until after the ...
-Chapter XX. Outer-Garments; Silk Dress, Blouse, Guimpe. Silk Dress For Afternoon Wear
Suitable Materials Taffeta. Pongee. Faille. Crepe de chine. Crepe meteor. Satin. Messaline. Foulard. Silk poplin. Trimmings Lace. Net. Braid. Self-trimming. Fringe. Planning The Dress ...
-Separate Blouse Of Lace, Net, Chiffon Or Silk
Net, lace or chiffon blouses should be made over linings of net or chiffon, cut on the same or closer lines than the blouse itself. Under this should be worn a net or silk underbodice simply trimmed. ...
-Separate Blouse Of Lace, Net, Chiffon Or Silk. Part 2
To Drape Yoke Mark the center of the piece of net or lace intended for the yoke, after having marked off a strip large enough for the collar. Yokes are stretched usually without seam on the shoulder....
-Chapter XXI. Outer-Garments: Foundation Skirts, Waist Linings
Foundation skirts, or drop skirts, as they are sometimes called, are used for dresses with long tunics, skirts made entirely of flounces or ruffles, or for draped skirts. Suitable Materials Silk. S...
-Waist Linings
Suitable Materials Net China Silk. Suissine Silk Protection Linings Corsica Silk Taffeta Silk Percaline For tight-fitted linings. Findings Cotton Thread. Sewing Silk. Belting. Snap Fasteners...
-Waist Linings. Continued
Boning Use whalebone if you wish a soft, thin finish to the waist, but as it is expensive if good qualities are bought, many prefer to use featherbone, which is very satisfactory, its only disadvanta...
-Slips
Suitable Materials Batiste. Lawn. Messaline. Figured Taffeta. Lining Satin. Net. Findings Thread, cotton, silk. Hooks and Eyes. Snap Fasteners. Linen Tape. Linings in one piece, cut from princess ...
-Chapter XXII. Decoration - Self-Trimmings
Self-trimmings denote the use of the material of the garment itself in some manner of decoration; it may be in any one of the following forms: Pipings. Bindings. Folds. Cordings. Shirrings. Tuck...
-Decoration - Self-Trimmings. Part 2
Pipings Pleasing effects may often be secured through the use of contrasting colors or striped materials, in the form of pipings which show just a line of color beyond the edge of the garment. Fig...
-Decoration - Self-Trimmings. Part 3
Folds Where a flat trimming is desired in some styles of garments, folds may be used effectively. They are usually cut on the bias, although with narrow skirts and some parts of waists a cross-wise c...
-Decoration - Self-Trimmings. Part 4
Shirring Fulness in waists, sleeves, skirts and ruffles may often be effectively disposed of by the use of shirring, which is a succession of rows of gathers placed on a plain surface, the lines for ...
-Decoration - Self-Trimmings. Part 5
Reversed Hems An attractive foot-trimming for a straight skirt may be made by turning the hem on the outside of the skirt, and stitching it down to the skirt, or edging the top with a cord or piping....
-Decoration - Self-Trimmings. Part 6
Buttons Various types are often used effectively as trimming for waists and skirts. For tailor-made garments, they can be made any shape or size, of your own material, by regular button makers,. Attr...
-Chapter XXIII. Decoration: Embroidery
Outline stitch (Fig. 235), is worked from left to right along the line to be followed. Bring the needle out at the left-hand end of line, let the thread drop below line, take a stitch from right to l...
-Decoration: Embroidery. Part 2
Ornamental Tacks Used to finish the ends of set-in or tailored pockets, the ends of seams or the stitching of plaits on tailored garments. The simplest of these is called a Bar tack (Fig. 246A), used...
-Decoration: Embroidery. Part 3
Outline Stitch The first stitch which is always used at the top of any design in smocking is simply the outline stitch (Fig. 253), worked on the first row of gathering, let the thread drop naturally ...
-Decoration: Embroidery. Part 4
References Embroidery Bradford, Dorothy, Series Swedish Weaving (in color). Alfred Mayer Weismann, Boston, Mass. Day, Lewis F., Art in Needlework. London, Batsford. D. M. C. Library. Sociele anony...
-Chapter XXIV. To Teachers
The author has been led, through the wish expressed by many students and teachers for a text-book embodying an exposition of technical problems, to place greater emphasis upon the explanation of const...
-To Teachers. Part 2
Use Of Illustrative Material The teacher of textiles and clothing usually finds herself in a position in which she must practise the strictest economy of time in her class-room procedure. The lessons...
-To Teachers. Part 2. Continued
Cardboard serves a number of purposes. Narrow strips may be cut and used to illustrate the method of marking hems and tucks. In teaching the sewing of buttons, a large disc of cream-white, ecru, or ye...
-To Teachers. Part 3
Instruction The teacher's instruction involves usually, a review of the lesson of the previous day, and a demonstration of the new problem for the day, this to be followed by a period of active work ...
-To Teachers. Part 4
Reference Library The teacher should herself have a professional library of one or more books, treating respectively of textiles, of fabrics, of the design and construction of clothing, and of the hi...
-To Teachers. Part 5
Tests An occasional impromptu test is not amiss, in clothing courses. A plan often tried with success has been the exchange and rating of completed garments (undergarments, middy blouses or shirtwais...
-To The Home Woman And Dressmaker
The woman who maintains her home, does all or part of her family sewing, with or without the aid of a seamstress, should find much of interest to herself in her work, within this book. If her problem ...
-To The Home Woman And Dressmaker. Continued
Cupboard A good sized cupboard with built-in shelves and drawers for supplies, materials and work, and space to hang unfinished garments, is the best arrangement one can have, but should this be lack...









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