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The Art Of Dispensing | Peter MacEwan



A treatise on the methods and processes involved in compounding medical prescriptions with dictionaries of abbreviations and terms used in British and foreign prescriptions, incompatibles and new remedies, and numerous memoranda for dispensers and prescribers.

TitleThe Art Of Dispensing
AuthorPeter MacEwan
PublisherThe Chemist And Druggist
Year1915
Copyright1915, The Chemist And Druggist
AmazonCalculation of Drug Dosages

Ninth Edition (Revised And Enlarged.)

By Peter Macewan, F.C.S., Pharmaceutical Chemist, Editor of ' The Chemist and Druggist.'

-Preface
The history of 'The Art of Dispensing' in book form is graphically represented on the preceding page. But it went through a probationary period before 1888, the germ of it being contained in The Chemi...
-The Art Of Dispensing. First Principles
Students of pharmacy may have observed that 'Dispensing' figures in smallest bulk in the examination schedules of the Pharmaceutical Societies. In that for Great Britain we read that candidates for th...
-The Art Of Dispensing. First Principles. Continued
Copying Prescriptions Another point in regard to the property in prescriptions arises when they are copied, and this may usefully be prefaced with some remarks regarding the law as to copying. The Ph...
-Giving Copies Of Prescriptions
A subscriber to The Chemist and Druggist once asked, 'Has a customer a right to demand a copy of a prescription from a pharmacist?'He had in his books a copy of a prescription entered in 1860. The ori...
-General Suggestions
The Dispenser must cultivate habits of order and cleanliness in respect to his person as well as in his methods of work. Dirtiness and untidiness in dress on the part of the dispenser give an unpleasa...
-Style In Externals
The pharmacist, however, may lose all the pecuniary benefit of his conscientiousness if, after paying the best price for drugs, he should be deficient in style in sending them out. The dispenser who e...
-Poisons Schedule (Great Britain)
In dispensing any medicine containing any of the substances mentioned in the following schedule, registered chemists, apothecaries, and medical practitioners in Great Britain do not require to label t...
-Precautions
It is a common plan in large dispensing establishments to use duplicate numbers for the dispensing department. A certain number is given to the person ordering the medicine, and a corresponding one is...
-Immediate Order Received At Sent Out At Weights And Measures
In the British Empire the weights and measures most commonly employed for dispensing-purposes are those of the Imperial system and the old apothecaries' weights and measures. The unit of weight in eac...
-Signs
The weights and measures signs employed in prescriptions are: ounce = 480 grains by weight or 480 minims by measure. 3 drachm = 60 ,, ,, ,, ,, 60 ,, ,, , ...
-How To Weigh
The late Mr. Joseph Ince, in one of the dispensing aphorisms which have become familiar to many dispensers, said: 'Hold the scales firmly by the left hand.' Many wonder what that means; so we may expl...
-Triturations Of Potent Remedies
For general dispensing-purposes triturations of arsenic, strychnine, sodium arsenate, mercuric chloride, etc, are very useful. Lightly triturate one part of the medicament with an equal weight of coar...
-Prescribers And Dispensers
If more attention were given by prescribers to the possibilities of ambiguous nomenclature, it would be a great boon to pharmacists and would save much worry and occasional maltreatment. For preparati...
-Aloes
The question as to whether Barbados or Socotrine aloes should be used when 'aloes' only occurs in a prescription is one which formerly presented difficulty, but the British Pharmacopoeia, 1914, allows...
-Questions Of Measurement
The dispenser frequently meets with prescriptions in which it is doubtful what size of mixture the prescriber intends. The following is a good example : Ammonii bromidi ...... 5iv. ...
-Alteration Of Prescriptions
The following are leading questions on this subject and prescriptions in illustration: To what extent is the dispenser justified in effecting the solution or suspension of an ingredient in a mixture ...
-Careless Prescribers
It would save the pharmacist a great deal of anxiety if prescribers would take the trouble to initial unusual doses, for many instances occur where it is impossible for the dispenser to know whether t...
-Extra Doses
The preface to the British Pharmacopoeia, 1914, contains the following statement, which, though not legally binding upon pharmacists, represents customary practice: The medical practitioner will exer...
-Errors In The Prescription
If possible, reference should be made to the writer. Caution must be used in concluding that a fancied error or omission is real. 'Common-sense' is frequently appealed to, but this indefinable judge c...
-Wishes Of Patients
Sir William Whitla says, 'Where a prescription is repeatedly compounded the patient often asks for the dose to be increased, or some other change to be made. The dispenser should not accede to such a ...
-Repeating Prescriptions
There is no rule against repeating a prescription as often as may be desired by the patient, but a conscientious dispenser will see that he does not acquire a pernicious habit. The majority of prescri...
-Proprietary Preparations
There is no rule regarding the dispensing of proprietary preparations, and the dispenser must act according to circumstances in each case, endeavouring whenever possible to dispense the medicine as if...
-Special Drugs And Dispensing Conveniences Waters
Aqua It is customary for distilled water alone to be used for 'aqua' by the best dispensing chemists, but in Great Britain Insurance Act dispensing has resulted in a rule being formulated to the effe...
-Extemporaneous Aromatic Waters
Distilled aromatic waters have a finer flavour than those prepared by the mixture method, and in some cases, notably rose-water, the odour of the extemporaneous preparation is quite different from the...
-Concentrated Infusions
In most of the large pharmacies the duty of preparing infusions for use during the day falls to the assistant who has been on night-duty. The question whether the dispenser is justified in using conce...
-Solutions
It is usual for dispensers to keep solutions of salts often required in prescriptions. These are not only convenient, but frequently impart to a mixture a bright appearance which otherwise would be wa...
-Solutions. Continued
Agitation is another important solution-promoting factor, but all that agitation does is to bring the solute into contact with fresh portions of solvent. It stands to reason that if a salt lies at the...
-Liquors For Syrups
Many syrups which are rarely required, and which are apt to decompose on keeping, may be prepared from the liquors, provided the dispenser assures himself that the finished product is similar to the o...
-Further Memoranda
Acacia is rarely prescribed per se in mixtures, and when it is it may be as either an emulsifying or a suspending agent. If the former, either the powder or the mucilage may be used, according to the ...
-Glucosides
Most of the medicinal glucosides undergo hydrolysis somewhat readily, especially when alcoholic preparations of them are mixed with water. Unexpected therapeutic results sometimes occur. For example, ...
-Nitroglycerin
Although this is a pharmacopceial article no pharmacist may undertake its preparation without first obtaining the sanction of the Home Office. Permission is not at all likely to be obtained. A 10-per-...
-Quinine Salts
Of all the salts of quinine the sulphate is most used. It is one of the least soluble of the salts. Other salts are prescribed either owing to their combination with a special acid (such as valerianic...
-Salicylic Acid And Salicylates
The question occasionally crops up whether natural or artificial acid should be or has been used, owing to the practice in a few dispensing houses of using the former. Between the 'physiologically pur...
-Sulphonal
The light powder should be used for dispensing in preference to the heavier crystals, because the former dissolves more easily. Tannic Acid does not readily yield a bright solution with water; a stoc...
-Pills And Their Excipients General Observations
A pill is a mixture of substances, generally powders, with a sufficiency of a paste or liquid of some kind to bind it into a spherical mass. The active ingredients may be liquids (e.g., essential oils...
-Pills And Their Excipients General Observations. Part 2
Rolling The pill-tile and the pill-machine are the next instruments required in pill-making, for the purpose of dividing the mass into the requisite number of parts. The tile is an exceedingly useful...
-Liquid Excipients
The illustration, page 83, shows a dropping-bottle which is useful for adding water to pill-masses. An eye-drop bottle, made by inserting a piece of glass tubing, with capillary point, in a perforated...
-Excipients
Acacia Powder by itself is an excipient of very little value for the purpose of giving consistence; but, with the addition of 10 per cent, of powdered althaea-root, or half its weight of finely powder...
-Glycerin Of Tragacanth
Nothing has yet proved of such general usefulness as this invention of the late Mr. Barnard Proctor, the Newcastle-on-Tyne pharmacist. The original formula differed slightly from that in the British P...
-Hints By Mr. Joseph Ince. Excipients To Be Avoided
The following remarks by the late Mr. Joseph Ince, formerly Lecturer on Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy, Bloomsbury, were contributed to the treatise published in 1884: (1) Those incompatible with...
-Hints By Mr. A. W. Gereard
What are the conditions required of a well-made pill? This was a question asked in the original treatise by Mr. A. W. Gerrard, then head dispenser at University College Hospital, London. He answered i...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them
From what has already been said regarding excipients it will be seen that dexterity in the art of pill-making largely depends upon knowledge of the physical properties of the ingredients and their rel...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 2
Acidum Arseniosum When medicines are given in doses of a fraction of a grain the dispenser has to consider whether they are very soluble in any inert solvent which will not prevent them being made in...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 3
Acidum Oxalicum Powder well and mass with kaolin ointment or cocoa-butter. Acidum Salicylicum Reduce to fine powder and mass with glycerin of tragacanth. Acidum Tannicum If massed with mucilage, ...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 4
Antipyrinum Use 1 grain of tragacanth for each 5 grains, and mass with as little water as possible; or use glucanth alone. Apiol Treat as an essential oil, or, if an iron salt is with it, use Roe's...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 5
Atropinae Sulphas Plain atropine and its sulphate are frequently prescribed in pill, the doses ranging from gr.1/120 to gr.1/50 The pills are usually made 1/2 grain to 1 grain in size, and the alkalo...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 6
Bismuth Salts Subcarbonate and subnitrate are readily massed with a fifth of their weight of glycerin of tragacanth. Cerium Oxalate is treated similarly. Butyl-chloral Hydras (Croton Chloral).- In c...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 7
Camphora Monobromata Reduce the monobromate to fine powder, mix with it pulv. tragac. co. 1 to 7, and mass with glycerin of tragacanth. A pill containing 1 grain each of menthol and the monobromate g...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 8
Ergotinum This is supplied of different consistencies, some samples being quite thick and granular like extract of beef, others smooth and semi-fluid. In either case it requires the addition of an in...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 9
Extracts These are amongst the most commonly prescribed excipients. When they occur as active ingredients in pills, the quantities are frequently much in excess of what would be required to make powd...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 10
Fel Bovinum The best excipient is a sufficiency of equal parts of tragacanth and acacia. The ox-gall may be bought in a dried and powdered state. In this condition it is very convenient, and forms an...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 11
Ferri Iodidum Blancard's iodide-of-iron pills were formerly prescribed to be made as follows: Combine 4 grammes of iodine with 2 grammes of iron filings in 8 grammes of water, filter upon 5 grammes o...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 12
Ferri Et Ammonii Citras Lanoline is an excellent excipient (see next paragraph), but quite as good a mass is made with 5 grains of soft manna to 15 grains of the citrate, half a grain of powdered tra...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 13
Gingerinum This oleo-resin of ginger may be treated like an essential oil, curd soap and althaea making a good mass. It is less troublesome than essential oils, but in such a combination as the follo...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 14
Hydrastina This alkaloid and its hydrochloride mass well with glucanth. Ichthyolum Ordinary ichthyol makes a bad pill. When more than 2 grains is ordered in one pill the method recommended in the N...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 15
Pepsinum Scale pepsin is not so suitable for pills as the partly insoluble powder. Make a rather soft mass with a mixture of equal parts of glycerin, syrup, and water, and roll quickly. Five grains o...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 16
Pix Liquida Add a little wax (1 to 5), heat, and mass with wheaten flour or any fibrous powder. Plumbi Acetas Mass with glucose and a little compound tragacanth powder. Potassii Acetas A good mas...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 17
Quininae Sulphas The simplest excipient is glycerin of tragacanth, or 5 per cent. of tragacanth well mixed forms a very good mass with simple syrup; a little glycerin may be added if the pills are to...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 18
Rhei Pulvis Use proof spirit or tincture of rhubarb (try. to 3 gr.); a soft mass should be made and rolled quickly, otherwise it is troublesome. Only twenty-four pills should be made at once, or the ...
-Ingredients Of Pills And How To Mass Them. Part 19
Sodii Arsenas Triturate with milk sugar and mass with glucose syrup. Sodii Bicarbonas Three grains of dry bicarbonate of sodium with 1 grain of powdered ginger can be made into a very workable mass...
-Finishing And Coating Pills
The massing of the ingredients constitutes the more important part of pill-making, and the rest reflects the dispenser's manipulative dexterity. The work of rolling, cutting, and rounding is not arduo...
-Gilding and Silvering Pills
Covering pills with gold or silver leaf is a process which need not be described at great length. Silvering has largely gone out of fashion, and gilding is a refinement of pharmacy which the chemist i...
-Pill Pearl-Coating
This is the method of coating pills which is done by making the pill-powder, French chalk, adhere to form a cemented layer on the surface of the pills. Full particulars were given in the 'Art of Pharm...
-Pill Sugar-Coating
This kind of coating has become popular, but the operation is somewhat difficult to perform on a small scale. Dr. Symes states that with practice it may be successfully carried out by the following pr...
-Pill Chocolate-Coating
This is done exactly like gelatin-coating, and with the same apparatus, the following compound being used: Cadbury's cocoa-essence ..... Oil of theobroma ...... Sh...
-Pill Keratin-Coating
This is intended to protect pills so that they may pass the stomach undissolved, the keratin being insoluble in the gastric juice, but soluble in the alkaline contents of the intestines. Only fatty ex...
-Pill Salol-Coating
Salol-coating has been suggested to take the place of keratin-coating as being less troublesome and quite as effective. The coating is applied as follows: Take the 'Goodess' pill-finisher and sprinkle...
-Concentric-Coated Pills
These were proposed by the late Dr. Mortimer Granville, and the following formula will show what they are and how prepared: Barbaloin........ gr. xxiv. Ext. cascarae sagradae . .....
-Tablets, Lozenges, And Pastilles
These articles more or less resemble each other, especially in respect to the fact that they are generally the product of the manufacturing chemist, and few physicians prescribe remedies to be compoun...
-Tablets, Lozenges, And Pastilles. Part 2
Preparation Of The Material Chemical salts which are to be compressed should be in the granular form as supplied for the purpose by chemical-manufacturers. All powders must be granular. On the dispen...
-Tablets, Lozenges, And Pastilles. Part 3
Method I The substance to be compressed, in the finest possible powder, should be triturated with sufficient of the emulsion to form a damp coherent powder, so that it can be shaken through a No. 20 ...
-Tablets, Lozenges, And Pastilles. Part 4
Method II Add the ether-alcohol theobroma solution all at once to the substance or mixture contained in a mortar; triturate quickly; pass through a No. 20 or No. 30 sieve, and allow to dry by exposur...
-Official Tabellae
Trinitrin tablets are the only official example of this form of medication, and they are described as 'tablets of chocolate each weighing 0.300 gramme and containing 0.0005 gramme (0.5 milligramme) of...
-Official Tabellae. Continued
Fruit Basis Take five hundred times the quantity of the drug ordered for one lozenge. Mix with 6.5 grammes [100 grains] of tragacanth and 26 grammes [400 1/2 grains] of refined sugar, both in fine po...
-Capsules
There was nothing about capsules in the earlier issues of the 'Art of Dispensing,' and the chapter introduced into the 1888 edition began with the remark that 'a growing disposition on the part of med...
-Capsules. Continued
For dispensing-purposes moulds are made of brass and fixed to rods which screw into a disc of wood provided with a handle securely fixed into the centre of the reverse side. The moulds are made in siz...
-Powders
There is a right and a wrong way in compounding powders, but fewer difficulties occur in this class of medicines than in any other, most likely on account of the fact that chemical solids do not inter...
-Powders. Part 2
Division Of Powders The only method of division which is tolerated by examiners is weighing each powder. No guesswork is allowed. While we endorse this view we cannot overlook the fact that experienc...
-Powders. Part 3. Special Memoranda
Ammonium Carbonate Rarely prescribed in powders, but if so wrap in waxed paper. Antipyrin (Phenazone) This substance is eminently a remedy which should be prescribed by itself, unless for physiolog...
-Powders. Part 4
Exalgin It was noticed that when the following were triturated in a mortar a valerianic-acid odour was developed: Exalgin. ....... gr. ij. Phenacetin. ...... gr. iij. ...
-Powders. Part 5
Mercurous Chloride A dispenser who had a prescription for 1-grain calomel powders was so struck with the minuteness of the portion that he added 2 grains of sugar of milk to make bulk. This is not co...
-Administering Powders
It is the practice of many parents to give powders mixed with jam to children ; there is no objection to this, provided the ingredients are compatible with the jam ; but it should be borne in mind tha...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries
Dioscorides (a.d. 79), Galen (a.d. 131-200), and Avicenna (a.d. 980-1037) prescribed suppositories, and their prescriptions were still in vogue in the sixteenth century. Dioscorides also prescribed pe...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 2
Methods of Preparation. Suppositories are made either by pouring the liquefied mass into a suitable mould or by pressing a powdered mixture of the ingredients into the mould (cold method). In the form...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 3
An American style consists of a circular metal box pierced with holes into which thimbles fit (see illustration). The box can be filled with iced water or a freezing-mixture. The thimbles are filled w...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 4
If expeditiously and properly done, the suppositories, when cool, should slip from the mould without the least trouble, having a beautiful polished finish, and, what is more important still, having a ...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 5
Other Fatty Media The late W. Martindale spoke highly of a mixture of equal parts of stearic and oleic acids as a substitute for cocoa-butter; the advantages which he claimed for it are that(1) The m...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 6
Hints For Special Oases The following paragraphs deal with substances which either do not 'go' according to rule, or which illustrate principles that may be adopted with similar substances. Anusol ...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 7
Cocaine If the pure alkaloid is prescribed alone in suppositories it should be dissolved in the melted cocoa-butter (solubility 1 in 12). Medical men sometimes forget to add 'hydrochlor.'or 'mur.'in ...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 8
Galls The powder of galls, like tannin, cakes easily in melted cocoa-butter, especially if the latter exceeds 1300 F. in temperature. Dispensers should learn to melt the fat so that it is not much ab...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 9
Iodine Use the gelatin basis. With cocoa-butter there is a certain amount of absorption, and the melting-point is raised. Dissolve the iodine with potassium iodide and the minimum of water before add...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 10
Nutritive Suppositories These are 6o-grain suppositories made with cocoa-butter or gelatin basis and dry or paste peptone. Six drachms of Mosquera beef meal and 1 ounce of cocoa-butter make a good ma...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 11
Tincture Of Benzoin (Compound) Nessary containing 10 minims of this and 50 grains of cocoa-butter is easily made by the cold process. Strengths Of Bougies The following are the average adult doses ...
-Suppositories, Bougies, And Pessaries. Part 12
Strengths Of Pessaries The following are the average adult doses of medicines given in this form. Those marked * must be made with oil of theobroma: Acid, boric.......... gr. x. ...
-Ointments
Ointments are fatty compounds, of the consistence of butter, for external application. It is supposed that they should soften or liquefy when applied to the skin, so as to permit the medicament contai...
-Ointments. Part 2. General Instructions
For compounding ointments a slab of marble or porcelain and a steel or horn spatula are generally employed, but if the ointment contains an insoluble powder the mortar and pestle must be used. The sla...
-Ointments. Part 3. Special Memoranda
Acidum Carbolicum Although the solubility of phenol in fats and oils is greater than 1 in 10, not more than 1 part dissolves in 25 parts of soft paraffin, so that paraffin ointments containing more t...
-Ointments. Part 4
Acidum Tannicum This acid should be compounded with fats in the cold, if possible. First triturate the acid lightly in a mortar, then add its own weight of the basis, and continue trituration for thr...
-Ointments. Part 5
Camphor Rarely prescribed per se along with fats, but when that happens the only course is to dissolve the camphor in the melted basis, as in the case of the following prescription: Camphorse ...
-Ointments. Part 6
Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum The original Pagen-stecher's ointment is made with oxide freshly precipitated from dilute solutions of mercuric chloride and caustic soda, the washed precipitate being dehydr...
-Ointments. Part 7
Oleates For the preparation of oleates see 'Pharmaceutical Formulas,'page 562, and C. & D., March 30, 1901, page 524. It is important for dispensers to remember that oleates should not be melted in m...
-Ointments. Part 8
Paraffin Ointments Ointments made with hard and soft paraffins are apt to be granular unless they are very carefully made. Melt the paraffins, pour into a mortar previously well warmed with boiling w...
-Ointments. Part 9
Sapo Durus A prescription which turns up periodically, and which hails from Buxton, is- Potassii iodidi ....... 3iij- Saponis ........ This is really a cipher presc...
-Ointments. Part 10
Salve-Mulls This is the common name for steatins, or spread cerates, preparations intermediate between ointments and plasters, which are spread upon muslin in the proportion of 100 grammes (3xxv.) to...
-Plasters
It is seldom nowadays that the dispenser is called upon to spread other than a cantharidin plaster, and, consequently, few of the rising generation can handle the plaster-spatula with dexterity. It is...
-Pastes And Jellies
Modern dermatological methods are responsible for the introduction of various forms of applications which are neither ointments nor lotions, and which may or may not be fatty. Specialists find that a ...
-Pastes And Jellies. Part 2
Gelatum Naphthol-Beta As 10 per cent, gelat. iodoformi, but with beta-naphthol. 3V. Gelata Zinci Varia To the quantities for the hard jelly may be added 1 oz. of tar or of extract of cannabis or of...
-Pastes And Jellies. Part 3
Pasta Resorcin (Lassar). Fortior. Mitior. Resorcin Zinc oxide . Starch. Vaseline oil . ...
-Pastes And Jellies. Part 4
Schleich's Skin-Remedies The influence of German practice upon dermatological pharmacy is further illustrated by the prescriptions of Dr. C. L. Schleich, Berlin, some of which, appropriate to this ch...
-Pastes And Jellies. Part 5
Stearin Paste Made like cerate paste, but with stearin. Serum Paste Finely powdered zinc oxide made into a thin paste with fresh ox-blood serum; paint on glass plates to scale, dry, powder, and ste...
-Mixtures
The compounding of mixtures brings all the dispenser's wits into full play. It is here that medicines have the opportunity of combining with each other, because mixtures are in the large majority of c...
-Mixtures. Part 2
It is always convenient, if there are no chemical reasons to prevent it, to take the ingredients of a formula, especially where these are numerous, in the order in which they are written, and use, wei...
-Mixtures. Part 3
Not infrequently dispensers put powders, such as bismuth and magnesia, into a bottle, and pour mucilage directly upon them, the result being that the powders are diffused in a lumpy condition. Powders...
-Chemical Changes In Mixtures
It is not improbable that in almost every mixture dispensed chemical change of some kind takes place, either immediately or after a few hours or days have elapsed. There may be a precipitate or change...
-Chemical Changes In Mixtures. Continued
Certain vegetable infusions, especially inf. uvae ursi, inf. senegae, inf. scoparii, and inf. caryophylli, react with spt. aether, nit., and the nitric oxide eliminated plays the part of an oxygen-car...
-Intentional Chemical Action in Mixtures
Saline Mixtures In many prescriptions chemical action is intended, as in the case of saline mixtures, which are extemporaneously prepared solutions of the alkaline acetates, citrates, or tartrates. F...
-Mixtures Becoming Gelatinous
We have already referred to the fact that some kinds of distilled water become perfectly gelatinous on keeping. The same thing takes place with some kinds of mixtures. The following are cases which ha...
-Quinine Mixtures
Quinine salts give rise to so many curious complications when dispensed in mixture form that some special remarks are necessary regarding them. The complications usually arise from ignorance of the pe...
-Quinine Mixtures. Continued
The most unmanageable mixtures are those in which alkaloidal precipitants are present. The more common of these associated with quinine in prescriptions are the alkaline carbonates and hydrates, iodid...
-Quinine Mixtures With Benzoates
Quinine benzoate is a sparingly soluble salt (see page 70) and may be formed by interaction, as in the following case: Sodii benzoatis ...... gr. 144 Liquoris strychnina (1885 B.P...
-Quinine Mixtures With Iodides
Prescriptions containing quinine sulphate and potassium iodide are not uncommon, and precipitation can rarely be avoided for the reasons given on page 75. Even when just sufficient acid is added to di...
-Quinine Mixtures With Ferric Chloride
Solution and tincture of per-chloride of iron are commonly compounded with quinine sulphate for retail purposes, but not so frequently prescribed. The sulphate is readily soluble in either liquid. Qui...
-Quinine Mixtures With Mercuric Chloride
Quinine salts are not compatible with mercuric chloride except under certain conditions, such as the absence of free acids. Mercuric chloride is an alkaloidal precipitant, but the precipitates formed ...
-Quinine Mixtures With Liquorice Extract
This extract is well known as an excellent covering for the taste of quinine; consequently we occasionally find the two together in mixture, with far from good results. Thus: Ferri et quininae ...
-Scale Preparations In Mixtures
Scale preparations are not difficult of solution, tartarated iron and sulphate of beberine being among the least soluble. Do not shake scale preparations with a solvent, as an abundant and persistent ...
-Bismuth Mixtures
Many and peculiar are the changes which occur in mixtures containing salts of bismuth. Bismuth subnitrate is the most frequently prescribed salt, being oftener used than all the other salts put togeth...
-Bismuth Mixtures. Continued
Bismuth Salts and Iodides are sometimes prescribed together, with the result that patients and some dispensers become alarmed by the changes that occur in the appearance of the mixtures owing to the f...
-Salts In Mixtures
The remarks on solution (pages 56-61) specially apply to mixtures of saline substances. The general directions there given as to the formation of solutions should be followed in making mixtures. Three...
-Mixtures Of Insoluble Substances
Powders which are insoluble in aqueous menstrua and which do not readily diffuse in water should be rubbed down in a mortar with some of the fluid, for if put into the bottle and shaken with the fluid...
-Extracts In Mixtures
Solid extracts are seldom prescribed in mixture in this country, but they are on the Continent, and the following hints by the late Dr. Hager will be useful to the English dispenser. When alcoholic e...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients
General rules break down now and then, so that the dispenser should have some acquaintance with the behaviour of certain substances which must be treated according to their characteristics. The chapte...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 2
Acidum Hydrocyanicum Dispensers should never think of dispensing any other preparation than the pharma-copceial one, unless Scheele's acid is specially ordered. Owing to the extreme volatility of the...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 3
Alkaloids A knowledge of the ordinary alkaloidal reactions is very useful at the dispensing-counter. The following are fair examples of the cases in which this knowledge may be turned to practical ac...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 4
Butyl-Chloral Hydras A few general precautions in respect to dispensing butyl-chloral hydrate in solution have already been noted (page 65). The chief difficulty with this substance is its tendency t...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 5
Calcii Phosphas It is well to remember that fresh precipitates are more soluble in appropriate solvents than the same precipitates when dried. This fact was taken advantage of by a dispenser in compo...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 6
Ether In regard to mixing with water, see the paragraph on volatile ingredients (page 306). It is worth bearing in mind respecting ether that it generally liberates iodine from potassium-iodide solut...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 7
Infusum Rosae Acidum Every student of volumetric analysis knows that in titrating acids or alkalies certain vegetable colours are used as indicators, because they show different colours in acid, ...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 8
Liquor Pepticus A correspondent asked us if the following mixture should be dispensed with or without a sediment: Liq. peptici (Benger's) .... . Sodii bicarb. ...... 3iv. ...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 9
Note Finnemore and Williamson found that in 1-oz. aqeuous mixtures 10 minims of liq. strych. and 15 grains of sodii bicarb, remained clear for thirty days; 20 grains of potass, bicarb, and 20 minims ...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 10
Olea Essentialia The remarks in regard to the preparation of aromatic waters (page 52) must be considered in connection with aqueous mixtures containing excess of essential oils. It has been shown th...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 11
Piperazinum This substance (diethylene-diamine, 2C2H4NH) is strongly alkaline, and behaves like alkalies, e.g.: Liquoris strychninae .... 3j. Piperazini ...... 3j. ...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 12
Resorcinum Changes of colour in solutions of this substance are common. The following are two good examples: I. Resorcini.................. 3j Spt. ammon. arom.....
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 13
Syrupus Ferri Iodidi It is remarkable how many changes and reactions are met with in dispensing this preparation, which is universally 'official,' but differs in ferrous-iodide strength in different ...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 14
Tinctura Cardamomi Composita The colouring of this tincture is cochineal, which per se is used as an indicator in volumetric analysis of acids and alkalies. With distilled water the tincture gives mu...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 15
Tinctura Ferri Perchloridi This tincture and its equivalent, liquor ferri perchloridi, give some curious results now and then owing to interaction of the ferric chloride with other substances. Phosph...
-Miscellaneous Mixture Ingredients. Part 16
Tinctura Nucis Vomicae The fact that this preparation contains a trace of copper as well as igasuric acid has been mentioned (page 242). The tincture gives an opaque mixture with water owing to inert...
-Administration Of Mixtures
When mixtures are to be administered in parts it will be found that bottles of best quality with moulded graduations are fairly reliable. It is easy to tell at a glance any that may be seriously inacc...
-Emulsions
An emulsion is a mixture of small particles of solid or liquid substances in a liquid vehicle, the particles being kept in suspension, or easily diffusible, and prevented from coalescing by means of a...
-Mixtures With Resinous Tinctures
Students will find it advantageous, in their reading about tinctures and fluid extracts, to distinguish between those which mix clear with water and those which do not. First, they should note the con...
-Mixtures With Resinous Tinctures. Continued
No. I. can be made a good mixture by the addition of acacia. Make a mucilage of 2 drachms of the powdered gum with 1/2 ounce of chloroform-water; dissolve the iodide in the rest of the water, and mix ...
-Oleaginous Emulsions
Milk is the ideal emulsion. It is a mixture of almost equal small percentages of fat and emulsifying agents with sugar and water; the fat separates on standing, but is easily distributed again, and th...
-Emulsifying Agents
Acacia Gum is the principal gum employed by pharmacists. It is typical of a large class of bodies which emulsify oils, but few of them equal it in convenience and power. The gum contains the calcium, ...
-Irish Moss
Cod-liver-oil emulsions have long been prepared with Irish moss. Mr. Peter Boa (Edinburgh) obtains a clear mucilage of the moss by straining the mucilage through absorbent cotton-wool supported on mus...
-Resin Soap
This is another agent which is used for the purpose of emulsifying phenolic bodies with water. Mr. Collier, whose observations on quillaia appear to have originated from a study of liquor carbonis det...
-Theory And Practice
From all that has preceded the compounder will have little difficulty in formulating a theory of emulsification. It may be put thus: If we shake a fixed oil with water, we break it up into a multitude...
-Emulsification Of Special Drugs
Balsam of Peru may be emulsified with yolk of egg or with powdered acacia, as in the following : Potass, acet. ...... Acid, salicylic. ..... 3j. Liq. morph. acet. ...
-Balsam Of Tolu
The following is an excellent emulsion: Dissolve- Parts Balsam of tolu ..... 2 Rectified spirit ..... 10 Tincture of quillaia ..... 10 Wa...
-Benzoin (Tincture)
The simple tincture makes a good emulsion with a little mucilage, and the compound tincture may be emulsified with yolk of egg or mucilage, the yolk of egg giving a more stable emulsion. Cod-liver Oi...
-Copaiba
The methods of emulsifying the ' balsam' have already been described (page 322, see also page 340). When mucilage and solution of potash are prescribed with it dispensers frequently bungle the emulsio...
-Supplementary Notes On Emulsions
Emulsions are so much employed on the Continent that the methods there pursued are well worth knowing. We here reproduce some hints from the late Dr. Hermann Hager, with editorial comments. This chapt...
-Seed Emulsions
Made from seeds containing a fixed oil, such as almonds, poppy or hemp seeds, etc, by crushing these and rubbing them with water. If necessary, the seeds are first washed several times with water; whe...
-Oil And Balsam Emulsions
Fixed oils, such as almond, poppy, olive, linseed, and castor, and balsams, such as copaiba and Peru, are easily combined with water by means of emulsifiers, of which gum acacia is the best. Yolk of e...
-Emulsions Of Gum Resins
Gum resins, such as gal-banum, ammoniacum, myrrh, asafetida, and scammony, contain gummy matter, as well as resin insoluble in water, so that the addition of an emulsifier is not absolutely required. ...
-Emulsions Of Resins
These are prepared from Venice turpentine, guaiacum resin, resin of jalap, and such-like substances. Venice turpentine is easily emulsified by its own weight of gum acacia or by yolk of egg (two yolk...
-Phosphorus
The preparation of this powerful medicine requires the greatest care. A mixture containing a few particles of phosphorus the size of a pin's head may easily occasion fatal gastritis. It is, therefore,...
-Hints By The Late Joseph Ince
Let the dispenser know when he has done his task, and when once he has formed his emulsion let him add rapidly the remaining ingredients. Many an emulsion is ruined by over-manipulation, and the oil h...
-Emulsions With Gum Acacia
The slightest tendency of the mucilage to acidity will defeat the best manipulation. [The B.P. directs 100 grammes of gum acacia to be rinsed and dissolved in 150 millilitres of distilled water.-Ed.] ...
-Gum-Resin Emulsions
The mistura ferri composita will exemplify the subject. It is infinitely preferable to prepare it for stock in a concentrated form of four times the strength, and to keep the ferrous sulphate apart un...
-Copaiba Emulsions
The practice has been recommended of making certain emulsions by very carefully smearing the bottle with the emulsifying agent. But it has been generally condemned, as not being an effectual method. C...
-Applications
This chapter includes difficulties arising in compounding prescriptions for liquid topical applications and articles which are not administered per os- e.g., lotions, liniments, and injections. In re...
-Lotions
1The Lotion' generally is the external analogue of 'The Mixture.' Its functions are varied, but the introduction of the antiseptic system of surgery has somewhat narrowed the composition of this class...
-Borax
This salt (sodium pyroborate, Na2B407,10H20) is alkaline in reaction, and behaves as an alkali when added to aqueous solutions of alkaloidal salts, but the addition of a few drops of glycerin prevents...
-Hydrargyri Perchloridum
This salt, as may have been noticed from many of the difficulties previously exemplified, is one of the most active chemical reagents, and as it is now extensively employed as an antiseptic, dispenser...
-Iodum
The following are examples of another form of application: mandl's paint. Iodi .... gr. vj. Potass, iodid. . j. 01. menth. pip. mvj....
-Liquor Carbonis Detergens
The following are instances of the advantage of studying order of mixing: A. Liq. carbonis detergent. Spiritus tenuioris Glycerini .... ...
-Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis
This commonly prescribed preparation may give curious results. Dispensers who find prescribers careless in regard to the suffixes 'dilutus' and 'fortis ' must observe from the amount indicated or the ...
-Menthol
Some prescribes appear to imagine that menthol is soluble in water, perhaps because the crystals look salt-like. Never hesitate to filter watery solutions containing in suspension particles of menthol...
-Sodii Hyposulphis
This salt is easily decomposed; for example, the following lotion contains precipitated sulphur and has the odour of sulphuretted hydrogen : Sodii hyposulphitis ..... 3vj. Acidi s...
-Eye-Lotions
Eye-lotions are usually weak solutions in water of one or more medicaments of an antiseptic, astringent, or sedative character- such as boric acid, mercuric chloride, alum, tannic acid, borax, or sodi...
-Injections
Vaginal and Urethral Injections do not differ greatly from lotions, except that they are sometimes weaker in active ingredient, owing to larger quantities being used in irrigating. The following are t...
-Ampoules
Ampoules are small glass vessels which can be hermetically sealed, and are used for storing sterilised solutions for hypodermic injection. They were first used as flasks by Pasteur, in the course of h...
-Filling Ampoules Having One Opening
There are several ways of filling the phial-shaped ampoules or tubes which have a closed end, viz. : I. The Vacuum System. - The apparatus devised by M. Eury for sterilising and filling ampoules is s...
-Embrocations And Liniments
There are seldom great difficulties in this class of preparations. Lime-water to be mixed with oils should be added all at once, and well shaken. By adding gradually, a perfectly homogeneous combinati...
-Nebulae, Or Sprays
The preparations now most in vogue are solutions of alkaloids or aromatics in liquid paraffin, which is known under various fanciful names, such as alboline, adepsine oil, chrisma-line, glymol, oleum ...
-Vapores, Or Inhalations
These are preparations which are to be inhaled with steam or heated air. They are generally solutions of aromatic substances in alcohol, but when the physiological effect of alcohol is not desired, th...
-Dictionary Of Incompatibles
Medical Men are but rarely good chemists, for this would necessitate longer devotion to chemistry than the average medical student can afford. Hence the importance of dispensers being thoroughly well ...
-Dictionary Of Incompatibles. Continued
Calcium salts, with alkalies and their carbonates, oxalates, and sulphates. Calomel, with alkalies, alkaline chlorides, antipyrin, bromides, hydrocyanic acid, iodides, organic acids, soap, and sodium...
-Dispensing Of Incompatibles
It is not easy to lay down any rule for the dispenser when he comes across an incompatibility. In such cases he would do well to put to himself, previous to compounding the prescription, such question...
-Dispensing Of Incompatibles. Continued
This mixture is almost colourless when first prepared, but rapidly acquires a reddish-brown colour, and after a few days crystals of iodine are deposited. This is due to the action of potassium chlora...
-Explosive And Inflammable Compounds
Whenever substances rich in oxygen or easily deoxidised are ordered to be mixed with other ingredients, the dispenser should always carefully consider the order of mixing. Such substances should never...
-Foreign Prescriptions
In seaport towns, health-resorts, and cities in which foreigners sojourn, chemists and druggists are frequently called upon to dispense prescriptions of foreign origin, and it sometimes happens that, ...
-German Prescriptions
The most confusing thing about German prescriptions is the chemical nomenclature, of which the following is a fair example: Kali hydrojodici ..... 6,0 Aquae depuratae ..... 1...
-German Prescriptions. Continued
Ointments are much of the same nature as in England and do not call for special remarks. Ungt hydr. fort, is occasionally prescribed, weighed off in quantities from 1 to 4 grammes, to be wrapped up se...
-Facsimile Prescriptions
The difficulties of nomenclature over, the dispenser has now to face the handwriting of German prescriptions, which differs materially from English handwriting. A knowledge of this can only be acquire...
-French Prescriptions
The art of dispensing ' as in France' is fairly told in the following description of a week's work by an English dispenser in a French pharmacy, the work consisting of 33 potions (mixtures), 1 supposi...
-Foreign Experience For Assistants
It is now becoming a regular custom with English assistants, at least to the number of about a hundred, yearly to go to the South of France for the winter season, and many later on endeavour to get in...
-New And Unofficial Remedies
Articles which are in the British Pharmacopoeia are not included in this chapter, but many remedies are mentioned which are rarely heard of, and this is done because they are the very things that disp...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 2
Acid, Cathartic One of the active principles of senna. A brown -ish powder. Laxative dose: For children, 1 1/2 to 3 grains; for adults, 4 to 8 grains. Acid, Cinnamic Properties similar to benzoic a...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 3
Acid, Sclerotinic One of the active principles of ergot. Occurs as a brown powder, soluble in water. Given by mouth or hypodermically in 1/2 to 1 grain doses in epilepsy, and as a haemostatic. There ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 4
Aethrisin Acetylsalicylamide. Used in articular rheumatism. Dose:5 to 10 grains. Afermol Dried serum of horse blood. Used as a dusting-powder for wounds, alone or mixed with a fourth of its weight ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 5
Althein, Or Asparagin A crystalline substance obtained from asparagus, liquorice, marshmallow, and other roots. Slightly soluble in water. Dose, as a diuretic:I to 2 grains. Alumnol A white powder ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 6
Anemonin The crystalline camphor of Anemone Pulsatilla and other species. Insoluble in water. Given in 1/4 to 3/4 grain doses (in pill) for asthma, bronchitis, and as an emmenagogue. Anesin Trade-n...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 7
Antipyrin Compounds The following are the doses of the chief compounds : Acetyl-salicylate (aco-pyrin), 5 to 15 grains; Amygdalate (tussol), 5 to 15 grains ; Caffeino-citrate, 7 1/2 to 15 grains; Chi...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 8
Apiol A green, oily fluid, which is the active principle of parsley. Soluble in alcohol, but generally given in capsules (5 to 10 minims) as an emmenagogue, and in 15-minim doses for malaria. There i...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 9
Arsacetin Sodium para-acetyl-amino-phenylarsonate or sodium acetyl-arsanilate. A white, crystalline powder soluble I in 10 of cold water, and solutions can be boiled without decomposition. Employed i...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 10
Asurol A compound of mercury and sodium amido-oxy-iso-butyrate containing 40.3 percent. of mercury. Soluble in water, and intended to replace mercury salicylate in the treatment of syphilis. Atoxyl ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 11
Bismuth Disalicylate A white, odourless powder, insoluble in water and alcohol. Dose: 8 to 12 grains in gastric and intestinal catarrh. Bismuthol A mixture of bismuth phosphate and sodium salicylat...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 12
Bromglidin A bromine compound analogous to Iodglidin {q.v.). Bromile The hydrobromide of an organic base, in large, white, crystalline scales, 3 parts of which equal 1 part of potassium bromide. Ad...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 13
Calcusol A proprietary preparation, containing piperidine tartrate and potassium bicarbonate in granular effervescing form. A solvent of urates. Calmin A combination of anti-pyrin and heroin. Calo...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 14
Cetrarin The bitter principle of Iceland moss. A white, crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and solutions of alkalies. Has stomachic and expectorant properties. Dose: I to 3 grains. Chinaphenine ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 15
Citarin A white, crystalline powder (sodium anhydromethylene citrate), which is used as a uric-acid solvent in gout and rheumatism in doses of 15 to 30 grains three or four times a day. Citrophen A...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 16
Creolin And Cyllin Proprietary antiseptic solutions, used in surgery, and administered internally in doses of 2 to 5 minims, in capsules. Creosoform A solid condensation-product of creosote and for...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 17
Diaspirin The trade-name for succinyl-salicylic acid. A white crystalline powder, with difficulty soluble in water, and having, like aspirin, a marked diaphoretic action in 15-grain doses. Diazellos...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 18
Dormiol A 50-per-cent. solution of amylene-chloral, insoluble in cold water, is decomposed by hot water, and is soluble in alcohol. Dose:10 to 50 minims, emulsified with an equal volume of acacia muc...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 19
Estone Trade-name for a basic aluminium acetate, which is mixed with starch for use as an astringent dusting-powder. Estoral Menthol boric ester B(O.C10H,9)3, a white, crystalline powder which is m...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 20
Eulatin Trade-name for anti-pyrin parabromobenzoate, a white, odourless powder for whooping-cough. Issued in 4-grain tablets. Eulaxans A combination of one molecule of phenolphthalein and two of so...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 21
Fenchyval Proprietary name for fenchyl-isovalerianic ester, an almost colourless liquid recommended as a sedative in hysteria. Feolathan Trade-name for ferro-ammonium lactate. Issued in the form of...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 22
Formaldehyde In 40-percent. solution was introduced under the name of 'Formalin' as an antiseptic. Liv. formaldehydi, B.P., is 36 to 38 per cent. A I-in-1,000 solution is used as an eye-lotion, and f...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 23
Gallicin Methyl gallate in greyish-white crystals. Resembles pyrogallol in properties, and is used in the treatment of conjunctivitis by applying to the eye as a powder, preceded by cocaine to produc...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 24
Glycobenphene An antiseptic used for wounds, eczema, etc, containing boric and benzoic acids, phenol, glycerin, and zinc oxide. Glycogenal A yellow powder prepared from glycogen. Soluble in water. ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 25
Guaiadol Para-iodo-guaiacol. A colourless and amorphous substance, soluble in alcohol but insoluble in water. Dose:3/4 grain subcutaneously, in equal parts of glycerin and water, for tuberculous aff...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 26
Helcomen Basic bismuth dibromo-oxy-naphtholate. An insoluble, odourless, yellow powder. Used as a substitute for iodoform. Helmitol is hexamethylenamine-anhydromethylene citrate, a white, crystallin...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 27
Hydropyrin Trade-name for sodium acetyl-salicylate. A white powder, soluble in water. Uses and doses as acetyl-salicylic acid. Hydroquinine Hydrochloride. A white crystalline powder. The base contai...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 28
Iodalbacid A slightly yellow powder, which contains 10 per cent. of iodine combined with albumin; soluble in water. Dose: 15 grains. Iodalbin Aniodo-proteid compound (21.5 per cent. I). Soluble in ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 29
Iodolysin A compound of 43 per cent. of thiosinamin and ethyl iodide (= I 47 per cent.). Dose of solution:30 to 60 minims, hypodermically 15 minims; also used externally as a pigment. Iodomenin Tr...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 30
Kalmopyrin Calcium acetyl-salicylate, readily soluble in water. Dose like the acid. Kamalin The bitter principle of kamala, in reddish crystals. An anthelmintic. Kelene is ethyl chloride. Kephali...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 31
Lenirobin Tetracetate of chry-sarobin, which is milder in action than chrysarobin. Soluble in acetone and chloroform. Lentocalin Tablets containing the components of the crystalline lens. Used in s...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 32
Lysoform A surgical antiseptic represented by liq. formaldehydi saponatus, B.P. Lysol A surgical-antiseptic solution represented by liq. cresol. saponatus, B.P. Malakin, or salicyl-paraphe-netidin...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 33
Hydrargyri Benzoas White crystals, easily soluble in sodium-chloride and ammonium-benzoate solutions. Dose:1/30 to 1/10 grain, in pill; subcutaneously, 15 minims of solution containing the benzoate 3...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 34
Hydrargyri Succinimidum Glistening crystals, used subcutaneously in 1 to 2 per cent. solution. Dose: 15 minims. Hydrargyri Tannas (mercurous). A greyish-green powder, insoluble in water. (It is call...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 35
Metramine A trade-name for hexamethylene-tetramine. Microcidine A whitish powder, consisting chiefly of sodium beta-naphtholate, and, in 3-per-cent. aqueous solution, recommended as an antiseptic. ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 36
Narceine One of the alkaloids of opium. Has been recommended as a hypnotic and sedative in doses of 1/2 to 2 grains (hypodermically). The hydrobromide and hydrochloride are the best salts to use, bei...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 37
Neuroton Spermo - nuclein salicylate. Marketed as sterile solutions for subcutaneous injection, as tablets, and as capsules in combination with strychnine nitrate (1/64 gr) and iron arsenate. Neutra...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 38
Ostauxin Calcium paranu-cleinate. Dose: 8 to 15 grains as a tonic. Ovaraden A brownish and tasteless powder, composed of ovarian extract, I part being equal to 2 parts of fresh ovaries. Marketed in...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 39
Pegnin A rennet compound used to prepare milk for infants and invalids. Pelletierine (Punicine) A mixture of pelletierine and iso-pelle-tierine. The salts which are used medicinally are:Hydrobromid...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 40
Phenyform A grey powder consisting of phenol and formaldehyde, used as an antiseptic dusting-powder for wounds. Phesin Sodium phenacetin sulphonate, a reddish powder, soluble in water. Dose:7 1/2 g...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 41
Propylamine An alkaline liquid [CH3(CH2)2.NH2] the salts of which are useful in chorea and hysteria. Dose: 10o to 20 grains thrice daily. The name is also erroneously given to a 10-per-cent. solution...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 42
Quietol Valeryl-oxy-butyreine hydrobromide. A crystalline powder, easily soluble in water and alcohol, which acts like a mixture of a bromide and chloral hydrate as a nerve tonic and antineuralgic. D...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 43
Salamide A pinkish, crystalline substance, obtained by the action of ammonia on methyl salicylate. Soluble in alcohol and ether, and used like the salicylates in similar doses. Salen A mixture of m...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 44
Sanoform Methyl diiodo-salicylate, a white, inodorous powder obtained by acting upon methyl salicylate with iodine. Used in place of iodoform. Santalol A pale yellow liquid, obtained from sandalwoo...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 45
Solurol Thyminic acid, a nu-clein derivative which is obtained from yeast. Used as a uric-acid solvent. Dose:4 to 8 grains in tablets. Solved A name given to a surgical antiseptic solution of creso...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 46
Substitol The trade-name for dried fibrin from horses' blood. Used as a dusting-powder or paste for wounds. Sucramin is the ammonia salt of saccharin. Sulfidal A trade-name for colloidal sulphur. ...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 47
Tannoform A red powder, which is a condensation-product of gallotannic acid and formaldehyde, and is used, per se or diluted with starch, as a dusting-powder in hyperidrosis, bromidrosis, and similar...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 48
Thiarsol A special make of colloidal arsenium trisulphide for trypanosomiasis. Thilaven A solution of linalyl acetate-thiozonide and alkali-thiozo-nate. Used for the preparation of sulphur-baths fr...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 49
Tribromo-Beta-Naphthol A brownish crystalline mass, tasteless and odourless, readily soluble in alcohol, acetone, benzol, and oils. Recommended as an antiseptic, and used as a dusting-powder or as an...
-New And Unofficial Remedies. Part 50
Ureol Hexamethylene - tetra-mine in combination with lithium and sodium benzoates, used as a diuretic and urinary antiseptic. Dose: A teaspoonful. Urethane (Ethyl Carbamide) is a white, crystalline ...
-Homoeopathic Dispensing
Whatever views may be held as to the value of homoeopathic treatment or the truth of the dictum si?nilia similibus curantur, no one can dispute that homoeopathic pharmacy is elegant. Indeed, the globu...
-Autograph Prescriptions
The capability of pharmacists to decipher illegible caligraphy is so generally known as to be almost proverbial. It is a kind of expertness which they have acquired through long practice in reading th...
-Autograph Prescriptions. Continued
The following are transcriptions of the facsimiles given on the nine preceding pages: Prescription A. This is one of the prescriptions of the late Dr. P. M. Kelty, Blackpool, and the following is the...
-Examination Prescriptions
Those who use this volume preparatory to entering for a qualifying pharmaceutical examination will find the following prescriptions useful for practice. They have been given by the Boards of Examiners...
-Examination Prescriptions. Part 2
XII Make Lin. terebinth. I Camphorae, Sulph. sublim. aa . gr. J. Ft. pil. j. Mitte xxiv. Cocainae . gr. iij. Ol. carbolici 2 % ad ...
-Examination Prescriptions. Part 3
XXI Make 1/4B.P. qty. ung. zinci oleatis. Pil. quinin. sulph. gr. v. Ferri arsenat. gr. 1/15 Ft. pil. Mitte xij. Varnish. Hydrarg. biniod. . gr.j. ...
-Examination Prescriptions. Part 4
XXXI Make syr. Eastonii Emp. belladon. 6x4. Make and spread. Boracis 3j. Zinc. oxid. . 3j. Liq. picis . 3ij. Adip. . ad Fiat unguen...
-Examination Prescriptions. Part 5
LI Send 200 c.c. of lin. terebinth. Suppos. morph. B.P. Mitte vj. Salol. . . . gr. x. Pulv. tragacanth........ . gr. v. Tr. hyoscyami....... . mxx. In...
-Ince's Dispensing Aphorisms
Read through a prescription, rapidly and in a manner suggesting no suspicion of doubt. Write directions invariably before dispensing. Avoid thus the use of blotting-paper : a good dispenser uses alm...
-Appendix. Abbreviations Used In Prescriptions
This is a dictionary comprising chiefly the Latin abbreviations used in prescriptions written by British medical practitioners. Some of them are old, and a few almost archaic; for example, fist. arm.,...
-Abbreviations Used In Prescriptions. Part 2
(2) collyrium, an eye-lotion. Color., coloretur, let it be coloured. Comp., (1) composites, compound ; (2) comprimo, to press; (3) compressus, compressed. Con., concisus, cut, sliced. Cone, v1) conce...
-Abbreviations Used In Prescriptions. Part 3
(4) herba, a herb; (5) hie, this ; (6) hora, an hour; (7) hujus, of this. H.d., hord decubitus, at bedtime, at the hour of going to bed. H.f., hujus for nice, of this shape. H.p.n., haustus purgans n...
-Abbreviations Used In Prescriptions. Part 4
P., Pharmacopoeia. See Ph.B., etc. P.a.a., parti affectce applicandus, to be applied to the affected part. P. ae., partes cequales, equal parts. P. aur., pone aurem, behind the ear. P.a, (1) post ...
-Official Abbreviations
The British Pharmacopoeia, 1914, introduced for the first time a list of abbreviations of the Latin titles of drugs and preparations therein. This has been done in the interest of international unifor...
-Foreign Prescription Terms
The following is a list of the abbreviations used in this Dictionary to indicate the languages : D. = Dutch. Fr.= French. Ger. = German. G.L. = German- Latin. I. = Italian. N. = Norwegian. P. = P...
-Foreign Prescription Terms. Part 2
Auspulung, Ger., irrigation. Aussi, Fr., also. Avaler, Fr., to take ; avale, taken. Avant le coucher, Fr., at bedtime. Ayer, S., yesterday. Azafran, S., saffron. Azahar, S., orange-flower. Azot...
-Foreign Prescription Terms. Part 3
Cucchiaio, I., spoonful. Cucchiaio da tavola, I., tablespoon-ful. Cucharada, S., spoonful. Cucharada de postre, S., dessertspoonful. Cucharada de sopa, S., soup- or table-spoonful. Cucharadita de...
-Foreign Prescription Terms. Part 4
Sie die Flasche. (Shake the bottle well.) Fliederthee, Ger., elder-flowers. Flores benzoes, G.L., benzoic acid. Floresnaphoe, G.L., orange-flowers. Flores zinci, G.L., zinc oxide. FliichtigeSalbe, 6^r...
-Foreign Prescription Terms. Part 5
Magisterium bismuthi, G.L., bismuth subnitrate. Mahlzeit, Ger., meal. (La) Main, Fr., the hand. Mais, P., more. Mai, Ger., time, portion. Auf vier Mai in halbstiindigen Zwischen-raumen zu nehmen. ...
-Foreign Prescription Terms. Part 6
Pendant l'effervescence, Fr., during effervescence. Pendant que la douleur dure, Fr., while the pain lasts. Pennellare la gola ogni giorno mezz' ora dopo colazione, I., paint the throat every day ab...
-Foreign Prescription Terms. Part 7
Schnupfen, Ger., to snuff. FUnf bis sechs Mai im Tage zu schnupfen. (To be snuffed five or six times daily.) Der Schnupfen, a cold. Schutteln, Ger., shake {see Flasche). Schwarzeswasser, Ger., black...
-Ordo Rerum. Regulations For Dispensers
The following are the regulations in force in the Dispensing Department of the Army and Navy Co-operative Society (Limited), 105 Victoria Street, London, reprinted here through the courtesy of Mr. L. ...
-Ordo Rerum. Regulations For Dispensers. Continued
To Obviate Delay In every case where an order taken down by a dispenser cannot be executed forthwith, the cause of delay is to be noted in a book kept for that purpose ; but as much of the order as c...
-Regulations For Counter Assistants
Hours From 8.30 a.m. to 7 p.m. ; Saturdays, 8.30 a.m. to 3 p.m. ; after which times extra pay commences. Assistants are requested to be at their posts by 8.50 a.m. punctually, and at closing time sha...
-Regulations For Small Pharmacies
The following are rules actually in use in several pharmacies employing one to three assistants, and they may be found more applicable than the foregoing, which are specially intended for such places ...
-Dispensing Charges
The following are the retail prices agreed upon by the Liverpool Chemists' Association, which we reproduce from the price-list compiled by the Association and published by Suttley & Silverlock, Ltd., ...
-Metric Weights And Measures
The following tables show the approximate equivalents which may be required at the dispensing-counter: . Avoirdupois Weight. Oz. Grammes 1 4 = 7.09 I ...
-Table Showing The Adult Doses In Ordinary Cases Of The Principal Medicinal Agents
For amount of liquid to be made, see top horizontal line. For parts of medicament required, see first perpendicular column. For percentage strength, see second perpendicular column. Thus, to make five...







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