Chester. I. A S. E. county of Pennsylvania, bounded S. and S. E. by Maryland and Delaware, N. E. by the Schuylkill river, W. by Octorara creek, and drained by French, Elk, and the sources of Brandy wine creeks; area, 738 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 77,805. It formed one of the three original counties of the province established by William Penn in 1682. The surface is much diversified. A rich limestone valley about 2 m. wide, extending from the Schuylkill to the Susquehanna, divides the county into two nearly equal parts, of which the southern is rolling or gently undulating, with rich deposits of chromate of iron, valuable porcelain clay, and gneiss; while the northern is rugged, and contains gneiss, sandstone, red shale, copper, and abundance of lead and iron. The N. W. boundary is formed by a low ridge called Welsh mountain. Besides the minerals above mentioned, there are silver, zinc, titanium, zircon, agate, chalcedony, amethyst, sapphire, and beryl. The valley yields excellent limestone and marble. Agriculture is carried to great perfection. The county is traversed by the Pennsylvania Central and Waynes-borough branch, the West Chester and Philadelphia, and the West Chester railroads, and by the Philadelphia and Baltimore Central railroad.

The Philadelphia and Reading railroad passes along its N. E. border. Valley Forge and Paoli, of revolutionary fame, are in this county, which also contains the birthplace of Gen. Anthony Wayne. The chief productions in 1870 were 753,803 bushels of wheat, 1,540,125 of Indian corn, 1,034,430 of oats, 404,303 of potatoes, 114,898 tons of hay, 2,848,243 lbs. of butter, and 31,770 of wool. There were 14,086 horses, 32,670 milch cows, 21,916 other cattle, 13,069 sheep, and 28,165 swine. There were 32 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 14 of brick, 5 of cotton goods, 6 of hubs and wagon material, 13 of iron, 1 of nails and spikes, 8 of iron castings, 19 of lime, 5 of machinery, 26 of paper, 10 of woollen goods, 7 wool-carding and cloth-dressing establishments, 99 flour mills, 6 tanneries, and 23 saw mills. Capital, West Chester. II. A X. county of South Carolina, bounded E. by the Catawba, and W. by Broad river; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,805, of whom 12,-513 were colored. The surface is uneven, but the soil is fertile. The Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta, and the King's Mountain railroads traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 32,210 bushels of wheat, 169,379 of Indian corn, 22,496 of oats, 13,464 of sweet potatoes, and 7,042 bales of cotton.

There were 1,292 horses, 1,781 mules and asses, 2,550 milch cows, 2,085 other cattle, 1,933 sheep, and 6,856 swine. Capital, Chesterville.

Chester #1

Chester, a city of Delaware co., Penn., situated on the Delaware river and on the Philadelphia and Wilmington railroad, 10 m. S. W. of Philadelphia; pop. in 1870, 9,485. It is the oldest town in the state, having been settled by the Swedes in 1643, and was originally called Upland. The provisional assembly was held here under the government of William Penn in 1682. It was the county seat of Chester co. until Delaware co. was organized in 1789. In 1871 there were 23 schools, of which 2 were high schools, 26 teachers, and 465 male and 464 female pupils in attendance. Three weekly newspapers are published.

Chester #2

Chester, an episcopal city, port, and parliamentary and municipal borough of England, capital of Cheshire, and a county in itself, situated on the Dee, 17 m. S. S. E. of Liverpool, and 164 m. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 35,-701. It was a Roman station called Deva or Deva Castra; was known to the Britons as Caer Lleonvawr, and by the Saxons was styled Legancester or Legecester. It stands on a high rock, nearly encompassed by the Dee, and is surrounded by walls and towers, the substructure of which is probably Roman, while the upper portion dates from the time of Edward I. These walls are in excellent preservation, and are thought to be the most perfect remains of ancient fortification in England. They are from 5 to 8 ft. thick, and on their summit is a walk with parapets, from which may be obtained extensive and beautiful views. The space which they enclose is a parallelogram, planned like the Roman camps, with a gateway in the middle of each side, and two main streets intersecting at right angles in the centre of the town. These are remarkable for being sunk far below the lowest inhabited portions of the houses, and below the footways, which are within piazzas called rows.

The latter consist of broad paved walks underneath the second floors of the houses, with balustrades in front, and shops on the inner side. There are stairways at intervals leading down to the road. The side streets run at right angles. A supply of water is obtained from the Dee. The town contains many curious wooden dwelling houses of venerable age, perhaps the most interesting of which is Stanley house, a very ancient three-gabled building, ornamented with elaborate carving. It is now occupied by the Chester archaaological society. A round tower connected with the city walls bears an inscription stating that from its summit King Charles beheld the defeat of his army on Rowton Moor in 1645. In Bridge street are a Roman liypo-caustum and sweating chamber in remarkably good preservation. The castle, originally built by Hugh Lupus, earl of Chester, and governor of the province under William the Conqueror, has been almost wholly reconstructed in modern times, and is now used as the shire hall, county jail, armory, and barracks. Near the castle a handsome stone bridge crosses the Dee with a single arch of 200 ft. span. The Chester and Holyhead railway, which has here one of the largest stations in the kingdom, also crosses the Dee on an iron girder bridge.

The cathedral, originally the abbey of St. Werburgh, built for the Benedictines in 1095 by Hugh Lupus, assisted by St. Anselm, is a remarkable Gothic structure, full of interesting memorials. There are 11 other churches, 9 of which are parochial, the most important being St, John's collegiate church, once considered the cathedral. It is a very ancient building, and was mentioned in the Domesday survey. It was formerly partly in ruins, but has been thoroughly restored. The restoration was commenced in 1868, and the completion was celebrated in January, 1872. The arches and piers of the nave are probably Norman; the choir has been rebuilt, and the transepts were entirely destroyed at the reformation. The Roman Catholics and dissenters have a number of places of worship. There is a grammar school, founded in the time of Henry VIII., and called the king's school, under the direction of the dean and chapter of the cathedral. Among the other institutions are a normal college, many charity schools, an infirmary, house of industry, almshouses, linen hall, exchange, union hall, and commercial hall, mechanics' institute and museum, a government school of art, library, savings bank, theatre, and public baths.

There are three public parks and a cemetery in the environs, and not far distant are Saighton Grange, a curious manor house once belonging to the abbey of St. Werburgh, and Eaton hall, the seat of the marquis of Westminster. Famous races have been held here from a remote date. Fairs for the sale of cheese take place monthly, other fairs three times a year, and markets twice a week. Ship building, formerly on the decline, has been revived by judicious improvements in the river Dee. The manufactures include rope and sail making, paint, shot, lead pipe, whips, thread, gloyes, and tobacco. The shipping trade is almost exclusively coastwise. The exports are cheese, lead, calamine, copper plates, cast iron, and coal; the imports, butter, provisions, hides, tallow, timber, iron, hemp, hops, wine, and oil. Chester is connected by the Ellesmere canal with Liverpool, and by railway with Liverpool, Holyhead, Shrewsbury, and Crewe. Recently various alterations and improvements have been made in the town; many new buildings have been erected, including a town hall at a cost of $100,000, a market hall, two extensive hotels, and several chapels.

Chester gives the title of earl to the prince of Wales, and sends two members to the house of commons. - In 1858 was published in London, "The Mediaeval Architecture of Chester," by J. II. Parker.

Watergate Row, Chester.

Watergate Row, Chester.

Stanley House, Chester.

Stanley House, Chester.