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Fermented Alcoholic Beverages, Malt Liquors, Wine, And Cider | by C. A. Crampton



Technical details about Cider, Wine and Malt Liquors Production

TitleFermented Alcoholic Beverages, Malt Liquors, Wine, And Cider
AuthorC. A. Crampton
PublisherWashington: Government Printing Office
Year1887
Copyright1887, Washington: Government Printing Office
AmazonFermented Beverage Production, Second Edition

By C. A. Crampton, Assistant Chemist.

Washington: Government Printing Office.

1887.

[Bulletin No. 13.]

Part 3 - Fermented Alcoholic Beverages.

Letter Of Transmittal.

U. S. Department of Agriculture,

Washington, D. C., August 15, 1887. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith that portion of the work on food adulteration which has been under my charge.

I take this opportunity for acknowledging my indebtedness to the following gentlemen, Messrs. Trescot, Fake, Lengfeld, and Dugan - my fellow assistants in the division - by whom a large part of the analytical work was performed. Respectfully,

C. A. Crampton,

Assistant Chemist. Dr. H. W. Wiley,

Chief Chemist. 4450 - No. 13, pt. 3----1

-Part I. Malt Liquors
The production of malt liquors in this country as an industry is second only in importance to the production of breadstuffs. Their consumption is steadily on the increase, as is also the amount consum...
-The Process Of Brewing
Brewing, or the art of preparing an alcoholic drink from starchy grains by fermentation, is of very ancient origin. It was practiced by the Egyptians, and the Greeks and Romans learned the art from th...
-Malting
The object of this operation is the germination of the grain, and the consequent formation of the ferment diastase, which shall subsequently, under the proper conditions, perform its specific function...
-Brewing
Brewing proper includes a number of distinct operations, such as grinding and mashing the malt, boiling and cooling the wort or infusion, fermenting it, and clearing and racking the beer. In the proce...
-Fermentation
After the wort has been boiled with hops it is cooled as rapidly as possible, to prevent the formation of acid, usually effected by means of artificial refrigerating apparatus; it is then ready for th...
-Pure Yeast
The production of pure yeast for brewing purposes has been put on a practical basis of late years through the scientific researches of Dr. B. C. Hansen, of the Carlsberg Institute, in Copenhagen. He s...
-Belgian Beers
The method of brewing pursued in Belgium would seem the most unscientific known, still the Belgium beers are largely consumed in Europe. No yeast whatever is used, tut the wort is left to ferment of i...
-Clarifying, Storing, And Preserving Malt Liquors
The treatment of malt liquors after the process of fermentation is complete is very diverse, according to the kind of liquors it is intended to produce, the length of time it is to be kept, etc. The p...
-Composition Of Malt Liquors
The composition of malt liquors varies greatly according to the materials used, the method of brewing, the season, and the use for which it is intended. Malt liquors, properly so called, should be ma...
-Malt Liquor Varieties
The names given to different kinds of malt liquors relate to various attributes, as the country where they were produced, as English, German, Bavarian beer, etc, or to the peculiarities in the method ...
-Composition Of American Beer
But very little work has bean done on American beers; they seem to have shared with other dietary articles the general indifference of the American public to the composition of their food and drink. ...
-Analyses Of Beers By The United States Department Of Agriculture
The analyses made by this Department comprise 32 samples, this being about all the different brands and varieties of beers of domestic manufacture obtainable in Washington. The investigation was made ...
-Estimation Of Alcohol In Beers And Wines
The estimation of alcohol in beers and wines is generally made in one of two ways, either by direct distillation and determining the alcohol in the distillate, or, indirectly, by evaporating the alcoh...
-Beer Extract Or Total Solids
This can also be obtained either directly, by weighing or measuring a sample into an open dish, driving off the moisture at 100 0. until a constant weight is obtained, or indirectly, by calculati...
-Original Gravity
The 'original gravity of beer is the specific gravity of the wort from which it was made, before fermentation. This is ascertained by computation from data given by the alcoholic content and the mal...
-Saccharine Matter
The saccharine matter in beer consists principally of maltose and dextrin, with probably a small proportion of dextrose. The greater part of the entire extract is composed of these different carbohydr...
-Albuminoid Matters
The albuminoids were determined by weighing 10 grams of the beer into a schalchen, evaporating to dryness, and burning with soda lime in the usual way. The nitrogen found x G.25 is given as the percen...
-Free Acids
The ideas of chemists in regard to the nature of the acidity of normal beer have undergone considerable change in the last two or three years. It was formerly considered to be principally due to the p...
-Ash
The ash may best be determined by burning the residue from 100 cc. of beer at a very low red heat in a muffle. The ash obtained should be subjected to a qualitative examination, with a view to ascerta...
-Glycerine
The estimation of glycerine is a troublesome and unsatisfactory determination to make, and as the information obtained in the case of beer is not sufficient to repay the labor of the analysis, except ...
-Phosphoric Acid
The phosphoric acid was determined by means of a standard solution of uranium acetate, except in the case of a few very dark-colored samples, when the analysis was made gravimetrically from the ash by...
-Carbonic Acid
Most investigators have given very little attention to the determination of the carbonic acid in beer, regarding it as of little importance in forming an estimate of the quality of the sample examined...
-Detection Of Adulteration
Probably there is no one article of daily consumption that has been so often subject to suspicion of adulteration or sophistication as beer. Its complex composition and peculiar nature have deceived p...
-Substitutes For Malt
A great deal has been said, pro and con, on the subject of the propriety of the use of other matter than malted barley as a source of saccharine material for brewing purposes. There may be said to be ...
-Substitutes For Hops
The nature of the bitters used in beer has long been the target towards which public suspicion is directed, and nearly every substance known possessing a bitter taste has been enumerated among the adu...
-Preserving Agents
We come now to what I consider the most important sophistication of beer at the present day and the most reprehensible and most deserving of repressive legislation. The use of artificial preserving ag...
-Salicylic Acid
Salicylic acid (C7H6O3) was first prepared by Piria and Ettling by oxidizing salicyl aldehyd, which had previously been obtained from various vegetable sources. It was afterwards obtained from oil of ...
-Use As A Preservative in Malt Liquor
The salicylic-acid question, as it is called, has received a great deal of attention for several years in Europe, and much has been written, pro and con, on the question of the propriety of its use ...
-Use As A Preservative in Malt Liquor. Continued
Recent information in regard to the status of the question in France, together with a very strong argument in favor of prohibiting entirely the use of this preserving agent, may be found in the follow...
-Salicylic Acid In Samples Examined By This Division
Out of thirty two samples analyzed by this Division I found seven to contain salicylic acid in sufficient quantities to admit of qualitative proof, or nearly one fourth of the entire number analyzed. ...
-Detection And Estimation Of Salicylic Acid
Fortunately we have a particularly delicate and characteristic test for this substance, by means of which its presence can be detected in the minute quantity of 1 part to 100,000. This is the well-kno...
-Quantitative Estimation
While he qualitative determination of salicylic acid is so delicate and easy of execution, the quantitative estimation is unfortunately a tedious and unsatisfactory operation, in the small quantities ...
-Sulphites
The use of sulphurous acid as a preservative agent in beer and wine, either in the form of soluble sulphites, liquid sulphite of lime, or sulphur fumes, is not at all recent. It is one of the oldest p...
-Borax
This agent, although used very extensively in preserving meats, vegetables, and canned goods, does not seem to have been applied to malt liquors to any great extent, although it has been found in wine...
-Mineral Additions
The preserve of lead, copper, or zinc, sometimes observed in malt liquors, is due usually to the use of brass faucets or lead pipes by the retailer in drawing off the liquor or in filling bottles. The...
-Bicarbonate Of Soda
This salt is added to beer for the purpose either of correcting an undue acidity of the beer, resulting from improper brewing, or of imparting to it an increased head, or content of carbonic-acid ga...
-Bicarbonate Of Soda. Continued
Detection The detection of the addition of very small quantities of bicarbonate of soda to beer is by no means an easy matter when the constant pres. ence of soda salts in beer ash is considered, and...
-Salt
A variable quantity of chloride of sodium is a normal constituent of all beers, being derived principally from the water used in the brewing. Even a slight further addition of salt might be deemed adm...
-Cloudy Beer
Cloudiness in beer is sometimes due to the separating out of albuminous matter from changes in temperature, but usually to the presence of yeast, the fermentation not having been complete. This condit...
-Part II. Wines
The statistics in regard to the consumption and production of wines can be observed by referring to the table given under malt liquors (page 267), where it will be seen that in the year 1886, 22,067,2...
-Wine Production Of The World
Average production of wine in the principal wine-growing countries of the world. [Estimate by M. Tissorand in 1884, taken from Journal of the Statistical Society, London, 1885.] Countries. Pr...
-Preparation Of Wine
The growing of grapes for wine and the proper treatment of the juice for its conversion into wine have formed the subject of numerous treatises, that branch of technology having received a great deal ...
-Methods For "Improving" Wine
In France and Germany several methods are in use for increasing the yield of wine or improving its quality. These are especially resorted to in unfavorable seasons, when the want of sufficient sun pre...
-Preservation Of Wine
The method par excellence for the preservation of wines is Pasteurization, already alluded to in this report on malt liquors. The temperature employed is from 50 to 65 C, and serves to compl...
-Wine Varieties
The different kinds of wines sold can be numbered by the hundreds. They refer usually either to the country where it is produced, or of whose product it is an imitation, as Port, Sherry, Hochheimer, M...
-Composition Of Wine
In countries where the production of wine is one of the leading industries, like France and parts of Germany, the composition of the wines made is very well established. Scarcely any article of consum...
-Composition Of American Wines
The earliest analyses of American wines on record were made by Merrick,1 in 1875, comprising six varieties of California wines. In October of the same year Mallet and Cooper2 published analyses of tw...
-Methods Of Wine Analysis
The methods of analysis used in the present investigation of wines can be conveniently arranged under two heads: First, those designed for the establishment of the composition of the sample examined; ...
-Alcohol
The estimation of the alcohol can be made in the same manner as in beer, with a few precautions. Thus, in the distillation method it is better to neutralize the sample taken with carbonate of soda, or...
-Extract Or Total Solids
The determination of the extract in wine presents the same difficulties as with beer on account of the content of glycerine, which is greater in the former than the latter. For this reason the indirec...
-Wine Acidity
The total acidity of wines may be determined by titration with N/5 or N/10 alkali. The end reaction may be observed by means of a drop brought into contact with delicate litmus paper, which, while no...
-Bitartrate Of Potash
The German Commission gives two methods, as follows : In two stoppered flasks two samples of 20cc. of wine each are treated with 200cc. ether-alcohol (equal volumes), after adding to one flask 2-3 dr...
-Saccharine Matter in Wines
For the estimation of the saccharine matter use was made of the Department method of employing Fehling's solution, already referred to under malt liquors. The Germans usually employ the gravimetric es...
-Glycerine in Wines
The estimation of glycerine in wines, if it could be made with exactness, would be a very important one, as the glycerine is produced by the fermentation of the sugar, and the quantity formed is presu...
-Glycerine in Wines. Continued
Benedikt and Zsigmondy1 published in 1885 a method for the estimation of glycerine by its oxidation to oxalic acid by permanganate of potash, precipitating the oxalic acid with calcium acetate, and de...
-Tannin
The estimation of tannin in wines, where considerable accuracy is required, may be made by the permanganate and indigo method, which has been so much discussed and modified in chemical literature. The...
-Wine Analyses Made By The Department Of Agriculture
In the work on wines during the present investigation, 70 samples, purchased in the market of Washington, were examined. Inasmuch as the analyses made in 1880 included so many samples, and represented...
-The Adulteration Of Wines
The adulteration of wine has been practiced from a very early date in those countries where the consumption is large. It has increased in amount and in the skillfulness of its practitioners until at t...
-The Adulteration Of Wines. Part 2
The determination of the sulphuric acid can bo made directly by precipitation of the wine with barium chloride, but is much more conveniently and rapidly carried out as follows : Take 14 grams of pur...
-The Adulteration Of Wines. Part 3
To 20 or 30cc. of wine is added precipitated and finely powdered bitartrate of potash, the whole well shaken and filtered after standing an hour. To the clear solution is added 2 or 3 drops of a 20 pe...
-Examination For Adulteration Of The Wines Analyzed By The Department
In the absence of any welldefined national standard as to what shall constitute a pure wine in the United States, or definitions and limitations as to the nature of the liquids which can lawfully be s...
-The Dilution Or Watering Of Wine
It would seem natural that in American wines, which can be produced so cheaply and in such great abundance, this adulteration, which is such a favorite one with the manufacturers of the costly wines o...
-Wine Plastering
American wines would seem to be quite free from this form of adulteration. Baumert found no undue excess of sulphates in the samples he examined, but refers to a sample analyzed by Stutzer, which cont...
-Wine Fortification
It is evident that the German standard of 100 parts of alcohol by weight to 7. of glycerine, which is relied upon as a means of detecting the addition of alcohol, cannot he applied to American wines. ...
-Wine Preservatives
Especial attention has been given in the present investigation to the use of improper preserving agents in fermented drinks. It was thought that such agents were much used; so a considerable number of...
-Artificial Wines
No test for free tartaric acid was obtained with any of the samples, which would seem to indicate that none of the Mines were artificial wines, in the make-up of which free tartaric acid is very apt t...
-Sweet Wines
It would seem advisable to call attention to the very variable character of these wines as shown by the analyses. Considering the extensive use that is made of such wines for medicinal purposes, it is...
-Part III. Cider
Cider is the fermented juice of the apple. It is an article of very general use, especially in those parts of the country where fruitgrowing is carried on. Statistics of the amount produced or consume...
-Manufacture Of Cider
In the numerous sections of the United States where apples are grown in large quantities the manufacture of cider furnishes a most important means for the utilization of such fruit as is unfit for mar...
-Composition Of Cider
The amount of chemical work done on cider is not nearly so great as has been done on wine. In fact the published analyses of cider are very few and are confined almost entirely to other countries. I h...
-Analyses Of Cider Samples By The Department Of Agriculture
Various conditions rendered it impossible to extend the investigation of ciders to a very large number of samples. It is hoped that an opportunity for a more extended study will present itself in the ...
-Adulteration Of Cider
Cider is very little subject to adulteration according to most of the authorities on foods. Even Hassall, who generally enumerates under each article of food a list of every conceivable adulteration t...
-Appendix A. Substitutes For Hops And Malt In Beer Brewing
Since the portion of this bulletin relating to malt liquors was written, a bill has been introduced into the British Parliament dealing with the question of the use of substitutes for hops and malt in...
-An Improved Method Of Detecting Quassia And Certain Other Hop Substitutes In Beer
[Read at the meeting in May, 18-7.] Hitherto the detection of hop substitutes in beer has had for English analysts little more than an academic interest. There has been no definition of beer, nor sta...
-Detecting Quassia And Certain Other Hop Substitutes In Beer. Part 2
The treatment with lead acetate removes all tannin, phosphates, etc, and the hopresin and lupulin are also completely precipitated, while all or nearly all hop substitutes remain in solution. The nex...
-Detecting Quassia And Certain Other Hop Substitutes In Beer. Part 3
Quassiin gives a brown coloration with ferric chloride. The reaction is best observed by moistening a quassiin residue in porcelain with a few drops of a weak alcoholic solution of ferric chloride, an...
-Detecting Quassia And Certain Other Hop Substitutes In Beer. Part 4
Dr. Muter said that, with regard to the question of the detection of bitters in beer, he would say at once that he did not quite share the president's views as to there being no difficulty in detectin...
-Appendix B. Wine Analysis
As frequent references have been made in the body of the Bulletin to methods of analyses and manner of judging adapted by European chemist for beer and wine, I have thought it proper to give some of t...
-Appendix B. Wine Analysis. Part 2
Volatile Acids Those are to bo estimated by distillation in a current of steam, and not indirectly, and reported as acetic acid (C2H2O2). The amount of the fixed acids is found by subtracting from ...
-Appendix B. Wine Analysis. Part 3
(1) With white wines: 60cc. of wine are treated with 3cc. acetate of lead solution in a graduated cylinder, and the precipitate filtered off. To 30cc. of the filtrate is added 1.5cc. of a saturated so...
-Appendix B. Wine Analysis. Part 4
The other mineral constituents of wine (also alum) are to be determined in the ash or residue of incineration. Sulphurous Acid One hundred cubic centimeters wine are distilled in a current of carbon...
-Appendix B. Wine Analysis. Part 5
The methods adopted by the Union of Bavarian Chemists differ considerably from the above in many particulars, so they are given also, together with the methods adopted by the same body for the exami...
-Methods Of Judging Wine Purity - (Beurtheilung)
Part I I. Commercial wines may be defined as follows : (a) The product obtained by the fermentation of grape juice with or without grape skins and stems. (b) The product obtained by the fermentation ...
-Appendix C. Legislation Directed Specifically Against The Adulteration Of Any Form Of Fermented Liquors
The following bill, recently adopted in New York, constitutes the only instance I have been able to find of legislation directed specifically against the adulteration of any form of fermented liquors ...







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