School Brothers And School Sisters, the collective name of numerous associations in the Roman Catholic church, devoted to the education of youth. The first of these associations, the Ursulines, arose in 1537 at Brescia, under the direction of the first Jesuits; the "Sisters of the Congregation of Our Lady" were founded in 1597 by Pierre Fourier; the "Piarists" or "Fathers of the Pious Schools," in the same year; the "Visitation Nuns" in 1610; and the "Brothers of the Christian Schools" in 1679. In 1863 there were in France 58,883 members of sisterhoods employed in teaching, and 3,073 more directing orphan asylums and agricultural or industrial schools, while the total number of school brothers in the same year was upward of 9,000.

I. School Brothers

Under this name we treat solely of those congregations whose members are not priests, the "Fathers of the Pious Schools" being treated under Piarists. The following are the most important school brotherhoods: 1. The "Brethren of the Christian Schools," founded in 1679 by Jean Baptiste de la Salle. (See Brethren of the Chris-tian Schools.) 2. The "Christian Brothers," founded by the Rev. E. Rice at Waterford. Ireland, with their central house and superior general in Dublin, and numerous establishments in Great Britain, Ireland, and the British colonies. 3. The "Brothers Marists" or "Christian Brothers of the Society of Mary," founded at Bordeaux, France, in 1817, by Abbé Guil-laume Joseph Cheminade, approved by Pope Gregory XVI. in 1839, introduced into the United States in 1849 by Archbishop Purcell of Cincinnati, and having in 1874 23 establishments in Ohio, Illinois, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Louisiana, and Texas. 4. The "Lamennaisian Brothers" or "Congregation of Christian Instruction," founded in Brittany in 1820, by Abbé Jean de Lamennais, whose purpose is to teach in the poorest localities.

In 1875 they reckoned about 800 members and 150 establishments in France. 5. The "Brothers of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary," founded in 1821 at Le Puy, France, by Abbé Coindrin. They opened their first house in the United States at Mobile in 1847, and in 1874 had other establishments in Mississippi, New Orleans, Kentucky, and Indiana. 6. The "Xaverian Brothers," founded at Bruges, Belgium, in 1839, by Théodore Jacques Ryken, with a special view to labor for education in the United States. They were first introduced into Louisville in 1854 by Bishop (afterward Archbishop) Spalding, and in 1875 had charge of six schools there, of one in Baltimore, and of the St. Mary's industrial school for boys near that city. 7. The "Brothers of Charity," founded in 1809, in Belgium, by Canon P. Triest, for the education of the blind and deaf mutes, and the training of orphans. In January, 1874, they took charge of the industrial school of the Angel Guardian in Boston, Mass. Besides these, there are in the United States and Canada congregations of men forming an integral portion of religious orders comprising priests.

Such are the "Josephites" or "Brothers of St. Joseph," who are only a branch of the congregation of the Holy Cross, founded in 1834 at Le Mans, France, by Abbé Mo-reau, the various communities of Franciscan brothers belonging to the third order of St. Francis, and dependent on the Franciscan priests, and the "Clerks of Saint Viateur."

II. School Sisters

Of these congregations the most important are the following: 1. The Ursulines. (See Ursulines.) 2. The "Sisters of the Visitation of Our Lady," founded in 1610 at Annecy in Savoy, by St. Francis of Sales and St. Jeanne Françoise de Chan-tal. The order numbered 87 establishments at the death of the latter in 1641, and 160 in 1700, with 6,600 members. It was approved by Pope Urban VIII. in 1626. The first establishment in the United States was made in Washington in 1808, and the order has now (1875) other monasteries and schools in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, New York, Delaware, and Minnesota. 3. The "Sisters of Notre Dame," or "School Sisters of the Blessed Peter Fourier," founded by him and Alice Leclerc at Mataincourt, France, in 1597, abolished in 1789, revived at Ratisbon in 1832, confirmed by Pope Pius IX. in 1854, and first introduced into the United States in 1847. In 1875 they had establishments in Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Kentucky, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota. 4. The "Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur," founded at Amiens, France, in 1804, by Pére Joseph Désiré Varin, Julie Billiart, and Marie Louise Françoise Blin de Bourdon, and transferred to Namur, Belgium, in 1809. Its object is to educate girls of the middle classes, and it was approved June 28, 1844, by Pope Gregory XVI. It spread rapidly through Belgium, France, Great Britain, and Ireland. The English government intrusted to the order the direction of normal schools for Roman Catholic pupil-teachers. They were called to Cincinnati in 1840 by Bishop (afterward Archbishop) Purcell, to Oregon by Archbishop Blan-chet in 1843, to California in 1851, and to Guatemala in 1859. In 1871 this sisterhood owned 82 establishments, of which 20 were in the United States, with a total of 26,000 pupils. 5. The "Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame," founded at Montreal, Canada, in 1653, by Marguerite Bourgeoys, and approved by Bishop de Laval of Quebec, and now the most numerous teaching body in Canada. The mother house is at Montreal. At the close of 1874 the order numbered 569 professed sisters and 88 novices, with 56 establishments in Canada and the United States. 6. "Ladies of the Sacred Heart." (See Sacred Heart, Ladies of the.) The preceding congregations have for their primary object the instruction of young girls.

Others combine with the labor of teaching the care of orphan asylums, the visitation of the sick and poor, and the direction of hospitals. Such are: 1. The "Ladies of the Incarnate Word," founded in 1625 by Jeanne Marie Chézard de Matel, and approved by Urban VIII. in 1633. Their sole object at first was education; they assumed the direction of hospitals in 1866. They have many establishments in France, and eight in Texas. 2. The "Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ," founded Aug. 15, 1849, at Dernbach, Nassau, by Katharine Kaspar, approved by Pius IX. in 1860, and confirmed in 1870. Their first establishment in this country was at Fort Wayne, Ind., in August, 1868. They numbered 45 sisters and five houses in 1875. 3. The " Sisters of Our Lady of Charity," or "Eudist Sisters," founded in 1641 at Caen in Normandy, by Abbé Jean Eudes. In 1835 a modification of the rule enabling them to take charge of penitent women was introduced at Angers, the establishment there becoming known as the "House of the Good Shepherd." The change was approved by Pope Gregory XVI., and the order thereafter was called the "Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd." They have numerous establishments in Europe, came to the United States in 1842, and have opened houses in the principal cities of the Union and in Canada. 4. The "Presentation Nuns," founded at Cork, Ireland, in 1777, by Miss Nano Nagle, for the visitation of the sick and poor and the instruction of poor children.

They have since forborne from visiting the sick, and become strictly cloistered. Their rules were approved by Pius VII. in 1805. Their first establishment in America was at St. John's, Newfoundland, and the first in the United States was made in New York city, Sept. 8, 1874. 5. The "Sisters of Mercy." (See Mercy, Sisters of.) 6. The "Sisters of Charity." (See Charity, Sisters of.) 7. The "Gray Nuns" or "Sisters of Charity of Montreal," founded there in 1745 by Mme. d'Youville, and trained to take charge of hospitals, asylums, and schools. The 24 houses dependent on Montreal in 1875 numbered 225 professed nuns and 51 novices, laboring in Canada and the United States. The houses dependent on the central establishment in Quebec numbered 107 sisters. 8. The " Sisters of St. Joseph." There are several congregations bearing this name. The principal one was founded at Le Puy, France, in 1650, by Abbé Jean Pierre Médaille, and introduced into the United States by Bishop Rosati of St. Louis in 1836. In 1875 they had establishments in the principal eastern and western states. Besides these, several less numerous congregations have originated in America, which are chiefly de-voted to education.

Among them are: the "Sisters of Charity of Nazareth," founded in 1812 in Kentucky, by Bishop David; the "Sisters of Loreto," founded in Kentucky in 1812, by the Rev. Charles Nerinckx, and now having establishments in nearly all the western states; the colored "Oblate Sisters of Providence," founded at Baltimore in 1825 by the Rev. H. Joubert, approved by Pius VIII. in 1831, and now increasing in numbers in consequence of the mission to the blacks intrusted to the missionary society of St. Joseph, under the guidance of the Oblates of St. Charles (see Oblates of St. Charles); and the "Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin," founded at Philadelphia by the Rev. T. C. Donaghoe, and removed afterward to Iowa, where they have several establishments. In Canada there are the " Sisters of St. Anne," founded at Vau-dreuil near Montreal in 1848, by the Right Rev. Ignace Bourget, bishop of that city, approved by Pius IX. in 1860, and introduced into Oswego, N. Y., in 1866; they are exclusively school sisters.