Berlix, the capital of Prussia and of the German empire, in the province of Brandenburg, in lat. 52° 30' N, lon. 13° 24' E., on the Spree, an affluent of the Elbe, 330 m. N. N. W. of Vienna; pop. in 1871, 825,389; in 1867, 702,437, of whom 42,420 were Roman Catholics and 27,607 Jews. In the latter year there were 33,963 buildings, of which 700 were public. The city stands on a dreary plain of sand, on a deep and still growing deposit of infusoria, 130 feet above the level of the sea. The walls, now partly torn down, are about 12 m. in circuit and pierced with numerous gates, of which the Brandenburg gate is the most celebrated, its architecture being modelled after that of the Propylasa in the acropolis of Athens. The city comprises the two former towns of Berlin and Kolln, and was in 1872 divided into 16 precincts, viz.: Old Berlin, Old and New Kolln (on an island of the Spree), Luisenstadt (on the left bank), Friedrichsstadt, Friedrichs-werder, Dorotheenstadt, Friedrich-Wilhelm-stadt, Spandauer Revier and Stralauer Vier-tel, Konigsstadt, and the suburbs of Wedding (Oranienburger Vorstadt), Moabit (Voigtland), Aeussere Friedrichsstadt, Aeusseres Spandauer Revier, Schoneberger Revier, and Tempelhofer Revier. The villas S. W. of Charlottenburg near the chateau of Grunewald, partly built and partly in course of construction, are called the West-end; and Charlottenburg promises to become part of Berlin, the city being constantly extended westward, while its central part is intended to be in future for Berlin what the City is for the British metropolis. - With the exception of the most ancient districts, Berlin is remarkable for the general beauty of its streets and buildings.

The excessive regularity and capaciousness of many streets, and the multiplicity of palatial buildings and institutions, produce a grand though rather monotonous impression. Unter den Linden, however, is a lively, imposing, and elegant thoroughfare, full of palaces and fine mansions, inferior to the boulevards of Paris in brilliancy, but superior to the Regent street of London in stateliness and in the fine appearance of the trees from which the street derives its name. This is the fashionable city promenade. The Friedrichsstrasse is the longest, the Leipziger Strasse the most animated; the Konigsstrasse, in the centre of the city, the most crowded business street; the Wilhelmsstrasse contains many palaces and public buildings; the Luisenstrasse has numerous elegant mansions; and in the Oranienburger Strasse resided Alexander von Humboldt. Prominent among the newer streets are those stretching from the Potsdam gate to the Thier-garten. The aggregate length of all the streets of Berlin is over 160 m. The largest square is the Gensdarmenmarkt in the Friedrichsstadt, with the principal theatre and two churches.

Other fine squares are the Lustgarten and the Schlossplatz, divided by the royal palace; the Wilhelms, Opernhaus, Donhofs, Alexander, and Pariser squares (the last named at the Potsdam gate), and the Belle-Alliance platz at the Halle gate, with the Friedensdenk-nial or Peace monument. There are over 40 bridges, of which the most remarkable are the Schloss, Kurfursten, Friedrichs, Mar-schalls, and Konigs bridges. There are over 60 places of worship. The oldest is the Niko-laikirche, dating from the beginning, and the Marienkirche and Klosterkirche, from the close of the 13th century; the last named was restored in 1844. The most recent are the Petri (1846-'54), Markus (1848-'55), Andreas (1854-'fl), Bartholounius (1854-'8), and the new Doro-theenstfidtisohe (18(51-3) churches. The most celebrated for their architecture are the Roman Catholic Hedvvigskirche, in the rear of the opera house, opened in 1773, and built alter the Pantheon in Rome; the Werder'sche Kirche, a Gothic building, designed by Schin-kel (1824-'30); and the Roman Catholic Michaeliskirche, near Bethanien. This last, built in 1856 after a design by Soller, in the Ro-maresque style, is the finest in Berlin. Other renowned religious buildings are the temple of the Jewish reformers in the Johannesstrasse, built in 1855 after designs by Stiller, and the new synagogue in the Oranienburger Strasse, erected by Knoblauch in the oriental style.

The old royal palace contains 600 halls and apartments, including a picture gallery and a famous chapel. The cupolas were completed in 1854. Two bronze groups representing "The Horse Tamers " adorn the chief entrance. The palace now occupied by the emperor and empress is nearly opposite the university. The palace of the crown prince was restored in 1857. The royal palace of Bellevue, with fine modern German paintings, is about one mile beyond the Brandenburg gate. The Konigs-wache, in the form of a Roman castrum, built by Schinkel in 1818, the new observatory, the military schools, the ministries of war and of commerce, and especially the arsenal with vast collections of trophies of war and arms, are all conspicuous edifices. The new town hall was completed in 1871. The most celebrated public building designed by Schinkel is the old museum, opposite the Lustgarten, built on thousands of piles, on a spot once covered by a branch of the Spree. Under the porticos, the principal of which is formed by 18 Ionic columns, are statues of Ranch, Schinkel, Winekel-mann, and Schadow. At the right side of the staircase is the famous bronze group by Kiss representing the fight of an Amazon with a tiger; on the left that of a horseman with a lion, by A. Wolff. On the walls of the colonnade are frescoes from the designs of Schinkel, executed under the direction of Cornelius. On the ground floor is the antiqua-rium, with antique vases, bronzes, gems, coins, and mediaeval relics.

On the first floor is the sculpture gallery, with the "Boy Praying" among its finest antiques, and Canova's "Hebe " among the best modern works. The picture gallery on the upper floor, though inferior to the collections in Dresden and Munich, contains many fine paintings. This gallery is divided into 37 compartments. Among its most renowned pictures are those by Correg-gio of "Leda and the Swan" and "Io and the Cloud; "Titian's portrait of his daughter La-vinia; Murillo's "St. Anthony of Padua embracing the Infant Christ;" and Nicolas Pous-sin's "Landscape, with the Story of Juno and Argus." In the rear of the old museum, and connected with it by an arched passage, is the new museum designed by Stiller, with gorgeous internal decorations. On the ground floor are the northern, and on the right side of the great staircase the Egyptian antiquities. The former include an extensive ethnological collection, with relics of almost all civilized and barbarous nations; and the latter, comprising the Egyptological collection of Lepsius, is arranged in its inner court after the model of an Egyptian temple, the entrance, with 16 large colored pillars, being an imitation of the temple of Karnak, and the chamber of tombs of part of the necropolis of Memphis. The extent of this Egyptological collection is as remarkable as its admirable arrangement.

In the centre of the new building is a lofty hall decorated with paintings by pupils of Kaulbach after that artist's designs. On the first floor are casts of statuary from the earliest Greek masters down to Thorwaldsen. Half of the upper floor is occupied by the cabinet of drawings and engravings, including the original outline for the cathedral of Cologne; and the other half is used for the chamber of art (Kunstkammer), with historical and other art collections, chronologically arranged. It is especially rich in national relics, and also contains works by Albert Diirer, an ivory crucifix ascribed to Michel Angelo, and many fine old ivories, enamelled reliquaries, and curious minerals. The royal theatre (Konigliches Schauspielhaus), for the performance of German and French plays, situated between two churches on the Gendarmes square, has the stage on the second floor and a concert room accommodating over 1,200 persons; it was built by Schinkel in 1819, and is decorated with mythological statuary by Rauch and Tieck. the subscription balls which take place here in winter are great events for the fashionable world.

The Italian opera house, rebuilt since 1845 after the destruction of the old building by fire, holds about 2,000 persons, and is a splendid structure near the Linden. The Wallner theatre is popular among the educated classes for burlesque and farces; and the Friedrich-Wil-helmstadtisches theatre, for low comedy, has less select audiences. The architectural academy (Bcmschule), south of the Schlossbriicke, is one of the most striking and original mas-terworks of Schinkel, and contains some of that artist's paintings and statuary. The academy of fine arts, in the Linden, is the seat of the new national gallery of paintings and of annual exhibitions of modern paintings. Count Raczynski's gallery, on the Exercierplatz, outside the Brandenburg gate, contains many fine modern German paintings; and in the Ravene cabinet, in the Neue Grunstrasse, is an excellent small collection of both French and German modern works. The academy of music is famous for annual concerts given in the Grecian wing of the building, and especially for the performance of sacred vocal music. - The Thier-garten, extending from the Brandenburg gate almost to Charlottenburg, is a fine park with delightful pleasure grounds, and a celebrated place of recreation. Among the other most popular resorts are Kroll's gardens.

Similar establishments are the Odeon, the Hofjager, the Moritzhof, and Albrechtshof, S. of the Potsdam gate. N. E. of the city is the new Friedrichshain. All these and many other establishments are famous for their music and sociability. The less prosperous classes frequent the Hasenheide on the south and Mo-abit on the west of Berlin. On the one hundredth anniversary of Alexander von Humboldt's birth, Sept. 14, 1869, the corner stone of a monument to his memory was laid in a new park in the suburbs of the city, to be called "Humboldt Grove." On the left of the New Park, outside the King's gate, is one of the most beautiful cemeteries. Among the others are the old Dorotheenstadt, with the graves of Fichte and Hegel; the old Dreifal-tigkeits-Kirchhof, with that of Mendelssohn-Bartholdy; the new Dreifaltigkeits-Kirchhof, with those of Schleiermacher, Neander, Lud-wick Tieck, and Varnhagen von Ense; and the Invaliden-Kirchhof, where Scharnhorst and other military men are buried. Berlin abounds with monuments in honor of Prussian kings and soldiers. The most celebrated of them is the equestrian bronze statue of Frederick the Great, by Rauch, on a granite pedestal 25 feet high, erected in 1851 in the Linden opposite the university.

The Friedensdenkmal, by Rauch, is near the Halle gate; and the Volks-denkmal or People's monument is beyond that gate on the Kreuzberg, so called from a Gothic cross of cast iron on its summit, which is almost the only eminence near the city. The national monument in honor of those who fell in 1848-'9, in the Invalidenpark, was unveiled in 1854, and the Schiller monument in 1871. - Numerous scientific, artistic, literary, and educational institutions attest the intellectual activity of Berlin. The renowned university, in the Linden, associated with the most distinguished philosophers, divines, scholars, and savants of Germany, holds a commanding influence. The number of professors and teachers in 1870 was 175. The attendance of students was 8,714 during the winter term of 1869-'70, and 3,316 during the summer term of 1870. It contains museums of natural history and of anatomy, remarkable zoological and mineralogical collections, and a library of nearly 180,000 volumes. The botanical garden of the university is outside of the city, and includes extensive conservatories and palm houses.

The zoological gardens, resembling those of Regent's park, London, contain a tine menagerie, and the new aquarium is the largest and most celebrated in continental Europe. In 1870 there were 10 gymnasia, 54 Realschulen or high schools, 99 middle and elementary schools, 35 schools under the direc-tion of societies, churches, and corporations, 11 schools attended by both boys and girls, and 2 Hebrew schools; altogether 115 public and 96 private institutions, besides 13 private Kinder-g&rten and 19 established on the principle of association, and employing 59 female teachers. Besides the Geirerhschule, or school for trades, there are institutions established by the city for higher culture (Fortbildungsanstalten). There are 10 libraries for the people, with an aggregate of 60,000 volumes, and many turners' associations, which chiefly promote physical and incidentally also mental development. Among the Jews of Berlin, 56 out of 100 boys and 66 out of 100 girls receive a superior education; while among the Christian denominations the proportion is respectively 20 and 16 per cent. The Jews of Berlin are among the richest and most cultivated of Germany, and many of them stand high in finance, commerce. politics, literature, and journalism.

The royal library contains about 700,000 volumes, besides over 15,000 MSS.; and there are extensive collections of books in the academy, of sciences and in almost all the other institutions The animal number of books published is about l,500, or over one third of the total publications of Prussia; and the number of journals in 1871 was 175. - The principal savings bank has a capital of 2,560,000 thalers and 75,000 depositors. There are 31 industrial mutual aid associations after the system of Schulze-De-litzsch, and the number of mechanics' and manufacturers' unions is nearly 100, with about 80,000 members, and with annual contributions of over 300,000 thalers, about 15 per cent. by the employers, and the rest by the men. Berlin is rich in associations which contribute not only to the material but also to the mental and moral improvement of the laboring classes. But over 100,000 of the poorer people are crowded together in about 15,000 houses, and over 60,000 live in cellars. Houses five stories and more in height have increased since 1864 in the proportion of 43 per cent., the four-story houses 11 per cent., the two and three-story houses 4 1/2 per cent., and the one-story houses 8 per cent.

Half of the total number of houses contain only one room which can be heated, and nearly 2,300 houses cannot be warmed at all. This state of things is creating much discontent among the working classes. The increase of illegitimate children amounted to nearly 15 per cent, of the annual births. In 1872 the proportion of unmarried men over 23 was 3,702 in 10,000, and of unmarried women over 16, 3,542 in 10,000. Legislative measures have been lately proposed for improving the police, there being at present only about 1,100 policemen, and at night only watchmen, who have too much private service to do to attend to the security of the streets. The number of arrests in 1869 was over 27,000, including 4,000 dissolute women and 1,500 drunkards; 7,000 of them remained in jail, and 20,000 were discharged. About 4,000 thefts were committed in that year, or nearly 11 daily. The records of the morgue for 1869 included 209 men, 67 women, and 104 children (16 stillborn). About 2,000,000 thalers are annually disbursed in charity, one half of it by public institutions, and the rest by private agencies. Over 8,000 adults and 4,000 children received alms to the extent of 400,000 thalers in 1870, and the capital invested in the municipal institutions for charitable purposes amounts to 1,500,000 thalers.

In 1870, 44,000 thalers were spent by the city in affording relief to 43,000 indigent patients in their homes, and 168,000 thalers to 14,000 in the hospitals. Nearly 400,000 thalers are spent for the cultivation of potatoes for the poor, for soup houses, and for other benevolent purposes; 130,000 thalers for orphans, deaf-mutes, and the blind, etc.; and 73,000 thalers for the workhouse, which accommodates 2,500 delinquents and 1,500 vagrants. The medical officers employed m the municipal sanitary institutions include 700 physicians, 60 surgeons, 58 dentists, 75 veterinary doctors, 50 druggists, and 200 midwives. Besides a trades union for sick mechanics, there are nine sanitary unions, affording relief in consideration of small fees by the members, and four similar institutions chiefly for soldiers. Vaccination is obligatory; hydrophobia and cattle diseases are guarded against by public enactments; and measures are in progress for the establishment of canals and for protection against malaria arising from the defective drainage.

Prostitution prevails extensively, orer 15,000 females being partly under medical control and under surveillance of the Sit-tenpolizei (administration relating to public morality). - More than half of the population are engaged in various manufactures, including iron and steel ware, machines, and many other articles. Of printed cotton goods the annual production is valued at nearly 9,000,000 thalers. The export of manufactured articles to the United States alone amounts to 4,000,000 thalers. The Seehandlung is one of the most celebrated commercial establishments. The commerce in wool and corn is very extensive, and there are over 8,000 commercial houses, including many joint stock companies. The exchange of Berlin, a fine building near the post office on the Konigsstrasse, is one of the most important financial centres of the continent. Its transactions in 1869 were estimated at 58,000,000 thalers for railways, 5,000,000 for industrial enterprises, 13,000,000 for banking enterprise, and 2,000,000 for loans. The total value of real estate and personal property in Berlin is estimated at 700,000,000 thalers. The city consumes annually 200,000 quintals of butter, 120,000 of coffee, 40,000 of rice, and 4,000,000 tons of coal.

In 1869 nearly 200,000 quintals of wool and over 400,000 head of cattle arrived from the interior. There are over 50 breweries, and the consumption of beer is increasing. Nearly 18,-000,000 letters annually reach the post office, about one half of them city letters. Over 30,000 persons arrive and depart from Berlin daily, chiefly belonging to the interior' of Prussia. Over 3,000 conveyances, including 19 horse cars and 180 stages, circulated in the city in 1870; nearly 50 railway trains arrive and depart daily, and there is a large traffic carried on by the roads and canals. - The population, reduced by the thirty years' war to 6,000, rose by the influx of French refugees under the great elector to 20,000; in 1740 it was 90,000, and it was doubled about the end of the century. In 1831 it was over 200,000; in 1841, over 300,000; in 1851, over 400,000; in 1861, over 500,000; in 1867, over 700,000; and in 1872 it is over 800,000. - According to recent investigations, the original fishing village of Kolln, the primitive site of part of the present city, was surrounded by a heath for geese which was called Berlin; and hence this name was afterward applied to the whole city, especially as it was necessary to distinguish it from Cologne (Koln). Under the margrave Albert II. (1206-'20) the villages of Kolln and Berlin, as they were then called, rose from their insignificance.

The elector Frederick II. (with the Iron Teeth) built in 1442 a castle at Kolln, on the Spree; and John Cicero chose it as his permanent residence. The rise of Berlin after the calamities of the thirty years1 war was mainly due to Frederick William, the great elector, who also built fortifications. Frederick, the first king of Prussia, built the palace and the arsenal, and the enlargement of the city under his reign was carried on by his successors. Under Frederick the Great Berlin rose to intellectual and commercial prominence, and was enriched with additional palaces. During the seven years' war Berlin was occupied by the Aus-trians and Russians, and subjected to great vicissitudes. Frederick William III. did more than any of his dynasty for the embellishment and improvement of the city, especially after the trials of Berlin during the war with Napoleon I., when Schinkel gave a new splendor to its architecture, while the literary and scientific prestige of the capital was increased by the influence of the university and that of a host of scholars and savants of the highest rank.

Frederick William IV. paid much attention to churches, while under his reign the city was enlarged by new suburbs; and the cultivation of new territories and improvements and extensions are going on steadily in almost all directions. The triumphal entry of the German army after the Franco-German war took place here on June 16, 1871; and the emperors of Russia and of Austria were in Berlin on a visit to the emperor of Germany in September, 1872. - See Streckfuss, Berlin seit 500 Jahren (1864), and Berlin unci seine Entwickelung (an annual publication of the statistical bureau).

General View of Berlin.

General View of Berlin.

Statue of Frederick the Great, Unter den Linden.

Statue of Frederick the Great, Unter den Linden.

Hedwigskirche.

Hedwigskirche.

The Royal Theatre.

The Royal Theatre.

The Royal Library.

The Royal Library.

The Exchange.

The Exchange.