The population of India, without special reference to the latest intruders who have preserved their original characteristics and imposed their own institutions, may be divided into Aryans and Dravidians. The testimony of history and the internal evidence of Sanskrit literature seem to establish that the Aryans invaded the land earlier than 1500 B. C. from a N. W. direction, being the kin of the Iranian or Persian races. They first became possessed of the Punjaub, and through long ages of warfare advanced ultimately to the lower course of the Ganges. There is no doubt that the original population was in a great measure Dravidian, though, as Huxley says, whether it was already mixed with a Mongoloid element from the northeast or not does not appear. Thus, ethno-logically considered, the Aryan races of India form the most eastern branch of the Aryan or Indo-European family of mankind, and the Dravidians or aboriginal races are a group either entirely distinct, or more or less remotely related to the Mongolians or Turanians. Comparing the former with the latter, it is found that constant commingling has rendered them almost undistinguishable; and judging from physical characteristics alone, disregarding the totally distinct forms of speech, both divisions are to all appearance nearly the same.

They are rather small, lithe, delicate, and mostly of a yellowish complexion. The aristocracy among them, however, are almost white, and the Deccanese nearly brown. The hair is long, straight, and black; the eyes are black and shaded by long eyelashes; the ears are well formed; the mouth is not very large; the lips are thin; and the hands and feet are small. The various classes of the Aryan population are enumerated as follows by Sherring and Campbell: a, Brahmans, originally priests, now of diverse avocations; J, Jats, agriculturists; c, Rajpoots, originally the conquerors of western India, now agriculturists; d, Koorbees or Koonbees, likewise agriculturists; e, Goojars, mostly shepherds; f, Aheers, shepherds; g, Gwalas, shepherds; h, Khatrees, tradesmen; i, Banyans or Baniyas, merchants; j, Kayasth, secular scribes; k, Parbhu, clerks; l, artisans; n, helots, in part rendering menial services, and in part leading a nomadic life. - The Cashmerians are probably the best representatives of the early Hindoos; the bulk of them are now Mohammedans, but all who have adhered to their own faith are Brahmans. In the western hill country are the Mahratta Brahmans, who are mentally and physically very similar to the Cashmerians. Further south, along the slopes of the Ghauts, are Brahmans who follow agricultural pursuits.

They are not as numerous on the upper Ganges as in the lower Doab; they are numerically strong in their famous seat Kashee or Benares. Beyond Benares is a race of bastard Brahmans called Bamums or Bhalbuns. Brahmans are the dominant people in Behar and the adjacent countries, and also in the furthest east of Bengal. The Cingalese or inhabitants of Ceylon are in many respects like the Bengalese. They are supposed to be a mixed race, descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants and of an ancient Brahmanical emigration from Bengal. The Khatrees of the Punjaub are supposed to be descendants of the ancient Kshatriyas; they are few in number, but they are intellectually and physically fine men; and it has been said, "Name a distinguished Hindoo, and there is a very great probability that he will turn out to be a Khatree." They are now principally engaged in mercantile pursuits in the Punjaub. Although the Rajpoots are now quite Hindoo-ized, it is not generally supposed that they are of a pure Hindoo origin; they have no tribal or caste name, Rajpoots being a title, signifying "sons of rajahs," and their other appellation of Thakoors signifies "chiefs." They were probably in former times in possession of the Punjaub, but they have been submerged there by the advancing Jats. A Rajpoot tribe called Dogras still possess the lower hills to the north, and their chief is now lord of Cashmere. The Gangetic basin is the great Rajpoot country of history, and they are still very numerous there.

They have never actually conquered the aboriginal people, but Rajpoot families have by mere force of character established themselves as chiefs over many of the hill tribes, and, adopting a feudal system similar to that which once prevailed in Europe, they now rule all the races of Rajpootana. The Jats probably arrived in the country later than the Rajpoots; they seem to have entered by the Bolan pass in the north, where some of their people settled among the hills, and have thence gradually overspread the whole country. They are extremely robust and warlike, excellent subjects, admirable agriculturists, and good revenue payers. Physically there is no finer race in India; they are tall and strong, with fine features, fine teeth, and very fine beards. In their institutions they are democratic, and every village is a complete little republic. Most of the remaining modern divisions may be described as mixed, though Aryan features and institutions prevail among them. The Koor-bees or Koonbees are a great agricultural race, occupying large parts of Guzerat, and scattered to some extent over the whole Mahratta country. It is difficult to understand how the quiet and unwarlike Mahratta cultivators could ever have been the warlike people so famous in recent history.

It seems, however, that the hardy military Mahrattas came exclusively from the S. W. parts of the country, where they had largely mixed with the aboriginal tribes of the Western Ghauts. The ruling Mahrattas of Nagpore come from the Sattara country. The remainder of the Mahratta armies were made up of adventurers of every caste and creed. In this they differed from the Sikhs, whose forces were mainly their own free people, the Jats. Other Aryan races are probably represented by the more pastoral or cowherd tribes; they are the Goojars of the north, the Aheers of Hindostan proper, the Gwalas of Bengal, and the Goordees of central India. The last three are of a type less alloyed than that of most tribes. Local tradition and general consent attribute to them the old ruins and remains of former greatness so common in this part of the country, and the curious cairns and stone circles are also supposed to have been erected by them. In every part of India, and forming an essential part in the social structure, are found helot races among the free; they are not slaves, but politically and socially they are the lowest class of subjects.

In the Punjaub they are the Chooras; in Hindostan, the Choomars; in the Mahratta country, the Mhars. The Chooras are of a fair Aryan type; the Choo-mars generally have round faces, small features, and dark complexions, and possess only a very slight infusion of aboriginal blood; in the Mhars, and in some of the lower castes of Bengal, the aboriginal features are more decidedly represented. A very remarkable race are the traders known as Banyans, Banees, Wanees, Baniyas, Bunneahs, or Bunijugas; they form an important class of the population of the western countries of India. The Northwestern Provinces are in respect of commerce entirely in their hands; Guzerat, Malwa, and the Bombay district are full of them, and they are numerous also in the Canarese country. They are famous for their trading acuteness. It is supposed that the Jains also belong to the Banee caste; they are a mercantile body, and conduct almost exclusively the entire banking business of India. - The name of the Dravidians or Dravidas, who are considered to be the aborigines of India, is derived from Dravida, the Sanskrit name of the southern portion of the peninsula.

The native Sanskrit lexicons define a Dravida as "a man of an outcast tribe, descended from a degraded Kshatriya." The term Dravidian, therefore, seems to have been applied by the Aryan invaders to the inhabitants of southern India at a very early period, probably about the 6th century B. C. They may also be divided into Kols or Mundas, inhabiting the northern districts, Dravidians proper or those of the south, and Cingalese or inhabitants of Ceylon. The Brahooees of Beloochistan are a Dravidian race. Hodgson designates the Dravidians proper as Tamulians. Campbell has given to the northern Dravidians the name of Kolarians, from the name Kolar by which India was known in ancient times. The term Kol is specially applied to the non-Aryan inhabitants of the hill country of Chota Nagpore, Mirza-poor, and Rewah. Mundas is used instead of Kol by other authorities, as the Mundas were the prior occupants of this region. To the Kols or Mundas belong the Santals, Singhbhoom Kols, Ramoosees, Bheels or Bhillas, Kolees, and other tribes. To the Dravidians proper belong the Tamils, Telugus or Telingas, Canarese, Malayalas, Gonds, Kolhs of the Rajmahal hills, and many others.

The Santal or Sonthal tribe appears to be very widely spread; it is found in Chota Nagpore and in the skirts and valleys of the Rajmahal hills; according to Capt. Sher-well, its range is from Cuttack through Chota Nagpore to Rewah. The Kols in the Singhbhoom district are termed Lurka Kols. The tradition among the people is that they came originally from Chota Nagpore, and are descendants of the old Mundas of that district; they have also the same cast of countenance as the Mundas, though perhaps with a wilder and fiercer expression. The Ramoosee tribes are spread over the central and western parts of the peninsula, and are partly predatory. The Bheels, as a distinct tribe, are found chiefly on the hills surrounding the fortress of Asirgurh in the Central Provinces. The Bheels of Berar occupy the eastern slopes of the Gawilgur range to its western extremity and reaching far into Candeish. The same people are also in possession of the eastern part of the Western Ghauts, and all the branches that run out from it toward the east as far south as Poonah; they have even spread over the plains to the east, especially north of the Godavery, and the neighborhood of the Wurda. Latham says that the Bheels seem to have been the aborigines of the hills near Mount Aboo, but at some time or other they mixed with marauding Rajpoots from the plains, and with the workmen who were so long engaged in building the Dilwarra temples.

The Kolees are a numerous race on the western side of India, being the laborers and low cultivators in Guzerat; they are also in large numbers in the western part of the Nizam's Dominions. Kolee is also the name given to the lower class of cultivators in the Simla hills, The same race is scattered over a great portion of the Bombay presidency, from the Thur and the neighborhood of Sinde southward to Goa and eastward along the banks of the Beema, the Kistnah, and Tumbuddra, into the centre of the peninsula as far as Kurnool, where they act as ferrymen. The Kolees and Bheels seem to have a similar if not a common origin. In some portions of India they are mixed, and Kolees frequently marry Bheel wives. The most important race of the Dra-vidians proper are the Tamils or Tamuls, and the name of Tamulian is sometimes used for the whole Dravidian group. Their number is estimated at 10,000,000; they inhabit principally the extreme southeast of the peninsula and N. and E. Ceylon. They are dark brown, very small, lithe, active, social, and more given to seafaring and emigration than any other Indian race. They wander along the coast and to remote islands for employment, and have given the name cooly (Tamil, hull, hire) to the whole class of Indian laborers.

The Telugu or Telin-ga people are estimated at about 14,000,000; they inhabit the eastern borders of the penin-sala. They are a taller and fairer race than the Tamil, and equally energetic, though less restless. They are the Andhra of Sanskrit writers, a name mentioned by ancient Greek geographers as that of a nation dwelling on or near the Ganges. They are good farmers, and many of them were formerly seafaring men, undertaking long voyages. They held at one time large islands in the eastern archipelago, where the people of India are still called Kling, from the former Kalinga dynasty. The people called Canarese are about 5,000,000 in number, and are found chiefly in the centre of the peninsula. They are a tall and singularly graceful race. Their avocations are mostly those of civil life, cultivators and shopkeepers. People speaking Canarese are spread over the plateau of Mysore and the western districts of the Nizam's Dominions, extending as far north as the neighborhood of Beder. The Kotar, who speak a dialect of Canarese have seven villages in the vicinity of Kota-gherry, and are supposed to number a little more than 1,000. Dead cattle and carrion of every kind find acceptance among them as food.

They are, however, the most industrious of the hill tribes, giving much attention to agriculture, and finding employment as carpenters, smiths, basket makers, and menders of ploughs. They are well built, of a tolerable height, rather good-featured, copper-colored, and may be considered among the fairest tribes of this portion of the country. In the low country and along the Western Ghauts, from Cape Comorin to the Chandagiri river, live a people speaking the Malayalam or Malealam language. These inhabitants of Malabar, who probably number about 2,500,000, have from their situation in the extreme southwest been little exposed to external influences. They are of an exclusive disposition, avoid contact with foreigners, and live isolated with their families in their high-walled paramhu, even where the enterprising Tamil people have opened lines of communication. The race speaking the Tulu or Tuluva tongue live in a small tract of country in the vicinity of Mangalore, and probably number no more than 150,000. Malayalam and Tulu are considered to be in a gradual course of extinction.

The Toda, properly Tuda or Tudavera, are a primitive tribe hardly 500 in number, occupying the Neilgherry mountains in the southern part of the Indian peninsula, and commonly believed to be the aboriginal inhabitants of these hills. Logan styles their physical appearance Indo-Semitic. The Kotar tribe ranks next to the Toda in priority of occupation of the hills, but the Badakar, also called Budugur, Budaga, and Vadakar, are the most numerous. The other tribes on these hills live in isolated communities, but the Badakar dwell in villages with streets running in parallel lines, and in thatched houses built of stone and mud, and divided into separate compartments, but strangely enough with no other opening than a doorway about 40 inches high and 25 broad. The Badakar is smaller in stature and lighter in complexion than the Toda. The district of Coorg is inhabited by about 40,000 natives called Koodaga. They are a tall, muscular, somewhat civilized and intelligent race. The Coorgs divide themselves into Coorgs and Amma Coorgs. They have a fair complexion, and wear whiskers and mustaches, but never a full beard.

A very important aboriginal tribe is that of the Gonds. (See Gonds.) Mr. J.

Murdock estimates the aboriginal tribes of the northeast at about 300,000, those of central India at about 7,000,000, and the hill tribes of southern India at about 700,000. - Altogether the population of India comprises more than 50 different races, and is characterized by the greatest diversity of appearance, manners, language, and religion. In 1871 the British-born inhabitants, exclusive of soldiers, numbered 64,061. The main division of the native people as to religion is into Hindoos, who form the bulk of the population, and Mohammedans, of whom the estimated number in the entire country is 40,000,000. There are also several millions of Buddhists and about 200,000 Parsees. The Mohammedans are chiefly found in the plain of the Ganges, where for several centuries they held dominion as conquerors and masters of the country, until their power was overthrown by the English. They entered Hindostan in the beginning of the 11th century from Afghanistan, and their numbers were swelled by successive invasions for several centuries afterward. In character the Mohammedans are distinguished from the Hindoos, and especially from the Hindoos of Bengal, by greater energy and frankness, by pride and arrogance, and by their luxurious and dissolute habits.

They are of a hasty, revengeful, and fanatical disposition, and do not submit with patience to the domination of their English conquerors. The Parsees are but little darker in complexion than the inhabitants of the south of Europe. They are descendants of the ancient fire worshippers, who fled from Persia several centuries ago in consequence of persecution by the Mohammedans, and are now numerous in Bombay and in some other cities in western India. They form an intelligent, enterprising, and prosperous portion of the native population. The Sikhs, a peculiar religious sect, are numerous in the northwest, and have acted an important part in the history of India. After an existence of 400 years, their numbers are only estimated at from half a million to a million. (See Sikhs.) The estimated number of Jews in India is 10,000; some of those who inhabit Malabar have perfectly black complexions. There is also a large body of native Christians in Malabar, who are believed to be descended from converts made at a very early period of our era. (See Christians of St. Thomas.) The native Protestant converts to Christianity in India probably exceed 250,000; and according to a statement prepared for the council of the Vatican in 1870, there are 1,076,102 Roman Catholics in India. The number of Christians in the provinces directly subject to British control is 197,880, according to the latest enumerations, which were made from 1867 to 1872 inclusive.

For special accounts of some other classes of the people of India, see Fakirs, Pariahs, and Thugs. For an account of the division of the people into castes, see India, Religions and Religious Literature of. - Languages. The early Aryan invaders spoke a language which has been preserved in the Vedas, and which bears the name of Sanskrit (sanskrta, perfect), as it is considered to be the most cultivated and perfected. (See Sanskrit.) When this language came to be specially used for literary purposes, colloquial speech soon departed from the standard which was set up for it. It is probable that even in the most remote historical age of the Aryan people different tribes were characterized by dialectical differences of speech. These uncultivated forms of the language received from the Hindoos the name of Prakrit (prakrti, nature), in distinction from Sanskrit. Prakrit is therefore the general term for the various dialects which arose during the centuries immediately preceding our era. The rock inscriptions of King Asoka, which record names of Greek princes of about 200 B. C, and the legends on the bilingual coins of Bactria, are written in this language.

It also plays an important part in ancient Hindoo dramas; for while the heroes speak Sanskrit, the women and attendants use various forms of the popular dialects, which again appear more or less regular, or like the literary language, according to the rank of the speaker. In course of time it became customary to put the same dialectical variation always into the mouths of certain classes of the population. Whether these dialects were used on the stage in imitation of the real speech of the people, and whether they were strongly intermixed with Sanskrit in order to make them more easily understood by the public, cannot be decided. The rise of Buddhism, which was mainly a religion of the people, rendered one of the popular dialects spoken by Buddha himself of special importance. This Prakrit language is called Pali, but the precise meaning of this word is not known. Pali has long ceased to be spoken, but is still used in the Buddhist scriptures of Ceylon, Burmah, and Siam. "Prakrit," says E. B. Cowell, "almost always uses the Sanskrit roots; its influence being chiefly restricted to alterations and elisions of certain letters in the original word.

It everywhere substitutes a slurred and indistinct pronunciation for the clear and definite utterance of the older tongue." All the modern Sanskrit idioms of India are related to the Prakrit dialects, and they differ from the ancient mother tongue rather in grammatical forms than in roots and themes. Fr. Muller classifies them into six groups. The eastern group comprises Bangali or Bengalee, the language of the province of Bengal, Assami or Assamese, and Oriya. To the northern group belong the Nipali or Nepaulese, the language of Nepaul, Kacmiri or Cashmerian, and Panjabi or Punjaubee, the language of the Punjaub. The western group embraces the Sin-dhi, which is spoken in the valley of the lower Indus, the Multani, and several minor idioms. The central group includes the Hindi, the language of the native Hindoo population of the central portion of northern India; Urdu, also called Hindustani, an offshoot of Hindi, the language of the Mohammedan population of the whole of India, and spoken by all the cultivated classes of the peninsula; and Dakhani or Deccanese, also a Hindi dialect. The southwestern group comprises Guzarati or Gujarati, the language of Guzerat and the dialects related to it.

The last and southern group is formed by the Marathi. - All these languages with one exception make use of graphic systems differing from each other, but in common derived from the old Indie Devanagari alphabet, which in its turn is an adaptation of the Semitic characters, and especially of the Himyaritic. Urdu or Hindustani, and often also Sindhi, is written with the Arabic-Persian Taliq characters. All the languages possess the same five classes of consonants, corresponding with those of Sanskrit: gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, and labials. They have also in common the peculiar semi-vowels v, y, r, and l, as well as the aspirate h. The vowels are a, i, and u, with the extended a, i and 4; the closed diphthongs are e and o, and the open diphthongs ai and au. Several of these languages also reckon r and I as vowels. The following are the four principal graphic systems, arranged according to the sounds; the method of transcription employed is that given in Lepsius's " Standard Alphabet," for which see Writing:

Devanagari.

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900115

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900116

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900117

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900118

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900119

n.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900120

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900121

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900122

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900123

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900124

n.

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900125

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900126

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900127

d

Races And Languages Of India 0900128

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900129

7b.

9

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900130

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900131

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900132

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900133

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900134

n.

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900135

P,

Races And Languages Of India 0900136

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900137

b,

Races And Languages Of India 0900138

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900139

m.

Semi-vowels,

Races And Languages Of India 0900140

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900141

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900142

l

Races And Languages Of India 0900143

v.

Races And Languages Of India 0900144

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900145

rh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900146

l

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900147

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900148

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900149

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900150

h.

Vowels ...

Races And Languages Of India 0900151

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900152

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900153

i,

Races And Languages Of India 0900154

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900155

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900156

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900157

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900158

v

Races And Languages Of India 0900159

ai,

Races And Languages Of India 0900160

au.

Races And Languages Of India 0900161

Bangali.

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900162

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900163

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900164

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900165

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900166

n.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900167

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900168

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900169

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900170

gh

Races And Languages Of India 0900171

n.

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900172

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900173

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900174

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900175

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900176

n,

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900177

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900178

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900179

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900180

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900181

n.

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900182

p,

Races And Languages Of India 0900183

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900184

b,

Races And Languages Of India 0900185

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900186

m.

Semi-vow-

Races And Languages Of India 0900187

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900188

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900189

l,

Races And Languages Of India 0900190

v,

Races And Languages Of India 0900191

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900192

rh.

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900193

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900194

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900195

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900196

h.

Vowels ...

Races And Languages Of India 0900197

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900198

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900199

i,

Races And Languages Of India 0900200

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900201

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900202

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900203

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900204

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900205

ai,

Races And Languages Of India 0900206

au.

Guzarati.

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900207

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900208

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900209

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900210

gh.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900211

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900212

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900213

g

Races And Languages Of India 0900214

gh.

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900215

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900216

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900217

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900218

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900219

n.

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900220

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900221

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900222

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900223

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900224

n.

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900225

p.

Races And Languages Of India 0900226

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900227

b,,

Races And Languages Of India 0900228

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900229

m.

Semi-vowels,

Races And Languages Of India 0900230

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900231

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900232

l,

Races And Languages Of India 0900233

v.

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900234

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900235

ft

Races And Languages Of India 0900236

h.

Vowels ...

Races And Languages Of India 0900237

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900238

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900239

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900240

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900241

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900242

u,.

Arabic of the Urdu.

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900243

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900244

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900245

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900246

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900247

n.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900248

c

Races And Languages Of India 0900249

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900250

g

Races And Languages Of India 0900251

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900252

n

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900253

t

Races And Languages Of India 0900254

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900255

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900256

dh,,

Races And Languages Of India 0900257

n.

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900258

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900259

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900260

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900261

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900262

n.

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900263

p,

Races And Languages Of India 0900264

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900265

b,

Races And Languages Of India 0900266

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900267

m.

Semi-vowels

Races And Languages Of India 0900268

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900269

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900270

l,

Races And Languages Of India 0900271

v,

Races And Languages Of India 0900272

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900273

rh.

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900274

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900275

h.

Vowels ...

Races And Languages Of India 0900276

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900277

a

Races And Languages Of India 0900278

i,,

Races And Languages Of India 0900279

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900280

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900281

u

Races And Languages Of India 0900282

e

Races And Languages Of India 0900283

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900284

ai,

Races And Languages Of India 0900285

au.

-Bangali or Bengalee distinguishes the masculine, feminine, and neuter genders, and the singular and plural number. Nouns possess nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, ablative, instrumental, and locative cases. The mode of declension is as follows: singular - nom. baladRaces And Languages Of India 0900286 an ox, gen. bala-der.Races And Languages Of India 0900287 dat. and ace. baladke, voc. balad, abl. baladhaite, instr. baladete, loc. baladete ; plural - nom. baladeraRaces And Languages Of India 0900288 gen. baladerdigerRaces And Languages Of India 0900289 dat. and acc. baladerdigke, voc. baladerd, abl. balader-digete, instr. baladerdigete, loc. baladerdigete. Adjectives agree with their nouns only in gender, but not in number and case. The sign of the feminine is a, and sometimes i. Bangali is the only modern language of India which has special forms for the comparative and superlative, and they have been borrowed from Sanskrit. The pronoun of the first person singular is ami, plural amra; second person singular, tumi, plural tomra; third person singular, sei, plural tahara. The relative pronoun is yini in the singular and yenard in the plural. The first ten cardinal numbers are ek, dui, tin, cari, pac, chay, sat, at, nay, and dap. No distinction is made between transitive and intransitive verbs. The present participle ends in -it, which receives in the present tense an e, making it -ite, for euphony. The participle of the aorist ends in -la, that of the past in -ya. The termination for the future is -iba. The different persons are indicated by suffixes.

The languages of Assam and Orissa, Assami and Oriya, are closely related to Bangali. The former, however, has incorporated many elements pertaining to the speech of the neighboring population of Burmah and Thibet, while the latter has a strong admixture of Arabic. - Nipali or Nepaulese, the language of Nepaul, also possesses many Thibetan elements. The neuter gender has disappeared; the plural is formed by adding heru, collection, assembly, and the genitive of nouns is considered an adjective, and has an inflection of its own. The general character of the declension may be seen from the following example: singular, nom. manisRaces And Languages Of India 0900290 a man, gen. maniskoRaces And Languages Of India 0900291 dat. manislai, ace. maniskan, voc. he manis, abl. ma-nisdesivato, instr. manisle, loc. manisvisemd; plural - nom. manisheruRaces And Languages Of India 0900292 gen. manuherukoRaces And Languages Of India 0900293 dat. manisherulai, ace. manisherukan, voc. he manisheru, abl. manisherudesvato, instr. manisherule, loc. manisheruvisema. The pronoun of the first person singular is ma, plural hamiheru; second person singular, ta, plural timiheru; third person singular, tun, plural tiniheru. The relative pronoun is gun in the singular and gunheru in the plural. - Kacmiri and Panjabi (Cashmerian and Punjaubee) has embodied many Arabic and Persian elements. Only the masculine and feminine genders are distinguished. Feminines generally end in ni or ani. Nouns are declined like the following example: singular nom. ghoraRaces And Languages Of India 0900294 a horse, gen. ghoredaRaces And Languages Of India 0900295 ghoredi, ghorede, dat. ghoretai, ace. ghorenu, abl. ghorete, instr. ghorene, loc. gho-revid; plural - nom. ghoreRaces And Languages Of India 0900296 gen. ghoriadaRaces And Languages Of India 0900297 ghoriadl, ghoridde, dat. ghoriatai, ace. ghorianii, abl. ghoriate, instr. ghoriane, loc. ghoriavic. The pronoun of the first person singular is mal, plural asi; second person singular, tu, plural tusi; third person singular and plural, so. The relative pronoun is go both in the singular and plural. Verbs form the present participle by adding -ant, and the past participle by-ta. - Sindhi has been maintained in a comparatively close relation to ancient Sanskrit, and is of great importance for the investigation of modern Indian forms of speech. This language also has lost the neuter gender. The plural case is not formed in it as in the other languages by adding some word signifying collection or assembly, but by a genuine case ending ft, or sometimes d. The genitive case of nouns is also used here as a sort of adjective admitting of. special inflection. Declension is generally according to the following example: singular - nom. macharuRaces And Languages Of India 0900298 a gnat, gen. madharayoRaces And Languages Of India 0900299 madharagi, macharaga, macharagu, dat. and acc. macharakhe, voc. e, machara, abl. ma-charakho, instr. machara, loc. macharame; plural - nom. macharaRaces And Languages Of India 0900300 gen. macharanigoRaces And Languages Of India 0900301 macharanigi, macharaniga, macharanigu, dat. and acc. macha-ranikhe, voc. e macharo, abl. macharanikho, instr. macharani, loc. macharanime. Adjectives are put in perfect agreement with their nouns in number, gender, and case. The pronoun of the first person singular is au, a, or ma, plural asi; second person singular, tu, plural tavhi or tahl; third person singular, so, feminine sa, plural se. The relative pronoun is go in the singular masculine, ga feminine, and ge in the plural. There are pronominal suffixes which are probably due to the influence of the Persian. When added to a noun they have the force of a genitive. They are: mi, first person singular; i, second; si or ai, third; su, si, or u, first person plural; va, second; ni or a u, third. The first ten cardinal numbers are hiku, ha, te, cari, paga, cha or chaha, sata, atha, nava, and raha. The corresponding ordinals are perhyo, bio, tio, cotha, pago, chaho, said, atho, navo, and raho. The present participle of intransitive verbs ends in ado, of transitive verbs in ido.

The past participle is formed by adding -yd. Urdu or Hindustani is a dialect of Hindi, whose origin dates back to the 11th century A. D. It is strongly mixed with Persian and Arabic, and also to some degree with Tartaric Mongolian elements. It is the current administrative language of India, and spoken by all connected with official circles. It was called Urdu from its having been developed in the camps (urdu) of the Moslem conquerors of the country. The best authorities believe that it did not take form as a specific variety of Indian speech before the 16th century. It distinguishes a masculine and feminine gender, and the latter is generally indicated by i, as beta, son, beti, daughter; larka, boy, larki, girl; or by ani, ni, and ni, as bagh, tiger, baghni, tigress. The plural of nouns in oblique cases is formed by adding o; the nominative of masculine nouns remains unchanged if it ends in a consonant or in i, but if in d or ah it receives an e. Feminines in i take d, others e. The sign for the genitive is ka masculine, ki feminine. This case has also the force of an adjective, and its own oblique cases end in ke; as ragaka beta, the son of the king; ragake beteko, to the son of the king.

The form of the other cases will appear from the following paradigm: singular - nom. adhaRaces And Languages Of India 0900302 a blind man, gen. adhekaRaces And Languages Of India 0900303 adheke, adheki, dat. and acc. adheko, voc. ai adhe, abl. adhese, instr. adhene, loc. adheme; plural - nom. adheRaces And Languages Of India 0900304 gen. adhokaRaces And Languages Of India 0900305 adhoke, adhoki, dat. and acc. adhoko, voc. ai adho abl. adhose, instr. adhone, loc. adhome. Adjectives always agree with their nouns in gender and case, but not always in number; as acchi larki, the good girl; acche larke, the good boys; acchi lar-kiya, the good girls. The pronoun of the first person singular is mal, plural ham; second person singular, tu, plural turn; third person singular and plural, so. The relative pronoun is go in both singular and plural. The first ten cardinal numbers are ek, do, tin, char, pac, c'hah, sat, ath, nau, das. The corresponding ordinals are pahla, dusra, tisra, cautha, pacva, chathva, sdthva, athva, nava, dasva. The present participle of verbs ends in ant, the past participle in ta. - Guzarati or Gujarati distinguishes all three genders. Nouns are declined as follows: singular - nom. devRaces And Languages Of India 0900306 a god, gen. masc. sing, devnoRaces And Languages Of India 0900307 gen. fern. sing, devni, gen. neut. sing, devnu, gen. masc. pl. devna, gen. fern. pl. devni, gen. neut. pl. devna, dat. and acc. devne, voc. are dev, abl. devthi, devethi, instr. devthi, devethi, deve, devekari, deveka-rine, loc. deve, devma; plural - nom. devoRaces And Languages Of India 0900308 gen. masc. sing, devonoRaces And Languages Of India 0900309 gen. fem. sing, devoni, gen. neut. sing, devonu, gen. masc. pl. devana, gen. fem. pl. devoni, gen. neut. pl. devona, dat. and acc. devane, voc. aho devo, abl. devothi, instr. devothi, devoe, devde-kari, devaekarine, loc. devoe, devoma. The genitive of nouns can thus be employed as an adjective and made to agree in gender and number with the substantive. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. The nominative singular masculine ends in 6, feminine in i, neuter in u; the nominative plural masculine in d, feminine in i, neuter in d. The pronoun of the first person singular is hu, plural ame; second person singular, tu, plural tame; third person singular, te, plural ted. The relative pronoun singular is ge, plural (fed. The first ten cardinal numbers are ek, be, tan, car, pac, cha, sat, ath, nav, and das. The corresponding ordinals are pehelo, bigo, tigo, cotho, pacamo, chato, satamo, athamo, navamo, and dasamo. The present participle ends in to, ti, tu. The past participle is formed by yo, i, yu. - Marathi also distinguishes three genders.

Nouns are declined as follows: singular - nom. devRaces And Languages Of India 0900310 a god, gen. devacaRaces And Languages Of India 0900311 devaci, devaca, devace, dat. and ace. devas, devala, abl. devapasun, instr. devsne, devana, loc. devat; plural - nom. devaRaces And Languages Of India 0900312 gen. devacaRaces And Languages Of India 0900313 devace, devaca, devace, dat. and acc. devas, devala, abl. devapasun, instr. devane, devana, loc. devat. Adjectives end when masculine in a, feminine in i, and neuter in a, and are connected with their nouns as if they formed a compound word with them. Number and case are indicated only when adjectives are used as nouns. The pronoun of the first person singular is ml, plural amhi; second person singular, tu, plural tumhi; third person singular, masculine to, feminine ti, neuter te; plural for the three genders, te. The relative pronoun singular masculine is g'o, feminine gi, neuter ge; plural for the three genders, ge, but the feminine appears sometimes as g'ya. The present participle of transitive verbs ends in it, of intransitive verbs in at. There is another form ending in ta. The past participle of transitives ends in ila, of intransitives in ala. - Dravidian Languages. Excepting Cingalese, or Singhalese, the language spoken on the island of Ceylon (which, though possessing some points'of similarity with the Dravidian languages, is nevertheless treated by several eminent scholars as a language entirely distinct by itself), the Dravidian group must be divided into five sections or languages, to which may be added a sixth, comprising the idioms still imperfectly known and spoken by the races which occupy the innermost parts of the mountainous regions.

The Tamil language is the Sanskrit of the whole group. It is spoken mainly in the so-called Carnatic, or the eastern coastland below the Ghauts of Palicat as far as Cape Comorin, and from the Ghauts to the bay of Bengal. It is heard also in the "Western Ghauts and in the northern portion of Ceylon. There are two dialectical variations of it. One is the so-called classic or Sen-Tamil, and the other the colloquial or Kodun-Tamil. The next highest rank must be assigned to Telugu, formerly called Gentoo. It was once spoken as far N. as the Ganges, but now reaches only from Cicacole on the E. coast to Palicat, and thence as far as Mysore. The next in order, and nearest related to the two preceding, is Canarese, whose territory extends over Mysore and the eastern districts of the Nizam as far as Beder; it is spoken also in the district of Canara, on the Malabar coast. The fourth language is Malayalam or Mala-yalma, spoken on the coast of Malabar, on tho western side of the Ghauts, between Manga-lore and Trivandrum. The fifth and least represented language is Tulu or Tuluva, formerly spoken in Canara, now only in the vicinity of Mangalore, and rapidly dying out.

The speech of the Todavars, Kotars, Gonds, Koos, and other races occupying the mountains, is expected to show on further acquaintance an intimate relation with these languages. Max Muller considers the Dravidian languages as a branch of the Uralo-Altaic, Mongolian, or Turanian; but Fr. Muller and other great authorities consider them a totally distinct and primitive division of human speech. These languages are written in peculiar graphic systems, which are derived like those of the Aryan languages of India from the Devana-gari alphabet, but less directly, coming through the Kistnah and Nerbudda characters. The sounds may be grouped in Tamil as follows:

Tamil.

Surd.

Sonant.

Nasal.

Gutturals..........

Races And Languages Of India 0900314

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900315

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900316

n.

Palatals............

Races And Languages Of India 0900317

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900318

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900319

n.

Cerebrals, I...

Races And Languages Of India 0900320

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900321

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900322

n.

Cerebrals, II..

Races And Languages Of India 0900323

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900324

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900325

n.

Dentals.........

Races And Languages Of India 0900326

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900327

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900328

n.

Labials...........

Races And Languages Of India 0900329

p,

Races And Languages Of India 0900330

b

Races And Languages Of India 0900331

m

Liquids.........

Races And Languages Of India 0900332

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900333

v,

Races And Languages Of India 0900334

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900335

l

Races And Languages Of India 0900336

l,

Races And Languages Of India 0900337

l.

Sibilant.........

Races And Languages Of India 0900338

8.

Vowels............

Races And Languages Of India 0900339

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900340

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900341

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900342

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900343

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900344

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900345

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900346

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900347

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900348

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900349

au,

Races And Languages Of India 0900350

fr

The cerebrals are pronounced with a decided palatalization. The Tamil characters probably represent the oldest of the south Indian graphic systems. In all the Dravidian languages, but especially in Tamil and Malayalam, there is the peculiar law of beginning with surd sounds every word and syllable following one that is closed; and of beginning with sonants every syllable which succeeds another that is open, or that is closed with a nasal or a liquid sound. Tamil adds to this the difficulty of employing the same sign either as a surd or a sonant, leaving it to the reader to decide how it is to be pronounced. Another difficulty arises from the fact that the Dravidian languages absorbed many Aryan words belonging to different periods of the ancient and modern Indian languages. Some of these words were appropriated without alteration, called tatsama by native grammarians, and others have been assimilated with Dravidian forms, called tadbhava. As the Dravidian alphabets do not represent all the Indian sounds, it was found necessary either to invent others, which was done in Telugu, Kannadi, and Malayalam, or to change the words so that the alphabet would suffice, which is done in Tamil. Originally, therefore, the Dravidian languages made use only of the number of characters still employed in Tamil; but at present Telugu, Kannadi, and Malayalam have a system of signs which represent also the sounds of the Aryan languages, and which may be grouped in a similar manner.

Canarese characters are similar to the Telugu; hence we subjoin only the latter and the Malayalam:

Telugu.

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900351

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900352

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900353

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900354

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900355

n.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900356

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900357

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900358

g

Races And Languages Of India 0900359

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900360

n.

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900361

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900362

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900363

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900364

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900365

n.

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900366

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900367

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900368

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900369

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900370

n.

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900371

P,

Races And Languages Of India 0900372

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900373

b,

Races And Languages Of India 0900374

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900375

m.

Liq.

Races And Languages Of India 0900376

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900377

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900378

l,

Races And Languages Of India 0900379

v.

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900380

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900381

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900382

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900383

h.

Vowels ...

Races And Languages Of India 0900384

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900385

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900386

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900387

i,

Races And Languages Of India 0900388

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900389

U,

Races And Languages Of India 0900390

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900391

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900392

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900393

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900394

au,

Races And Languages Of India 0900395

i.

Malayalam.

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900396

k

Races And Languages Of India 0900397

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900398

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900399

gh

Races And Languages Of India 0900400

n.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900401

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900402

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900403

g

Races And Languages Of India 0900404

gh

Races And Languages Of India 0900405

n.

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900406

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900407

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900408

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900409

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900410

n.

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900411

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900412

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900413

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900414

dh

Races And Languages Of India 0900415

n.

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900416

p,

Races And Languages Of India 0900417

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900418

b,

Races And Languages Of India 0900419

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900420

m.

Liq.

Races And Languages Of India 0900421

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900422

v,

Races And Languages Of India 0900423

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900424

l

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900425

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900426

s

Races And Languages Of India 0900427

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900428

h.

Vowels ... <

Races And Languages Of India 0900429

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900430

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900431

i,

Races And Languages Of India 0900432

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900433

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900434

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900435

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900436

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900437

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900438

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900439

au,

Races And Languages Of India 0900440

i.

These systems enable the Telugu, Kannadi, and Malayalam to give Indian words in their own orthography, while Tamil must transform them according to the necessities of its insufficient alphabet. A sentence is in all the Dravidian languages an absolute whole. The words are closely connected, and the junction of vowels or consonants, vowel and consonant, or consonant and vowel, at the end and beginning of two words, produces various euphonic changes. The accent, however, remains always on the root syllable, which is in all cases the first syllable of a word. The parts of speech may be reduced to only two groups of nouns and verbs. There is hardly what is called a grammatical gender, excepting in the pronoun of the third person, which belongs mostly to the verb. Nouns are distinguished, however, as belonging either to the higher or to the lower caste, the one comprising rational and the other irrational beings; men, gods, demigods, spirits, and the like, forming one group, and animals, inanimate objects, and subjective ideas, the other. Singular and plural numbers are distinguished, the latter by means of high- or low-caste suffixes.

The former was originally called mar, and is now chiefly employed as an honorific plural; otherwise it is reduced to ar, ar, ir, and ir, appearing in Telugu and Kannadi as aru, uru, ru, ri, aru, and eru. The latter was originally called kal and gal, as still clearly seen in Tamil and Malayalam. In Canarese it is galu. The cases are indicated by means of suffixes. The declension of nouns is shown in the following examples: 1. Tamil. Singular - nom. rayan,Races And Languages Of India 0900441 a king, acc. rayani, gen. rayanudiyaRaces And Languages Of India 0900442 dat. rayanukkuRaces And Languages Of India 0900443 abl. rayanilirundu, instr. rayanal, loc. rayanil, rayanidattil; plural - nom. rayarRaces And Languages Of India 0900444 acc. rayari, gen. rayaruaiyaRaces And Languages Of India 0900445 dat. rayarukku, abl. rayarilirundu, instr. rayaral, loc. rayaril, rayaridattil. 2. Telugu. Singular - nom. gur-ramuRaces And Languages Of India 0900446 a horse, ace. gurramunu, gen. gurramuyokhaRaces And Languages Of India 0900447 dat. gurramu-ku, gurramunaku, instr. gurramuceta, loc. gur-ramulo; plural - nom. gurramulu, ace. gurra-mulanu, gen. gurramula, dat. gurramulaku, instr. gurramulaceta, loc. gurramulalo. 3. Malayalam. Singular - nom. mala, a mountain, ace. malaye, gen. malayute, dat. malekka, abl. malayilninna, instr. malayal, loc. mala-yil; plural - nom. malakal, acc. malakale, gen. malakalute, dat. malakalukka, abl. malakal-iloninna, instr. malakalal, loc. malakalil. 4. Kannadi or Canarese. Singular - nom. mara-vu, a tree, acc. marava, gen. marada, dat. ma-rakke, abl. maradadeseinda, instr. maradinda, loc. maradalli; plural - nom. maragalu, acc. maragala, gen. maragala, dat. maragalige, abl. maragaladeseinda, instr. maragalinda, loc. maragalalli. 5. Tulu. Singular - nom. mara, a tree, ace. marana, gen. marada, dat. maraka, instr. maradda, loc. marada; plural - nom. marakulu, ace. marakuluna, gen. marakula, dat. marakuluka, instr. marakuludda, loc. marakuluda. Adjectives remain always unchanged in the Dravidian languages, and always precede their nouns. Personal pronouns, however, are capable of inflection.

The pronoun of the first person singular, nominative, is in Tamil nan, Telugu nenu, Kannadi nanu, Malayalam nan, Tulu yan; plural, Tamil nam, Telugu memu, Kannadi nam, dm, and navu, Malayalam nan, Tulu namma. In Sen-Tamil the suffix gal is added to produce a pure plural form; hence nangal instead of nam. The first ten cardinal numbers in Tamil are ondu, irandu, mundu, nalu, indu, adu, elu, ettu, onbadu, and pattu. In Telugu there is no word for one; the others are rendu, mudu, nalugu, aidu, aru, yedu, yenimidi, tommidi, and padi; in Kannadi the ten are ondu, eradu, muru, nalku, aidu, aru, elu, entu, om bhattu, and hattu; and in Malayalam, onna, ranta, munna, nala, anca, ara, ela, etta, onpata, and patta. The most peculiar constituent of the Dravidian languages is the verb, which is a mere compound of a form of the noun with a personal pronoun. Caldwell says of it: "When case signs are attached to a root, or when, without the addition of case signs, it is used as the nominative of a verb, it is regarded as a noun; the same root becomes a verb without any internal change or formative addition, when the signs of tense and the pronouns or their terminal fragments are suffixed to it." Further on he says: "The structure of the Dravidian verb is strictly agglutinative.

The particles which express the ideas of mood and tense, transition, intransition, causation, and negation, together with the pronominal fragments by which person, number, and gender are denoted, are annexed or agglutinated to the root in so regular a series and by so quiet a process, that generally no change whatever, or at most only a slight euphonic change, is effected either in the root or in any of the suffixed particles. As the Dravidian noun has but one declension, so the Dravidian verb has only one conjugation and but very few irregular forms." - Cingalese or Singhalese, the language of the Elu, the original inhabitants of Ceylon, incorporated a large number of Pali and Sanskrit words, while the modern modifications of it are tinged with Malay. (See Cingalese Language.) The Elu alphabet has 34 consonants and 12 vowels. This alphabet may be classified as follows:

Gutt.

Races And Languages Of India 0900448

k,

Races And Languages Of India 0900449

kh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900450

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900451

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900452

n.

Pal.

Races And Languages Of India 0900453

c,

Races And Languages Of India 0900454

ch,

Races And Languages Of India 0900455

g,

Races And Languages Of India 0900456

gh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900457

n

Cer.

Races And Languages Of India 0900458

t,,

Races And Languages Of India 0900459

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900460

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900461

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900462

n

Dent.

Races And Languages Of India 0900463

t,

Races And Languages Of India 0900464

th,

Races And Languages Of India 0900465

d,

Races And Languages Of India 0900466

dh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900467

n

Lab.

Races And Languages Of India 0900468

P,

Races And Languages Of India 0900469

ph,

Races And Languages Of India 0900470

b,

Races And Languages Of India 0900471

bh,

Races And Languages Of India 0900472

m

Semi-vow- els

Races And Languages Of India 0900473

y,

Races And Languages Of India 0900474

r,

Races And Languages Of India 0900475

I,

Races And Languages Of India 0900476

l

Races And Languages Of India 0900477

V.

Sib. and asp.

Races And Languages Of India 0900478

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900479

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900480

s,

Races And Languages Of India 0900481

h.

Vowels ...

Races And Languages Of India 0900482

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900483

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900484

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900485

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900486

ai,

Races And Languages Of India 0900487

o,

Races And Languages Of India 0900488

au,

Races And Languages Of India 0900489

a,

Races And Languages Of India 0900490

i

Races And Languages Of India 0900491

u,

Races And Languages Of India 0900492

e,

Races And Languages Of India 0900493

o,.

There is no grammatical gender, though grammarians distinguish between male and female, restricted however to animate beings, and even this is very vaguely applied. Feminines are indicated by the Sanskritic termination i, inni, or inna. The plural is formed either by substituting o for the final d, or by dropping the final vowel, and further by one of the four affixes varu, Ia, hu, and vol. There are eight cases, and nouns are inflected as follows: singular nom. purusayaRaces And Languages Of India 0900494 a man, acc. purusaya, voc. purusaya, gen. purusayage, dat.puru-sayata, abl. purusayagen, instr. purusayavisin, loc. purusahukerehiRaces And Languages Of India 0900495 plural - nom. purusayaRaces And Languages Of India 0900496 acc.

purusayan, voc. purusayeni, gen. purusayange, dat. purusayanta, abl. purusayangen, instr.

purusayanvisinRaces And Languages Of India 0900497 loc.

purusayankerehi. This inflection of nouns varies according to the final vowel. Adjectives precede the substantive, and remain unchanged. The comparative is formed by vada, vediya, or vediyen, and the superlative by ati or ita, which particles are always prefixed to adjectives. In comparing two objects, the object compared with another is put in the dative. The pronoun of the first person singular is mama, plural api; second person masculine singular to, plural topi; feminine singular ti, plural tila. But there are several other forms of this pronoun in use, which are employed according to the rank of the person addressed. The pronoun of the third person singular is ohu or u, plural ula; the abbreviation u being mainly used in formal discourse. The first ten cardinal numbers are eka, deka, tuna, hatara, paha, haya, hata, ata, nevaya or namaya, and dahaya. Ordinals are formed by suffixing veni. Verbs are divided into transi-tives and intransitives, and are distinguished as active and passive. The tenses, of which there are eight, viz., two of the present, an imperfect, perfect, past perfect, and future, are formed by means of participial formatives and auxiliaries.

Number and person are indicated merely by the personal pronouns used in conjunction with the verbs. - See Reise der Novara; Linguistischer Theil, by Friedrich Muller (Vienna, 1867), and Ethnographischer Theil, by Muller and Scherzer (1868); Beames, "Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages of India" (London, 1872 et seq.); and the journals of the royal Asiatic society of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the royal Asiatic society of Bengal.