Jackson, the name of 20 counties in the United States. I. A W. county of West Virginia, separated from Ohio by the Ohio river, and drained by Sandy and Big Mill creeks; area, 480 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,10,300, of whom 58 were colored. It has a diversified surface; the soil near the rivers is fertile, and elsewhere well adapted to grazing. The chief productions in 1870 were 59,845 bushels of wheat, 272,044 of Indian corn, 48,524 of oats, 50,397 of potatoes, 96,265 lbs. of tobacco, 29,850 of wool, 87,052 of butter, and 2,934 tons of hay. There were 2,558 horses, 2,289 milch cows, 3,644 other cattle, 13,610 sheep, and 8,821 swine; 2 manufactories of woollen goods, 1 of boats, 7 of cooperage, 3 flour mills, and 7 saw mills. Capital, Ripley. II. A S. W. county of North Carolina, bordering on South Carolina, and drained by head waters of the Tennessee and Savannah rivers; area, about 750 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,683, of whom 274 were colored. The Blue Ridge occupies its S. E. frontier, and the surface is generally mountainous. Since the census a portion has been taken to form Swain co.
The chief productions in 1870 were 13,560 bushels of wheat, 9,187 of rye, 156,050 of Indian corn, 10,668 of oats, 13,235 of Irish and 7,116 of sweet potatoes, 11,697 lbs. of tobacco, 10,634 of wool, 64,032 of butter, and 11,571 of honey. There were 1,022 horses, 2,136 milch cows, 3,422 other cattle, 5,028 sheep, and 8,152 swine. Capital, "Webster. III. A N. county of Georgia, drained by the head waters of Oconee river; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,181, of whom 3,710 were colored. It is a hilly and not very fertile district, abounding in granite and quartz, and containing some iron ore. The chief productions in 1870 were 35,200 bushels of wheat, 218,780 of Indian corn, 25,990 of oats, 10,656 of sweet potatoes, 56,115 lbs. of butter, and 1,825 bales of cotton. There were 1,143 horses, 663 mules and asses, 1,904 milch cows, 3,028 other cattle, 6,379 sheep, and 8,141 swine. Capital, Jefferson. IV. A N. W. county of Florida, bordering on Georgia, and separated from Alabama on the E. by the Chattahoochee river, which unites with the Flint to form the Appalachicola on the S. E. border; area, 1,040 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,528, of whom 5,598 were colored. It is intersected by the Chipola river, and has a level surface, partly covered with pine forests.
The soil near the streams is very fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 150,780 bushels of Indian corn, 25,005 of sweet potatoes, 27,972 gallons of molasses, 39,280 lbs. of rice, and 3,391 bales of cotton. There were 440 horses, 516 mules and asses, 1,974 milch cows, 4,340 other cattle, 1,439 sheep, and 6,097 swine. Capital, Marianna. V. A N. E. county of Alabama, bordering on Tennessee, and intersected by Tennessee river; area estimated at 975 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,410, of whom 3,060 were colored. It is mountainous, and the soil, drained by numerous streams, is generally fertile. The Nashville and Chattanooga and Jasper branch, and the Memphis and Charleston railroads traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 50,925 bushels of wheat, 506,777 of Indian corn, 26,-952 of oats, 11,107 lbs. of tobacco, 16,809 of wool, 121,075 of butter, 24,547 of honey, and 2,339 bales of cotton. There were 3,541 horses, 3,737 milch cows, 2,062 working oxen, 6,146 other cattle, 9,745 sheep, and 25,837 swine; 3 flour mills, 6 tanning and currying establishments, and 6 saw mills. Capital, Belle-fonte. VI. A S. E. county of Mississippi, bordering on Alabama and the gulf of Mexico, and intersected by Pascagoula river; area, 1,175 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,362, of whom 1,194 were colored.
The soil is sandy and not fertile, and pine forests cover a large part of the surface. The New Orleans, Mobile, and Texas railroad crosses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 5,377 bushels of Indian corn, 9,460 of sweet potatoes, 11,058 lbs. of wool, and 18,970 of rice. The value of live stock was $57,790. Capital, Americus. VII. A N. parish of Louisiana, drained by branches of Washita and Little rivers; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,646, of whom 3,443 were colored. It has a moderately uneven surface, and a soil generally of good quality. The chief productions in 1870 were 132,224 bushels of Indian corn, 29,603 of sweet potatoes, and 4,097 bales of cotton. There were 912 horses, 729 mules and asses, 1,955 milch cows, 5,764 other cattle, 3,192 sheep, and 12,370 swine. Capital, Vernon. VIII. A S. county of Texas, bordering on Lavaca bay, and drained by Lavaca river and other streams; area, 852 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,278, of whom 1,164 were colored. The surface is level and occupied chiefly by prairies, although there are undulating timber lands near the rivers. The soil is fertile and suited to sugar cane. The chief productions in 1870 were 36,125 bushels of Indian corn, 6,770 of sweet potatoes, and 595 bales of cotton.
There were 956 horses, 708 milch cows, 13,846 other cattle, 977 sheep, and 2,694 swine. Capital, Texana. IX. A N. E. county of Arkansas, bounded W. by Black and White rivers; area, about 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,268, of whom 1,612 were colored. It has a level surface, covered in many places with valuable ash and cypress timber, and a fertile soil. The Cairo and Fulton railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 115,215 bushels of Indian corn, 50,395 lbs. of butter, and 3,996 bales of cotton. There were 890 horses, 1,386 milch cows, 2,853 other cattle, and 7,042 swine. Capital, Jacksonport. X. A N. county of Tennessee, bordering on Kentucky, and intersected by Cumberland river; area, 666 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,583, of whom 767 were colored. The surface is much diversified. The chief productions in 1870 were 33,046 bushels of wheat, 530,276 of Indian corn, 54,314 of oats, 713,578 lbs. of tobacco, 26,311 of wool, 88,542 of butter, and 4,213 tons of hay. There were 2,984 horses, 2,780 milch cows, 2,040 working oxen, 3,751 other cattle, 15,323 sheep, and 29,-120 swine.
Capital, Gainesborough. XI. A
S. E. central county of Kentucky, drained by the sources of Rock Castle river and by an affluent of the Kentucky; area, about 425 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,547, of whom 51 were colored. The surface is hilly. The chief productions in 1870 were 4,537 bushels of wheat, 137,181 of Indian corn, 14,361 of oats, 11,141 of potatoes, and 51,540 lbs. of butter. There were 774 horses, 1,124 milch cows, 1,579 other cattle, 5,730 sheep, and 6,748 swine. Capital, McKee. XII. A S. county of Ohio, drained by Little Scioto river; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,759. It is rich in coal, iron, marble, and salt. The surface is hilly, and the soil fertile. The Marietta and Cincinnati railroad and Portsmouth branch pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 90,127 bushels of wheat, 469,920 of Indian corn, 119,534 of oats, 53,637 of potatoes, 69,162 lbs. of wool, 390,898 of butter, and 15,879 tons of hay. There were 4,294 horses, 4,490 milch cows, 9,698 other cattle, 24,439 sheep, and 11,692 swine; 4 manufactories of charcoal, 13 of pig iron, 1 of woollen goods, 5 flour mills and 7 saw mills. Capital, Jackson. XIII. A S. county of Indiana, drained by the E. fork of White river; area, 544 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,974. It has a level or undulating surface, and contains beds of iron ore.
The soils are of various qualities, some parts of the country being very fertile. The Ohio and Mississippi, and the Jefferson-ville, Madison, and Indianapolis railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 191,477 bushels of wheat, 861,520 of Indian corn, 143,737 of oats, 65,894 of potatoes, 47,648 lbs. of wool, 259,131 of butter, and 8,307 tons of hay. There were 5,842 horses, 944 mules and asses, 4,821 milch cows, 6,918 other cattle, 16,604 sheep, and 34,733 swine; 13 carriage factories, 2 woollen factories, 9 tanneries, 8 currying establishments, 5 flour mills, 2 planing mills, and 24 saw mills. Capital, Brownstown. XIV. A S. W. county of Illinois, separated from Missouri by the Mississippi river, and drained by Big Muddy river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,634. It contains extensive coal beds and several salt springs. The surface is uneven, and diversified by prairies and timber lands. The Illinois Central, the Grand Tower and Carbondale, and the Carbondale and Shaw-neetown railroads traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 329,926 bushels of wheat, 611,951 of Indian corn, 149,931 of oats, 68,481 of potatoes, 61,717 lbs. of tobacco, 20,326 of wool, 167,334 of butter, 134 bales of cotton, and 4,353 tons of hay.
There were 4,429 horses, 1,034 mules and asses, 3,230 milch cows, 4,631 other cattle, 9,011 sheep, and 26,438 swine; 2 manufactories of boxes, 3 of brick, 1 of cars, 1 of iron castings, 3 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 of patterns and models, 1 of sash, doors, and blinds, 1 woollen factory, 1 railroad repair shop, 4 flour mills, and 9 saw mills. Capital, Murphysborough. XV. A S. county of Michigan, drained by the head waters of Grand, Kalamazoo, and Raisin rivers; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,047. The surface is undulating and diversified by many small lakes. The soil is a good sandy loam. It contains bituminous coal, iron, limestone, and sandstone. The Michigan Central railroad and the Jackson, Lansing, and Saginaw, the Grand River Valley, and the Air-Line divisions of the same, the Jackson branch of the Michigan Southern railroad, the Fort Wayne, Jackson, and Saginaw, and the Detroit, Hillsdale, and Indiana railroads traverse it. The chief productions in •1870 were 825,505 bushels of wheat, 759,146 of Indian corn, 239,021 of oats, 62,546 of barley, 401,558 of potatoes, 616,238 lbs. of wool, 1,021,831 of butter, 32,955 of cheese, and 62,-090 tons of hay.
There were 10,201 horses, 8,946 milch cows, 10,623 other cattle, 130,289 sheep, and 15,879 swine; 6 manufactories of agricultural implements, 4 of boots and shoes, 6 of brick, 14 of carriages, 13 of clothing, 8 of cooperage, 1 of drain pipe, 1 of drugs and chemicals, 6 of furniture, 5 of iron castings, 2 of curried leather, 1 of morocco, 1 of engines and boilers, 9 of saddlery and harness, 5 of sash, doors, and blinds, 2 of stone and earthenware, 7 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 3 planing mills, 4 saw mills, and 11 flour mills. Capital, Jackson. XVI. A S. W. county of Minnesota, bordering on Iowa, intersected by the Des Moines river, and drained by the Changuska, an affluent of the Blue Earth; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,825. It contains several lakes, the largest of which is Heron lake. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. The Sioux City and St. Paul railroad crosses the N. W. part. The chief productions in 1870 were 24,150 bushels of wheat, 6,405 of Indian corn, 24,366 of oats, 7,637 of potatoes, 35,510 lbs. of butter, and 4,263 tons of hay. There were 237 horses, 469 milch cows, 740 other cattle, 413 sheep, and 251 swine.
Capital, Jackson. XVII. An E. county of Iowa, separated from Illinois by the Mississippi river; area, 628 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 22,619. It contains valuable mines of lead and iron, is well watered, fertile, and well timbered, and has an uneven surface. The Sabula, Ackley, and Dakota railroad skirts the S. border, and the Ma-quoketa branch of the Davenport and St. Paul line terminates in it. The chief productions in 1870 were 429,515 bushels of wheat, 1,485,250 of Indian corn, 807,511 of oats, 168,701 of potatoes, 42,060 lbs. of wool, 724,366 of butter, 77,750 of cheese, and 33,742 tons of hay. There were 8,043 horses, 9,991 milch cows, 16,554 other cattle, 10,672 sheep, and 34,667 swine; 24 manufactories of carriages, 8 of furniture, 24 of cooperage, 12 of saddlery and harness, 4 of woollen goods, 1 pork-packing establishment, 2 breweries, 14 saw mills, and 9 flour mills. Capital, Bellevue. XVIII. A "W. county of Missouri, bordering on Kansas, and bounded N". by the Missouri river, which receives the Kansas at its N. W. extremity; area, 525 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 55,041, of whom 5,223 were colored. The surf ace is moderately uneven. Limestone is the principal rock. The soil is well watered and very fertile.
The Pacific railroad of Missouri crosses it, and several other lines terminate at Kansas City within its limits. The chief productions in 1870 were 312,084 bushels of wheat, 1,504,439 of Indian corn, 173,229 of oats, 91,419 of potatoes, 70,312 lbs. of tobacco, 237,623 of butter, and 2,373 tons of hay. There were 6,961 horses, 1,703 mules and asses, 5,294 milch cows, 9,162 other cattle, 11,016 sheep, and 30,227 swine; 9 manufactories of boots and shoes, 7 of brick, 24 of carriages, 23 of clothing, 4 of confectionery, 17 of furniture, 1 of hosiery, 3 of iron castings, 1 of machinery, 9 of marble and stone work, 17 of saddlery and harness, 4 of sash, doors, and blinds, 1 of scales, 25 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 4 of tobacco and snuff, 14 of cigars, 7 of upholstery, 5 breweries, 14 flour mills, 4 saw mills, 4 establishments for packing beef, and 4 for packing pork. Capital, Independence. XIX. A N. E. county of Kansas, drained by Grasshopper river, Soldier creek, and other affluents of the Kansas; area, 556 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,053. The surface is diversified, the soil fertile. The Central branch of the Union Pacific railroad passes through it.
The chief productions in 1870 were 51,583 bushels of wheat, 486,940 of Indian corn, 137,894 of oats, 52,497 of potatoes, 145,698 lbs. of butter, and 16,273 tons of hay. There were 3,484 horses, 3,349 milch cows, 5,826 other cattle, 2,857 sheep, and 4,622 swine. Capital, Holton. XX. A S. county of Oregon, bounded S. by California, and traversed by the Cascade mountains; area, 11,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,778, of whom 634 were Chinese. Rogue river drains the W. portion; E. of the Cascade range are numerous lakes, containing the head waters of Klamath river. The soil in the west is fertile; much of the E. portion is desert. The surface is much diversified, and there is a great variety of climate. "Water power is abundant. Gold has been found on Jackson creek. The chief productions in 1870 were 15,226 bushels of wheat, 6,000 of Indian corn, 47,800 of oats, 8,020 of barley, and 1,814 tons of hay. There were 1,404 horses, 1,007 milch cows, 2,509 other cattle, 2,108 sheep, and 5,772 swine;
2 flour mills, and 1 woollen factory. Capital, Jacksonville.