Cotton (Ital. cotone, and this from the Arabic kotori), the downy fibrous substance attached to the seeds of the various species of gossy-pium, a genus of plants of the order malvacea, which also includes the common mallow, of kindred appearance to the cotton-bearing species. De Candolle thus gives its botanical character: Calyx cup-shaped, obtusely 5-toothed, surrounded by a 3-parted involucel, with dentate-incised, cordate leaflets, cohering at the base; stigmas 3 to 5; capsule 3- to 5-celled, many-seeded; seeds surrounded by a tomen-tose wool. Cultivation has so modified the plant that the number of its species is uncertain, and is variously given by different authorities. Linnseus recognized five species: G. her-baceum, G. arboreum, G. hirsutum, G. religio-sum, and G. Barbadense. De Candolle describes in his Prodromus 13 species, and mentions six others. Dr. Royle refers all the varieties to eight species. Swartz thought they might all be referred to one original species. The divisions generally recognized are three, designated by the first three named species of Linnaeus, or by the common names, herbaceous, shrub, and tree cotton; and of these the most important is the herbaceous.

Some include in it all the varieties cultivated in the United States; but' others refer the long-stapled sea island cotton plant to the arborescent division. Adopting the latter arrangement, the herbaceous would include the plants producing upland or short-stapled cotton. These grow to the height of 1 1/2 to 2 ft., and bear dark green leaves, with blue veins, and 5-lobed. The flowers are pale yellow, with five petals having purple spots at the base. A triangular pod succeeds the flower, and contains in three cells the seeds, and the three locks of white flown, which burst forth and cover the shell of the pod, when this opens at its maturity. The seeds of the short-staple cotton are green, and in size larger than those of the grape. They are sown every year. The filamentous substance which constitutes cotton appears like a mass of vegetable hairs of varying lengths, rising from the surface of the seeds, enveloping them, and assisting to fill up the cavity of the seed vessel. Under the microscope, the filaments appear to be for the most part ribbon-formed or flattened cylinders, with a thickened list at either end, and veins of embroidery running along the middle. They vary in length from half an inch to 1 3/4 inch, and in breadth from 1/700 to 1/2500 of an inch.

The cotton fibre is seldom straight like that of flax, but is either twisted or in the shape of a corkscrew. Those of the best sea island very commonly appear to be beautiful spiral springs singularly adapted to the spinning process. The hirsutum, hairy or shrub cotton, includes many varieties, which grow wherever the herbaceous is found. In the West Indies it is biennial or triennial; in India and Egypt it lasts from six to ten years; but in more temperate climates it is an annual. It includes the religiosum of Surinam, the Barbadense, the Peruvian, and other species. The cotton of Guiana and Brazil is said to belong to this division. The plant resembles in size and appearance a currant bush. The fruit or pod differs from that of the herbaceous in being of an oval form and of larger size. The tree cotton grows to the height of 15 to 20 ft. It is found in India, China, Egypt, the United States, etc. It came to the United States through the Bahama islands from one of the Caribbean isles, and is supposed to have originated in Persia. The fibre is remarkable for its length, strength, silkiness, and yellowish tinge; the seeds are black.

In Santo Domingo the cotton plant, instead of being a simple bush planted from the seed each year, is a tree growing two and three years, which needs only to be trimmed and pruned to produce a large yield of the finest cotton. The cotton plant is indigenous to the tropical regions of both hemispheres; but the range of its cultivation extends north to the southern part of Europe and south to the Cape of Good Hope, and in the western hemisphere from Virginia to southern Brazil. The natural demands of the plant are for a tropical or semi-tropical climate that affords seven or eight months entirely free from frosts. Cotton was found by Humboldt in the Andes growing at an elevation of 9,000 ft., and in Mexico at 5,500. Royle states that it is cultivated at a height of 4,000 ft. in the Himalaya. - The seasons best adapted to the growth of cotton are a wet and warm spring, allowing the young plants to become well started and firmly set in the soil; a long hot summer, with bright days and dewy nights, and occasional showers to mature the bolls; and a long dry autumn, giving full time for gathering the crop.

It has been ascertained that Indian cotton seed brought to the United States (from where it is a native to where it is an exotic) will produce a better cotton than in India, tending to longer and better staple continually. On the contrary, New Orleans seed planted in India will produce cotton the first year nearly equal to its original, but every year of reproduction from the same seed will exhibit more and more deterioration, until the product shall have assimilated to the native Indian cotton. The conditions of the two countries cause the characteristics of cotton to determine in opposite directions; hence the necessity for frequent renewals of good staple seeds in India. An analysis recently made shows that an ordinary crop of cotton removes each year from an acre of soil a little more than 26 1/2 lbs. of chemical salts, con-taimng a little more than 9 lbs. of potash, nearly 9 lbs. phosphoric acid, a little more than 1 lb. of sulphuric acid, 3 1/2 lbs. of magnesia, and nearly 2 lbs. of lime.

From this it appears that the soil must be strengthened by the use of fertilizers rich in phosphates and potash, and having a large amount of sulphuric acid. - The use of the fibre of the cotton plant as a material for textile fabrics does not appear to have been known to those nations of antiquity whose skill in the manufacture of fine linen and in the weaving of wool is recorded in the most ancient writings. The cloths in which the mummies of the Egyptians were enveloped exhibit only the round smooth fibre of flax, never the sharp, angular, and spirally twisted fibre peculiar to cotton, a structure which may be recognized in the rags of the stuff made of the material, and is not lost even in the pulp to which these rags are reduced for the purpose of being made into paper. The earliest notice of cotton is by Herodotus, about 450 B. 0., who speaks of the trees of India bearing, as their fruit, fleeces more delicate and beautiful than those of sheep, and of the Indians using them for the manufacture of cloth. Aris-tobulus and Nearchus, generals of Alexander, brought back to Greece correct accounts of the cotton tree and of its product. Theophrastus also described its culture from exact information.

From India, cotton cloth was gradually introduced into Greece and Rome, and before the Christian era it was used by Verres in Sicily as a covering for his tents. According to Livy, Lentulus Spinther (63 B. C.) first introduced cotton awnings in the theatre at the Apollinarian games; and Csesar afterward covered the forum with them, as also the sacred way from his own house to the Capitoline hill, which appeared more wonderful than the gladiatorial exhibition itself. The cotton fabrics of the Hindoos have been excelled in fineness and excellence only by the productions of the most perfect machines of modern times. By them were made the fine muslins known to the ancient Greeks by the name ofCotton 0500165Cotton 0500166 which referred to their coming from the borders of the Ganges. These were both plain and ornamental, and some were white and some beautifully dyed. The city of Calicut on the western coast, which with Surat was an ancient cotton mart for the supply of the more western nations of Asia, gave its name to the variety of the fabric known as calico. As described by Tavernier, some qualities of this were "so fine that you could hardly feel them in your hand, and the thread when spun is scarcely discernible." He also speaks of the cloth making transparent garments, and of turbans containing 25 or 30 ells of it weighing less than 4 oz. A single pound of thread was I spun out to the length of 115 miles; but it has since been made in England so fine that a pound could be made to reach 1,026 miles. The famous muslins of Dacca, made of a staple too short to be spun by Europeans or woven by any machinery, and designated as "webs of woven wind," are produced from cotton grown only in a district of about 40 m. in length by 3 in breadth, lying to the northeast of Calcutta. There are accounts of muslins made in Bengal so fine that a piece requires four months to make it, and is worth 500 rupees; when laid upon the grass and covered with dew, it is not discernible. - Spain was the first of European countries to adopt the cotton culture; it was introduced there as early as the 10th century by the Moors, and was about the same time extended to Sicily. The Venetians engaged in it about the 14th century; and the Turks about the same period introduced it into Roumelia and Macedonia. The earliest notice of cotton as an article of English trade is about the end of the 15th century.

In the early part of the 18th century the English received it from the East and West Indies. In 1700 about 1,000,000 lbs. were consumed in Great Britain. The consumption increased to 2,200,000 lbs. in 1720, and 3,900,000 in 1764. After 1786 the increase in the consumption, in consequence of Arkwright's invention, was most extraordinary. In 1800 the amount consumed was about 51,000,000 lbs., which rose to 150,000,-000 lbs. in 1820, 588,200,000 in 1850, and 1,101,191,280 in 1870. - In the new world, the manufacture of cotton cloth appears to have been well understood by the Mexicans and Peruvians long before the discovery of their countries by Europeans. Columbus found the cotton plant growing wild in Hispaniola, and later explorers recognized it as far north as the country bordering the Mishe-sepe, or Mississippi, and its tributaries. Cortes, on setting out from Trinidad on the southern coast of Cuba for his Mexican expedition, gathered it in abundance to quilt the jackets of his soldiers as a protection, after the practice of the natives, against the Indian arrows; and when on the Mexican coast, among the rich presents received by him from Montezuma were " curtains, coverlets, and robes of cotton, fine as silk, of rich and various dyes, interwoven with feather work, that rivalled the delicacy of painting." The Mexicans also fabricated white cotton cloths for numerous uses, and even converted the material into a sort of paper.

The "West India islands furnished to Great Britain about the close of the last century some 40,000 bales, or three fourths of the supply of cotton at that time. The quality was the long staple. Cotton was exported from Brazil as early as 1760, but it was not till about 1825 that Brazilian cotton began to be extensively used in England. In the United States, cotton seeds, as stated in Purchas's "Pilgrims," were first "planted as an experiment in 1621, and their plentiful coming up was, at that early day, a subject of interest in America and England." In the province of Carolina the growth of the cotton plant is noticed in a paper of the date of 1666 preserved in Carroll's "Historical Collections of South Carolina." In 1736 the plant was known in gardens in lat. 39° N., on the eastern shore of Maryland; and about 40 years afterward it was cultivated in the county of Cape May in New Jersey. It was, however, little known except as a garden plant until after. the revolutionary war, at the commencement of which Gen. Delagall is said to have had 30 acres of the green-seed cotton under culture near Savannah. In 1748 it is stated that among the exports of Charleston, S. C, were seven bags of cotton wool, valued at £3 l1s. 5d. a bag.

Another small shipment was made in 1754; and in 1770 three more, amounting to 10 bales, were made to Liverpool. In 1784 eight bags shipped to England were seized, on the ground that so much cotton could not be produced in the United States. The exports of the next six years were successively 14, 6, 109, 389, 842, and (in 1790) 81 bags. In 1786 the first sea island cotton was raised on the coast of Georgia, and its exportation was commenced in 1788 by Alexander Bissel, of St. Simon's island. The seeds were obtained from the Bahamas, the plant having been introduced there from Anguilla, one of the Leeward isles. The first successful crop in the state was that of William Elliott in 1790, on Hilton Head island. The excellent quality of the staple caused it to be distinguished from other cottons in the year 1805, and enabled it to command much higher prices. In 1806 it sold for 30 cts. per lb., when other cotton was worth 22 cts. In 1816 it brought 47 cts., other cotton 27 cts. The great length of the fibre was unequalled, and the English manufacturers at first actually reduced it by cutting before spinning. The success of the crop caused many to engage in its cultivation, and some of the largest fortunes in South Carolina were thus rapidly accumulated.

The extent of the region adapted to it was, however, limited, and the amount raised in 1805 was not exceeded by the crop of 1832, being about 8,000,000 lbs. The culture of the other varieties, the herbaceous and the hirsutum or shrub cotton, distinguished by their green instead of the black seed of the sea island, was rapidly extended in the last 10 years of the 18th century throughout the southern states, the product being known as the short staple or upland cotton. In 1791 the cotton crop in the United States was 2,000,000 lbs., of which three fourths was raised in South Carolina and one fourth in Georgia. The exports amounted to 189,500 lbs. In 1801, 48,000,000 lbs. were produced, and 20,000,000 lbs. exported. - Besides the United States, the chief countries for the production of cotton are the East Indies, Egypt, Brazil, the West Indies, and Guiana.

Shrub Cotton (Gossypium Barbadense).

Shrub Cotton (Gossypium Barbadense).

India contributes a supply of cotton next in importance to that of the United States. The earliest recorded importation of raw cotton from India to England was in 1783, when the amount imported was 114,133 lbs. Formerly the exports were principally from the districts within 40 m. of the coast; but the recent construction of railroads renders practicable the exportation of cotton raised in the interior. Although great pains have been taken to improve the culture, and seed from other countries and methods in use in the United States have been introduced at great expense, the product has not been made to equal in quality the long staple obtained in America, and, from some peculiarity common to all of it under whatever condition it is raised, is never likely to be substituted to a great extent for American cotton. The extent of the Indian cotton crop can only be reached by estimates, as the exports to Europe form a small proportion of the whole production. The home consumption is enormous, cotton being extensively used instead of wool, linen, etc, for nearly every article of clothing, and even for woven or padded furniture. The exports to China are large. In 1858 Dr. Forbes Watson estimated the whole production at 2,432,395,875 lbs., equal to 6,500,000 bales of 375 lbs. each.

The amount consumed in India was placed at 5,760,000, and that exported at 740,000 bales. After much discussion these estimates were accepted with general favor. It has since been estimated that not less than 24,000,000 acres are devoted to its culture, and that the annual production amounts to nearly 3,000,000,000 lbs. For the four years ending with 1872, the average annual imports of Indian cotton into Europe amounted to 1,650,000 bales, or 594,000,000 lbs. In 1872 the quantity reached 2,098,000 bales. Though the Chinese consume immense quantities of cotton, its use and cultivation do not appear to have been known to them previous to the 11th century, and their own crop still falls far short of supplying their wants. The best known of their fabrics are the nankeens, named from the city of Nankin. Ceylon, Borneo, and other islands of the Indian archipelago, have long produced cotton, and are susceptible of a largely increased culture of it. Japan produces it, but the fibre is found to be too coarse for the manufacture of fine fabrics. A portion of Australia is well adapted for the growth of the plant; but no country either of the old or new world is probably to be compared with Africa for the adaptation of its soil and climate to this cultivation.

In the central portions of the continent the product has been employed from remote periods; and it has long been known upon the coast of Guinea, in Abyssinia, and upon the banks of the Senegal, Gambia, Niger, etc. Cotton is also produced along the coast of eastern Africa, and in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope; but much of the African cotton is too coarse and short for the manufacture of the finer fabrics. The principal cotton-producing district of Africa is Egypt, where its culture was introduced in 1821. A small quantity is consumed in the country; but the greater portion is exported, chiefly to Europe. The consumption of Egyptian cotton in Europe has averaged about 300,000 bales annually for ten years. The best Egyptian cotton ranks next to the sea island in quality and length of staple, though it is not usually so well cleaned. The extended culture of cotton in Brazil, which was begun early in the present century, has increased so rapidly that for many years that country ranked next to the United States in the amount produced. In many places on the coast the climate was found adapted to the growth of the long-staple cotton; but the most extensive plantations are now in the interior.

The principal cotton-growing province is Per-nambuco. The European consumption of Brazilian cotton has increased from 122,000 bales in 1862 to 866,000 in 1872. In 1873 it amounted to 653,000. In the British West Indies and Guiana, and in Turkey and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean, the production of cotton is attended with profit. Australia, the South Pacific islands, South Africa, and the west coast of South America have produced fine specimens of long-stapled (black-seed) cotton, vying in spinning value with the best staples from Egypt, Surinam, Pernambuco, etc.; while eastern Europe and western Asia have produced good specimens of green-seed cotton from New Orleans seed. But these countries will not rank high in cotton production, because other staples can be cultivated with greater profit. - The United States exceed all other countries in the production of cotton, both as to quantity and quality. This is attributed not so much to soil as to climate. The plant is found growing as far north as 40°; but the belt within which its cultivation is attended with profit lies between the gulf of Mexico and the parallel of 36°, and the best cotton region extends about 100 m. on either side of the parallel of 32°. Although it may be profitably cultivated in some of the Tennessee valleys, in some bottom lands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, and a limited area in North Carolina, the cotton states, properly speaking, are South Carolina, Georgia, the northern part of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, the northern half of Louisiana, the southern half of Arkansas, and the eastern half of Texas. The yield of cotton per acre varies greatly, corresponding with the condition of the soil; it ranges in amount from 130 lbs. on the uplands to 400 lbs. on the rich lowlands.

The productive capacity of the soil is greatly increased by the use of fertilizers. The average for the total crop of the United States in 1872 was one half bale per acre. There are two leading varieties of cotton cultivated in the United States, the upland from green and the sea island from black seed. The upland, known also as the shortstaple, is of Mexican or West Indian origin, and has received the designation upland to distinguish it from the produce of the islands and low districts near the shore. It constitutes the great bulk of the crop in the United States. Thus in 1873, when the total production of cotton amounted to 3,930,508 bales, the crop of sea island was 26,289 bales. The sea island (G. arboreum or tree cotton) is the finest and best kind of cotton produced anywhere, and commands the highest price. It will not flourish at a distance from the sea, and its cultivation is limited to districts along the shores of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas. The most favorable point for its production, in respect both to soil and, climate, is Edisto island, on the coast of South Carolina, south of Charleston. The soil is light and sandy, but a little above tide, and its fertility is increased by the use, as manure, of mud from the surrounding salt marshes.

The average yield per acre is little more than half of that of the upland. The staple or filament of sea island cotton is long, silken, and delicate, which renders it highly valuable in the production of the finest yarns. It is never introduced into the coarser muslins, but is used for the most delicate fabrics, and very largely in the manufacture of the finest quality of cotton thread; and it is also consumed in large quantities by silk manufacturers, the fine, soft, and glossy fibre rendering a mixture with the thread of the silkworm difficult to be detected. - The cotton plant is cultivated in the southern states from the seed, which is sown generally in March and April, in rows commonly 4 to 5 ft. apart, and in drills 18 inches apart. Machines have been invented and used for planting the seeds, but not with full success; accordingly the planting is generally done by hand. The soil is preferred light, even if sandy, and is kept well weeded by occasional hoeing or running a light plough or scraper between the rows. Sea island cotton is generally planted between March 20 and April 10, upon high beds, 5 ft. apart one way, and from 8 to 24 inches the other, according to the richness of the soil.

In ten days or a fortnight after planting, rows of tiny leaflets appear bursting out of the moist earth, and early in June the plant begins to bloom. It is said that no crop in the United States presents an appearance so beautiful as growing cotton, especially at the gathering season, when the globes of snowy wool are seen among the glossy dark green leaves; and the beauty of the plantation is still greater in the hotter countries, where the yellow blossom or flower and the ripened bolls are seen at the same time. In June the cotton fields present the appearance of vast flower gardens. The blossom resembles that of the hollyhock, and has the peculiarity of changing color from day to day. A flower, opening in the morning of a pale straw color, by noon will be pure white, in the afternoon faint pink, and the next morning clear pink. The blossom of the sea island, however, is always pale yellow. The height of the plant varies, according to soil and climate, from 2 to 6 ft. As the flowers fall off, the "forms" or young bolls begin to grow rapidly. At first they are somewhat angular in shape, but afterward assume a nearly spherical form.

The cotton plant is often injured, and sometimes destroyed, by small animals or insects which attack the plant when very young. (See Cotton Worm.) Early in August the picking season begins, and continues until November, and sometimes even until the latter part of December, as the plant continues to produce and ripen its bolls of cotton until the appearance of frost. The height of the picking season is in October. The picking is by hand. Lines of pickers, generally negroes, male and female, with wide-mouthed sacks suspended from their shoulders or waists, pass between the rows of plants, and gather the fleecy cotton from the open pods, which is carried in sacks and deposited in baskets at the ends of the rows. Each person will pick an average of from 200 to 300 lbs. per day. Successive pickings are made as the bolls ripen. The cotton is brought from the field in wagons to the gin house, generally a plain wooden structure two stories high. If damp it is dried in the sun. The next step is the process of ginning, or the separation of the fibre from the seed.

This process was at first performed by hand, which was a very tedious operation owing to the tenacity with which the cotton clings to the seed; but since the great invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney, in 1793, it has been done by that machine with the most beneficial results. So great was the effect of this invention upon the cultivation and manufacture of cotton, that its production and consumption increased with marvellous rapidity. The principle and mechanism of the cotton gin are both simple. The main features consist of a cylinder, generally about 4 ft. long and 5 in. in diameter, upon which is set a series of circular saws, about half an inch apart, and projecting about two inches above the surface of the revolving cylinder. A mass of cotton in the seed, separated from the cylinder by steel bars or grating, is brought into contact with the numerous teeth on the cylinder. These teeth catch the cotton while playing between the bars, which allow the lint but not the seed to pass. Underneath the saws is a set of stiff brushes on another cylinder revolving in the opposite direction, which brush off from the saw teeth the lint which they have just pulled from the seed.

The remaining feature is a revolving fan for producing a current of air to throw the light and downy lint thus liberated to a convenient distance from the revolving saws and brushes. These are the essential principles of the cotton gin as invented by Whitney, and as still used; but in various details and workmanship, it has been the subject of many improvements, the object of which is to pick the cotton more perfectly from the seed, to prevent the teeth from cutting the staple, and to give greater regularity to the operations of the machine. The ordinary gin, however, cannot be successfully used in separating the lint of sea island cotton from the seed. The machinery generally used for this purpose consists of two fluted rollers, commonly made of wood, but sometimes of vulcanized rubber or steel, about 5/8 in. in diameter and from 9 to 16 in. long, placed parallel in a frame which keeps them almost in contact. These rollers, revolving in opposite directions, draw the cotton between them, while the seeds are prevented from passing by the want of sufficient space. This machine is worked by the foot of the operator acting upon a treadle, while the cotton is fed between the rollers by hand.

From 30 to 40 lbs. a day can be cleaned by one of these machines, while the average daily capacity of an ordinary Whitney gin is about 3,200 lbs. Horse power is commonly used in ginning cotton; but on large plantations steam is used. The next process is that of packing the cotton into bales. This is done by means of presses, which are generally worked by hand, but sometimes by horse power. Where, however, large quantities are packed, hydraulic presses are used. Screw presses are also common. There is no uniformity in the size of bales, but the average American bale weighs from 450 to 460 lbs. The cotton seed is of an oily nature, yielding a vegetable drying oil. It is extensively used on cotton fields as a fertilizer, for which purpose it has valuable qualities. Recently efforts have been made to make this oil a leading article of trade. The oil was extracted from the seed by means of machinery, and for a while was used in the manufacture of soap, as a substitute for olive oil, as a lubricator, for illuminating purposes, and as a substitute for linseed oil in mixing paints. It did not prove, however, to be well adapted to these purposes, and has not come into general use.

The amount of cottonseed oil exported from the United States in 1872 was 547,165 gallons, valued at $293,546. After the seed has been ground and the oil extracted therefrom, the refuse is formed into "cotton-seed cake," which has been found to be a very useful article of food for cattle as a substitute for linseed oil cake. Cotton-seed cake is also exported in large quantities to Great Britain, where it is used in feeding cattle. - The crop having been packed into bales, the transportation to the various markets of the world is begun. A portion of each crop is consumed at the south, the extent of which is indicated by the fact that of the total consumption of the United States in 1872-'3, amounting to 1,201,127 bales, about 137,662 bales were consumed by southern and 1,063,465 by northern mills. The greater proportion of the crop not retained in the south finds an outlet at the leading southern ports, whence it is shipped to northern and to foreign ports. The principal cotton ports of the south, with the relative extent of the commerce at each, are indicated in the following statement of exports for 1872-'3:

The Gin House.

The Gin House.

Exterior View of the Gin.

Exterior View of the Gin.

Longitudinal Section of the Gin.

Longitudinal Section of the Gin.

The Cotton Press.

The Cotton Press.

SHIPPING PORTS.

To foreign ports, bales.

To coastwise ports, bales.

Charleston,S.C.....

160,169

225,016

Fernandina, St. Mark's, etc., Fla..

14,063

Galveston.Tex.............

210,433

133,304

Mobile,Ala..............

132,130

197,131

New Orleans......

1,177,053

228 968

North Carolina ports......

1,632

59,898

Sanannah, Ga.....

375,895

248,752

Virginia ports......

7,722

424,791

There is also a considerable interior movement of cotton to northern mills and markets, amounting in 1873 to 402,296 bales. This transportation is chiefly by water to points on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, Cairo, St. Louis, Cincinnati, etc, whence it is transported north and east by railroad. In commerce cotton is distinguished by its color, but more especially by the length, strength, and fineness of its fibre. White usually indicates a superior quality; a yellow or a yellowish tinge, when not the effect of accidental wetting or inclement seasons, is considered as indicating greater fineness. It is desirable that cotton shall have a slight and delicate creamy tint, indicating well matured and strong staple; but otherwise the purer white the better. The commercial classification of cotton is determined - 1, by cleanliness or freedom from impurities, such as dry leaf, sand, etc.; 2, by absence of color; both subject also to character of staple length, and strength and fineness of fibre. These together determine relative value. There are two general classifications, long-stapled and short-stapled. Of the former the best is the sea island cotton of the United States; but its quality differs so much that there is a wide range in its prices.

The superior samples of the cotton of Brazil are also classed with the long-stapled. The cotton of the United States, with the exception of sea island, and also that of India, belong to the short-stapled variety. The relative value of the various kinds of cotton is indicated in the following quotation of prices in the Liverpool market:

Long-staple or black-seed varieties.

Sea island, middling...

23d.

Egyptian, fair.........

11 1/2d.

Peruvian, fair.........

11 1/2d.

Pernarnbuco, fair......

11 1/4d.

West,India,fair.......

11d.

Green-seed varieties.

New Orleans, middling.

11d.

Mobile, middling......

10 7/8d.

Upland, midding....

10 7/8d.

Smyrna. etc., fair......

9 1/2d.

Surats, Dharwars, fair..

9 3/8d.

Surats, Dhollerahs, fair.

Bid.

Madras, fair....

8 1/2d.

Bengal, fair.....

lid.

Probably no other staple has attained a commercial importance equal to that of cotton. Certainly no other article enters so largely into the aggregate value of the commerce of the United States and that of Great Britain. The total value of the domestic exports of the United States for the year ending June 30,1872, as reported by the chief of the bureau of statistics, was $549,219,-718, while the exports of cotton amounted to £180,684,595; and so of the total value of imports into Great Britain in 1872, amounting to £354,693,624, the value of cotton imported reached £53,380,670, being more than double that of any other article; of this amount over one half was imported from the United States. In the United States the increase in the production of cotton was steady and rapid until the civil war. Beginning with 1830, the increase amounted to about 1,000,000 bales in each decade till 1859-'60, when the production reached the amount of 4,861,292 bales, which is the largest crop ever produced in the United States, although that of 1870-71 fell short of it less than 500,000 bales. There is no record of the amount produced during the war, 1861 -'5, which was necessarily very small.

Since its close the production has increased from 2,269,316 bales in 1865-'6 to 4,362,317 bales in 1870-71. There was a marked decrease in the production of 187l-'2, the crop amounting to 3,014,351 bales; but this is attributed to causes which will not permanently retard the general increase of the production. The increase in the home consumption has been still more remarkable. Beginning with 126,512 bales in 1830, the consumption amounted to 295,193 in 1840, 613,498 in 1850, 978,043 in 1860, and 1,201,127 in 1873. According to the United States census, 288,558,000 lbs. of cotton were consumed in American mills in 1850, 422,704,975 in 1860, and 398,308,257 in 1870. The statistics of the production and consumption of cotton in the United States and the exports therefrom are by no means uniform. They are generally prepared under the auspices of commercial organizations, or by journals devoted to commerce, from a careful comparison of the exports, receipts, and stock on hand at the various ports where the staple finds an outlet, and estimates of the amount consumed in the interior. The results, therefore, will naturally vary for the same periods, and can be only approximately correct.

There is also a lack of uniformity in the weight of bales, which renders it impossible to fix an accurate average for. an extended period. The following table is believed to possess as high a degree of accuracy as can be attained:

United States Cotton Trade For 48 Years

YEARS, ending

Aug. 31.

Production, bales.

Consumption, bales.

Exports, bales.

Average net weight per bale, lbs.

Average price per lb. in New York, cents.

Average price per lb. in Liverpool, pence.

1825.,26 ...

720,027

..........

...........

..........

12.19

5.85

1826.'27 ...

957,281

149,516

854,000

331

9.29

5.79

1827.'28 ...

720,593

120,593

600,000

335

1032

5.84

1823.'29 ...

870,415

118,853

740,000

341

9.83

5.32

1829.'30 ...

976,845

126,512

839,000

339

10.04

6.44

1830.'31

1,038,847

182,142

773,000

341

9.71

5 72

1831.'32

987,477

173,800

892,000

360

9.38

6.22

1832.,'33 ...

1,070,488

194,412

867,000

350

12.32

7.87

1833.'34 ...

1,205,394

196,413

1,028,000

363

12.90

8.10

1834.'35 ...

1,254,328

216,888

1,023,500

367

17.45

9.13

1835.'36 ...

1,360,725

236,733

1,116,000

373

16.50

8.79

1836.'37 ...

1,423,930

222,540

1,169,000

379

13.25

6.09

1837.38 ...

1,801,497

246,063

1,575,000,

379

10.14

628

1838.'39

1,360,532

276,018

1,074,000

884

13.36

7.19

1839.'40 ...

2,177,835

295,193

1,876,000

383

8.92

5.42

1840.'41 ...

1,634,954

267,850

1,313,500

394

9.50

5.73

1841.,42 ...

1,683,574

267,850

1,465,500'

397

7.85

4.86

1842.'43 ...

2,378,875

325,129

2,010,000

409

7.25

! 4.37

1843.,44 ...

2,030,409

346,750

1,629,500

412

7.73

4.71

1844.'45 ...

2.394,503

389,000

2,083.700

415

5.63

3.92

1845.'46 ...

2,100,537

422,600

1,666,700

411

7.87

4.80

1846.'47 ...

1,778,651

428,000

1,241,200

431

11.21

6.03

1847.,48 ...

2,439,786

616,044

1,858,000

417

8.03

3.93

1848.,49 ...

2.866,938

642,485

2.228,000

436

7.55

4.09

1849.'50 ...

2,238,718

613,498

1,590,200

429

12.34

7.10

1850.'51 ...

2,454,442

485,614

1,988,710

416

12.14

5.51

1851.'52

3,126,310

689,603

2,443,646

428

9.50

505

1852.'53 ...

3,416,214

803,725

2,528,400

428

11.02

5.54

1853.'54 ...

3,074,979

737,236

2,319,148

430

10.97

5.31

1854.'55 ...

2,982,634

706,417

2,244,209

434

10.39

5.60

1855.'56 ...

3,665.557

770,739

2,954,606

420

10.30

6.22

1856.'57...

3,093,737

819,936

2,252,657

444

13.51

773

1857.'58 ...

3,257,339

595,562

2,590,455

442

12.23

6.91

1858.'59 ...

'4,018.914

927,651

3.021.403

447

12.08

6.68

1859.'60....

4,861,292

978,043

2,774,173

461

11.00

5.97

1860.'61...

3,849,469

843,740

3,127,568

477

13.01

8.50

1861.'62...

.......

........

..........

.....

31.29

18.37

1862.'63 ...

.........

.......

.........

......

67.21

22.46

1863.64 ...

.......

.........

..........

...

101.50

27.17

1864.'65...

........

......

.........

....

83.38

19.11

1865.'66...

2,269,316

666,100

1,554,664

441

43.20

15.30

1866.'67 ...

2,097,254

770,030

1,557,054

444

31.59

10.98

1867.'68 ...

2,519,554

906,636

1,655,816

445

24.85

10.52

1868.'69...

2,366,467

926,374

1,465,880

444

29.01

12.12

1869.'70...

3,122,551

865,160

2,206,480

440

23.98

9.89

1870.'71 ...

4,362,317

1,110,196

3,166,742

442

16.95

8.55

1871.72 ...

3,014,351

1,237,330

1,957,314

443

20.48

10.78

1872.73 ...

|3,930,508

1,201,127

2,679,986

464

18.15

9.65

This table was compiled by B. F. Nourse of Boston, a high authority on matters pertaining to the production and manufacture of cotton, and has been extended from the table presented by him in the report on cotton as United States commissioner to the Paris exposition of 1867. The prices are for middling upland. It includes the production of sea island cotton, which during recent years has been as follows:

Years.

Bales.

1856.'57...........

45.314

1857.'58...........

40,566

1858.'59...........

47,592

1859-'60...

46,649

1860-'66....

no record.

1866.'67...........

32,228

Years.

Bales.

1867.,68..............

21,275

1868.'69..............

18,082

1869-'70...

26,507

1870.'71..............

21,609

1871.'72..............

16,845

1872.,73..............

26,289

Of the total crop of this staple in 1873, 13,156 bales were produced in South Carolina, 10,764 in Florida, 1,269 in Georgia, and 1,100 in Texas. Prior to 1825 no full and trustworthy statistics of the production and exports of cotton were collected; but the following statement exhibits the general growth of this industry during the first quarter of the century:

YEARS.

Crop, lbs.

Export, lbs.

Value of exports.

Av. price per lb., cents.

1801-'05...

298,000,000

166,000,000

$39,000,000

19.0@23.0

1806-'10...

402,000,000

261,000,000

47,000,000

14.0@ 22.0

1811-'15...

400,000,000

210,000,000

33,000,000

10.6@ 16.5

1816.'20..

706,000,000

483,000,000

120,000,000

17.4@.33.8

1821.'25..

1,045,000,000

762,181,330

128,421,812

11.8@ 20.9

The points from which the exports of cotton to foreign ports have been made are indicated in the following statement, the years ending Aug. 31:

FROM

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

New Orleans...

1,005,530

1,302,535

888,976

1,177,058

Mobile........

200,838

287.074

137,977

132,130

South Carolina.

97,109

175,650

111,388

160,169

Georgia........

265,631

464,369

295,798

375,895

Texas.........

152,559

221,242

116,597

210,438

Florida.......

..........

............

..........

........

North Carolina.

50

70

.........

1,632

Virginia......

9,660

5,417

3,807

7,722

New York.....

413,701

667,958

373,071

573,498

Boston........

1,677

3,005

13,128

11,128

Philadelphia...

.....

1,380

2,108

6,792

Baltimore.....

82,162

37,567

14,311

20.943

Portland, Me...

......

475

143

2,257

San Francisco..

........

........

12

324

Total U.S...

2,178,917

3,166,742

1,957,314

2,679,986

The exports for the year 1872.'3 were shipped to the following ports:

PORTS.

Bales.

Liverpool.........

1,842,117

London........

386

Glasgow......

701

Queenst'wn,Cork,etc.

50,487

Cowes, Falmouth, etc.

11,455

Havre...........

251,172

Rouen............

1,781

Amsterdam..........

32,404

Bremen........

191,586

Hamburg........

24.691

Antwerp.........

25,387

Rotterdam.........

15,706

Gottenburg and

Stockholm........

10,136

Uddevalla........

1,650

PORTS.

Bales.

Barcelona........

52,194

Santander........

1,280

Malaga...........

7,758

San Sebastian, etc.

2,543

Genoa............

36,470

Trieste............

2,947

Salerno..........

844

Narva............

5,903

Cronstadt........

56,227

Pvevel...........

51,426

Helsingfors......

1,060

Mexico...........

997

Other ports......

783

Total............

2,679,986

In the consumption of cotton Great Britain ranks far above all the other countries of the world, the United States and France following next in order. Here the greater portion of the crop of each country finds a market, and a demand to supply a far greater number of mills and spindles than can be found in any other nation. England therefore may be regarded as the centre of the cotton trade and the greatest cotton market of the world. The increase of the cotton manufacture of Great Britain, and of the consequent demand for the raw material, has been extraordinary. The total amount of cotton annually imported into the country during the five years ending with 1705 amounted only to 1,170,881 lbs.; nor does the amount seem to have increased considerably between that date and 1770. But the wonderful improvements in the methods of spinning made about this time by Hargreaves and Arkwright, and the subsequent invention of the "mule jenny" by Orompton, and of the power loom by Cart-wright, produced a revolution in the manufacture of cotton. The growth of the English cotton trade from its origin is exhibited in the following tables.

From 1781 to 1815 the statements of imports and exports are given, the difference showing the amount of consumption; from 1820 to 1857 the amount of imports and consumption, the difference showing the exports; from 1858 to 1872, there is also a statement of the countries from which the cotton was imported.

YEARS.

Imports, lbs.

Exports, lbs.

1700 to 1705 (average).........

1,170,881

.........

1710..........................

715,018

...........

1720..........................

1,972,805

..........

1730..........................

1.515,472

............

1741..........................

1,645,031

...........

1751..........................

2.976.610

...........

1764..........................

3,870,392

...........

1771 to 1775 (average).........

4,674,589

............

1776 to 1785 " ........

6,766,613

.........

1781..........................

5,198,778

98,788

1790..........................

31,447,605

844,154

1795 ...................................

26,401,340

1,193,737

1800..........................

56,010,732

4,416,610

1805..........................

59,682,406

804,243

1810..........................

132,488,935

8,787,109

1815..............

99,306,343

6,780,392

YEARS.

Imports, lbs.

Consumpt'n, lbs.

1820

151,672,655

152,829,633

1821

152,536,620

137,401,549

1822

142,837,628

143,428,127

1823

191,402,503

186,311,070

1824

149,380,122

141,038,743

1825

228,005,291

202,546,869

1826

177,607,401

162,889,012

1827

272,448,909

249,804,396

1828

227,760,642

208,987,744

1829

222,767,411

204,097,037

1830

963,961.452

269,616,640

1831

288,674,653

273,249,653

1832

286,832,525

259,421,463

1833

303,656,837

293,682,976

1834

326,875,425

302,935,657

1835

363,702,963

'326,407,692

1836

406,959,057

363,684,232

1837

407,286,783

363,445,035

1838

507,850,577

455,036,755

YEARS.

Imports, lbs.

Consumpt'n, lbs.

1839

389,396,559

352,000,277

1840

592,488,010

528,142,743

1841

487,992.355

437,093,631

1842

528,500,000

435,100,000

1843

633,193,116

517,800,000

1844

646,111,304

544,000,000

1845

721,979,963

606,600,000

1846

467,856,274

614,300,000

1847

474,707,615

441,400,000

1848

713,020,161

576,600,000

1849

755,469,012

629,900,000

1850

663,576,861

588,200,000

1851

757,379,749

658,900,000

1852

929,782,448

739,600,000

1853

895,278,749

760,900,000

1854

887,335,904

776,100,000

1855

891,751,952

839,100,000

1856

1,023,886,304

891,400,000

1857

909,318,869

786,000,000

QUANTITIES OF RAW COTTON IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM VARIOUS COUNTRIES, TOTAL EXPORTED, AND EXCESS OF IMPORTS.

Excess of imports.

Lbs.

884,782,576

1,050,845,986

1,140,599,712

958,696,816

309,258,768

428,731,632

649,400,080

675,593.072

988,532,160

912,249,968

1,006,048,288

947,281,888

1,101,191,280

1.416,064,160

1,185,832,382

Total exported.

Lbs.

149,609,600

175,143,136

250,339,040

298,287,920

214,714,528

241.352.496

244,702,304

302.908.928

888,981,936

350,635,986

322,713,328

274,289,344

238.175,840

362.075.616

273,005,040

Total imported.

Lbs.

1,084,342,176

1,225,989,072

1,390,938,752

1,256,984,736

523,973,296

670.084.128

894.102,884

978.502.000

1,377,514,096

1,262,885,904

1.328.761,616

1,221,571,232

1.389.367.120

1.778.189.776

1,408,837,472

Other countries.

Lbs.

11,078,888

10.767,120

8.303,680

9,033,024

17.585.344

20,655.824

33,770,240

80,501,744

22,419,376

17.852,464

18,339.440

19:574,936

55:031.760

82.793.488

82,184,544

China.

Lbs.

...........

............

3.920

..........

1.766.016

30.856.336

86.157.008

35.855.792

5.837.440

527.184

........

448

10.528

102.144

252,112

British Possessions in the East Indies.

Lbs.

182.722.576

192.330.880

204.141.168

369.040.448

392.654.528

484420784

506.527.892

445 947 600

6151302.240

498.317.008

493.706.640

481.440.176

341 536.608

431,209,744

443,234,736

Egypt.

Lbs.

88.232.320

37.667.056

43.954.064

40.892.096

59,012.464

98 552 368

125 493,648

17,888,144

118.260.800

126.285.264

129.182.928

160.450.280

143,710,438

176.166 480

177,581,712

The Mediterranean, exclusive of Egypt.

Lbs.

15.792

439.040

82.544

587.104

6.225.856

13 806 576

21 755 216

27 239 072

11.510688

6.780.480

6 702.304

13 506.640

1 510 912

3,777.424

8,031,744

Brazil

Lbs.

18.617.872

22.478.960

17.286.864

17.290.336

23.339.008

22 603168

38,017.504

55 403 152

68.524.400

70.430.080

98.796.768

79.417.968

64,234,688

86.158.800

112,509,824

Colombia and Venezuela.

Lbs.

74.144

6.496

225.120

154.896

1.170.736

2 628 600

6.500 868

14.699,328

11,599,392

9.713.872

4.808.160

8.085.728

4,767,056

6.582.240

7,960,624

British West India Islands and British Guiana.

Lbs.

867.808

592.256

1.050.784

486.304

5.563.376

25.181.856

26.788.992

16,536,912

3.600.352

4810.288

2.725.856

1.695.568

2.314 256

2.671.586

1,450,960

Mexico.

Lbs.

...........

..........

..........

........

8.131.520

19.278.112

25.589.024

86 664 880

352,240

2.464

......

40.544

2 016

........

81,186

United States.

Lbs.

833.237.776

961.707.264

115.890.608

819.500.528

13.524.224

6,394 080

14.198.688

135,832,480

520.061.136

528.166.800

574.478.016

457.358,944

716 248 848

1,038,677,920

625,600,080

YEARS.

1858............

1859............

1860............

186i............

1862. ..........

1863...

1864

1865...

1866............

1867............

1868 .........

1869.......

1870

1871.

1872............

Besides the quantities given above, a small supply was received from Japan during 1862-'8, amounting in 1864 to 9,404,304 lbs., and in 1865 to 2,982,896 lbs. The following table, compiled with great exactness by M. Ott-Trtimpler, the eminent statistician of Zurich, shows the consumption of cotton in thousands of bales in Europe, and the sources of supply:

YEARS, ending Sept.

30.

ENGLISH CONSUMPTION.

CONSUMPTION OF THE CONTINENT.

Consumption of Europe.

American.

Indian.

Brazil.

Egypt.

Sundry.

Total.

American.

Indian.

Brazil.

Egypt.

Sundry.

Total.

1872-,73...

1,654

737

509

306

129

3,335

669

795

144

87

169

1,884

5.219

1871-,72...

1,412

658

668

239

155

3,132

501

703

198

49

190

1,641

4,773

1870-'71..

1,925

55S

379

241

119

3,222

919

733

140

96

158

2,046

5,268

1869-70...

1,304

834

361

168

93

2,760

608

623

165

58

173

1,627

4,387

1868-'69...

877

913

493

175

129

2,587

545

850

191

61

269

1,916

4,503

1867-,68...

1,497

799

533

182

111

2,822

538

723

175

69

277

1,782

4,604

1866-'67...

1,016

815

298

160

125

2.414

532

777

152

55

217

1,733

4,147

1865-'66...

846

878

259

286

150

2.319

391

755

164

69

237

1,616

3,935

1864-,65...

187

850

203

285

348

1.873

49

637

121

89

286

1,182

3,055

1863-'64...

178

620

134

219

414

1,565

64

543

74

106

246

1,033

2.598

1862-,63...

99

905

111

163

54

1,332

34

559

49

64

108

814

2,146

1861-'62....

304

675

101

122

15

1,217

258

415

21

42

40

776

1,993

1860-'61....

2,170

249

............

193

.............

2,612

1,273

425

...

78

........

1,776

4,388

The receipts at the ports of Spain, Sweden, and Russia, and the consumption in Italy of native cotton, are not included in the above tables. "The consumption of Russia, Sweden, and Spain," says M. Ott-Triimpler, "is estimated at 8,000 bales per week, or 416,000 bales for the year, and I find that these countries have received very nearly one half from England, and from ports on the continent, comprised in my table, and the remaining half direct from the places of production, this remainder not being included in my statement. To determine, therefore, the consumption of all Europe, there should be added to my estimate of consumption 208,000 bales." According to the Liverpool Cotton Brokers' Circular, the imports into Great Britain and consumption for the year ending Dec. 31, 1872, were as follows:

Bales.

Average weight, lbs.

Consumption, bales.

American..........

1,403.470

439

1.436.870

Brazil...........

717.230

150

713,300

Egyptian............

287,730

529

279.290

Turkey,etc......

17.150

385

15,090

West India,etc....

166,440

204

131,650

Surat................

778,200

390

689,420

Madras......

239,870

300

Bengal..............

270,050

800

Total..........

3,8S0,140

354

3,265,620

Of the total imports for 1872, 3,416,310 bales were received in Liverpool. (See Cotton Manufacture).