Perry, the name of counties in ten of the United States.
A S. County Of Pennsylvania, bounded E. by the Susquehanna, and intersected toward the north by the Juniata river and south by Sherman's creek; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,447. Its surface is mountainous, the Tuscarora range forming the N. "W. boundary and the Blue mountains the S. E., but much of the land is very fertile. It is intersected by the Pennsylvania railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 286,725 bushels of wheat, 29,508 of rye, 417,235 of Indian corn, 435,885 of oats, 118,197 of potatoes, 25,263 tons of hay, 20,449 lbs. of wool, and 366,221 of butter. There were 4,885 horses, 5,501 milch cows, 7,001 other cattle, 7,119 sheep, and 10,906 swine; 4 manufactories of boots, 11 of iron, 22 of tanned and 15 of curried leather, 3 of woollen goods, 3 wool-carding and cloth-dressing establishments, 16 flour mills, and 8 saw mills. Capital, Bloomfield.
A Central County Of Alabama, intersected by the Oahawba river; area, 590 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 24,975, of whom 17,833 were colored. It has an undulating surface and fertile soil. The Selma, Marion, and Memphis railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 341,985 bushels of Indian corn, 13,800 of sweet potatoes, and 13,449 bales of cotton. There were 929 horses, 2,160 mules and asses, 2,291 milch cows, 3,108 other cattle, 2,374 sheep, and 7,903 swine. Capital, Marion.
A S. E. County Of Mississippi, intersected by Leaf river and Black creek, tributaries of the Pascagoula, and drained by their branches; area, 1,044 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,694, of whom 723 were colored. It has a broken surface and a not very fertile soil, covered with forests of pine. The Alabama Central railroad passes through the S. W. corner. The chief productions in 1870 were 51,301 bushels of Indian corn, 6,012 of oats, 27,109 of sweet potatoes, 12,106 lbs. of wool, 15,890 of rice, and 164 bales of cotton. There were 554 horses, 3,160 milch cows, 5,691 other cattle, 6,898 sheep, and 6,928 swine. Capital, Augusta.
A Central County Of Arkansas, bounded N. E. by the Arkansas river and intersected by the Fourche la Feve, one of its branches; area, about 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,685, of whom 290 were colored. It has a diversified surface, and the soil is generally fertile, particularly near the streams. The chief productions in 1870 were 85,115 bushels of Indian corn and 980 bales of cotton. There were 742 horses, 919 milch cows, 2,301 other cattle, 1,240 sheep, and 7,288 swine. Capital, Perryville.
A W. County Of Tennessee, bounded W. by the Tennessee river and interseoted by the Buffalo, a branch of Duck river; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,925, of whom 472 were colored. Its surface is diversified and the soil is generally fertile. The chief productions in'1870 were 34,537 bushels of wheat, 368,045 of Indian corn, 70,296 of buckwheat, 5,244 lbs. of tobacco, 10,429 of wool, 45,659 of butter, 7,446 gallons of sorghum molasses, and 495 bales of cotton. There were 1,706 horses, 804 mules and asses, 1,971 milch cows, 928 working oxen, 2,297 other cattle, 5,328 sheep, and 17,950 swine. Capital, Linden.
A S. E. County Of Kentucky, drained by the North and Middle forks of the Kentucky river; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,274, of whom 96 were colored. It has a mountainous and rugged surface, the valleys being arable and fertile and the higher lands adapted to wool growing. The chief productions in 1870 were 135,454 bushels of Indian corn, 9,446 of potatoes, 24,406 lbs. of butter, and 10,007 of wool. There were 644 horses, 1,637 milch cows, 3,334 other cattle, 7,025 sheep, and 9,492 swine.
A S. E. County Of Ohio, drained by several small streams; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,18,453. It has an undulating surface and a fertile soil. The Cincinnati and Muskingum valley railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 196,352 bushels of wheat, 681,612 of Indian corn, 132,-208 of oats, 79,496 of potatoes, 25,581 tons of hay, 65,552 lbs. of tobacco, 374,331 of wool, 623,153 of butter, and 39,005 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 6,241 horses, 6,340 milch cows, 11,419 other cattle, 85,290 sheep, and 16,122 swine; 6 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 31 of stone and earthen ware, 2 of woollens, 3 flour mills, 7 saw mills, 4 tanneries, afid 4 currying establishments. Capital, Somerset.
A S. County Of Indiana, bounded S. and E. by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and drained by Anderson's and other creeks; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,801. It has a very hilly surface and a soil fertile along the streams. The chief productions in 1870 were 55,224 bushels of wheat, 288,705 of Indian corn, 62,495 of oats, 83,918 of potatoes, 74,300 lbs. of butter, 17,345 of wool, 224,125 of tobacco, and 5,544 tons of hay. There were 2,770 horses, 2,520 milch cows, 3,443 other cattle, 9,013 sheep, and 15,-224 swine; 5 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 1 of cotton goods, 1 of agricultural implements, 4 of furniture, 3 flour mills, 6 saw mills, 3 distilleries, and 4 breweries. Capital, Cannelton.
A S. County Of Illinois, intersected by Beaucoup creek; area, about 430 sq. in.; pop. in 1870, 13,723. It has a diversified surface, and much of the soil is fertile. It is intersected by the Illinois Central, the Chester and Pamaroa, and the St. Louis, Belleville, and Southern Illinois railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 350,446 bushels of wheat, 384,446 of Indian corn, 338,760 of oats, 36,514 of potatoes, 111,982 lbs. of butter, 33,299 of wool, and 5,057 tons of hay. There were 4,527 horses, 3,095 milch cows, 3,763 other cattle, 10,255 sheep, and 14,430 swine; 2 manufactories of boots and shoes, 6 of carriages and wagons, 1 of machinery, 5 of saddlery and harness, and 5 flour mills. Capital, Pinckneyville.
A S. E. County Of Missouri, separated from Illinois by the Mississippi river, and drained by several small streams; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,847, of whom 400 were colored. It has a diversified surface and a fertile soil. The chief productions in 1870 were 230,674 bushels of wheat, 331,375 of Indian corn, 112,234 of oats, 25,760 of barley, 23,982 of potatoes, 10,-817 tons of hay, 3,480 lbs. of tobacco, 18,292 of wool, 146,905 of butter, and 16,411 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 3,668 horses, 676 mules and asses, 2,582 milch cows, 3,027 other cattle, 8,859 sheep, and 17,474 swine; 9 cooper shops, 3 breweries, 3 flour mills, and 4 saw mills. Capital, Perryville.
Christopher Raymond, an American naval officer, born at South Kingston, R. I., in 1761, died in Newport, June 8, 1818. He was a sailor from his early boyhood, served in privateers during the revolutionary war, and was for several months imprisoned in the Jersey prison ship. On the declaration of peace he entered the merchant service; but when troubles with France appeared imminent he was appointed post captain in the regular navy (June, 1798), and served until the reduction of the naval forces in the early part of 1801, when he was appointed collector of Newport. He married in 1784 Sarah Alexander; and of the large family descended from these parents almost every male member has served with distinction in the navy.
Oliver Hazard, an American naval officer, son of the preceding, born in Newport in August, 1785, died at Port Spain, island of Trinidad, August 23, 1819. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1799, and was first in active service under the command of his father in the frigate General Greene, 28, which performed an active and important cruise on the West India station during 1799 and 1800. In 1807 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and in 1809 was in command of the schooner Revenge, 14, and cruised actively on the coast of the United States until January, 1811, when the Revenge was wrecked upon Watch Hill reef near Sto-nington, Conn. A court of inquiry acquitted Lieut. Perry of all blame. At the opening of the war of 1812 he was in command of a division of gunboats at Newport, and in February, 1813, he was transferred at his own request, with a portion of his officers and men, to the command of Commodore Isaac Ohauncey on the lakes. In March he was ordered by Commodore Chauncey to superintend the equipment of a naval force on Lake Erie, and while thus employed at the port of Presque Isle (now Erie), he was called away to aid in an attack on Fort George. He cooperated ably with the army in that affair, at the head of a body of seamen.
In August Perry, taking advantage of the momentary absence of the British squadron which had been watching him, succeeded in getting the force which he had equipped out of the port by lifting the larger vessels on " camels," and, though very deficient in officers and men, and imperfectly prepared, brought the British squadron to an engagement on Sept. 10, which resulted in the complete success of the American arms. (See Erie, Battle of Lake.) After this he cooperated with the army of Gen. Harrison by assisting in regaining possession of Detroit, in transporting troops, and serving at the battle of the Moravian Towns. At the close of the operations of 1813 he gave up his command. Congress voted him a gold medal, and he Was promoted to the rank of captain, his commission being dated Sept. 10, 1813. In August, 1814, he was appointed to the Java, 44, a new frigate under equipment at Baltimore; but as the Chesapeake was closely blockaded, it was impossible to get her to sea, and Perry, with his officers and men, was actively employed in annoying the British squadron in their descent of the Potomac from Alexandria, and in the defence of Baltimore. In March, 1819, he was appointed to the command of a squadron for the coast of Colombia, sailed on June 7, and in July ascended the Orinoco to Angostura. On leaving the river he was seized with yellow fever, which terminated fatally the day his vessel arrived at Port Spain. A few years later his remains were transferred to his native place.
Matthew Calbraith, an officer of the United States navy, brother of the preceding, born at South Kingston, R. I., in 1795, died in New York, March 4,1858. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1809, served under Commodores Rodgers and Decatur, attained the rank of captain in 1837, and afterward commanded the navy yard at Brooklyn, the squadron on the coast of Africa, and during the Mexican war the squadron in the gulf of Mexico. In March, 1852, he was appointed to the command of the Japan expedition, which resulted in the important treaty of 1854 with that country. - See "Report of Perry's Expedition to Japan," published by the government (3 vols. 4to, Washington, 1856).