"Soft" cuttings are pieces of freshly formed wood, taken generally from side-shoots directly they have grown three or four inches long, inserted in sandy soil and kept close as in Class B. The following do well from this class of cutting:
Spiraea Japonica, and varieties.
These are generally taken in September, from wood of the current year which has become firm. Most of them are inserted an inch or two apart, in rows just far enough apart to be hoed, in the open ground. Ribes, which include the fruiting Currants and Gooseberries, strike readily from this class of wood. They are frequently taken with a slip of the older wood, called a "heel," but it is not essential. Roses strike from ripe wood in September, but in this case the cuttings do best if inserted up to within an inch of the top. The following kinds are suitable for propagation from ripe wood, some in frames:
The experienced propagator finds that there are certain plants which strike better from pieces of root than from portions of stem. A typical greenhouse plant is the Bouvardia, and hardy sub-shrubby perennial the Anchusa. Some shrubs also come best from root cuttings. Generally it will be found best to take pieces of root two or three inches long and about as thick as a cigarette. If inserted in a shallow pan they may be laid almost flat and just covered with soil. Root propagation is particularly suited for the beautiful white Tree Poppy, Romneya Coulteri. Pieces of root two inches long and about a quarter of an inch thick may be inserted singly upright in three-inch pots, or two inches apart round the side of a larger pot in autumn. The plants may be plunged to the brim in ashes in a cold frame. Growth will start from the top and roots push from the sides. In spring the young plants may be potted singly, and they will be ready for planting out in May. Propagation is also effected by seeds, but root cuttings give strong plants quicker. Strictly speaking, Romneya Coulteri is a herbaceous plant, although the stems frequently stand until spring, giving it a semi-shrubby habit. It is common to leave them till spring as protection and then to cut them out.
The following come well from root cuttings: