27. Carminatives, Aromatics (L. carminare, carminotivus, to expel wind). - These expel gases from the stomach and intestines by increasing peristalsis, stimulating the circulation, and relaxing the cardiac and pyloric orifices; also act as diffusible stimulants to the body and mind: cardamom seed, capsicum, ginger, peppermint, spearmint, cinnamon, nutmeg, lavender, calamus, orange, anise, caraway, coriander, fennel, pimenta, pepper, mustard, clove, asafetida, and volatile oil of each.

28. Emetics (Gr.

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vomiting). - These cause vomiting: (a) Local - which, by reflex action, irritate the end-organs of the gastric, pharyngeal, or oesophageal nerves: zinc and copper sulphates, mercury subsulphate, alum, mustard, tepid water; (6) Systemic (General) - which act by directly stimulating the vomiting-centres through circulation: ipecac, apomorphine, tartar emetic, senega, squill, lobelia, sanguinaria, compound syrup of squill.

29. Antiemetics

Antiemetics. These lessen nausea and vomiting: (a) Local - which produce a sedative action on the end-organs of the gastric nerves: ice, phenol, bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate, cerium oxalate, creosote, small doses of calomel or ipecac, hot water, opium, cocaine; (b) General - which act by reducing the irritability of the vomiting-centre in the medulla: opium, bromides, morphine, codeine, hydrated chloral, alcohol, amyl nitrite, food, brandy.

30. Cathartics, Purqatives (Gr.

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cleansing; L. purgare, to cleanse). - These increase or hasten intestinal evacuations: (a) Aperients, Laxatives (L. aperiere, to open; laxare, to loose) - which excite moderate peristalsis, giving soft movements without irritation: magnesia, manna, sulphur, tamarind, almond and olive oils, figs, prunes, oatmeal; (b) Simple Purgatives - which cause active peristalsis and stimulate secretion of the intestinal glands, giving one or more copious, semi-fluid movements accompanied by some irritation and griping: aloes, calomel, castor oil, cascara sagrada, rhubarb, senna, small doses of salines, drastics, cholagogues; (c) Saline Purgatives - which stimulate the intestinal glands, increase peristalsis and osmosis, causing watery stools: magnesium sulphate and citrate, potassium sulphate, tartrate and bitartrate, sodium sulphate, phosphate and chloride, potassium and sodium tartrate; (d) Drastic Purgatives (Gr.

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to act, active). These often are called simply cathartics, and act more intensely than the preceding, causing violent peristalsis, watery stools, griping, tenesmus, borborygmus, mucous membrane irritation, and exosmosis of serum; large doses become irritant poisons: colocynth, jalap, gamboge, scammony, croton oil; (e) Hydragogue Purgatives (Gr.

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water, +

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to lead, leading forth) - which remove much water from the vessels: croton oil, elaterium, gamboge, potassium bitartrate, large doses of salines and drastics; (/) Cholagogue Purgatives (Gr.

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bile, +

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to lead, leading forth) - which stimulate bile flow, causing free purgation of green-colored (bilious) and liquid stools: mercurials, aloes, rhubarb, podophyllum euonymin, iridin, leptandrin. 31. Diuretics (Gr.

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through, +

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to urinate). - These increase renal secretion, either by raising the local or general blood-pressure, thereby increasing renal circulation (blood-supply), or by stimulating the secreting cells or nerves of the kidneys, or by washing out the kidneys with much water taken at night or early morning; (a) Refrigerant - which excite the renal epithelium, producing a hyper-aemic condition of the kidneys and an increased amount of water in the urine; they depress the heart and general circulation: potassium acetate, citrate and bitartrate, ammonium and sodium acetates, lithium carbonate and citrate, magnesium citrate and sulphate, water, milk, cold applications; (6) Hydragogue - which largely increase the amount of water in the urine, owing to raising arterial pressure, locally or generally: digitalis, strophanthus, spirit of nitrous ether, nitrites, squill, cimicifuga, scoparius; (c) Stimulant (blennorrhetics) - which act directly upon the renal tissue, by which they are to a great extent eliminated from the body: buchu, copaiba, cubeb, matico, pareira, uva ursi, savin, juniper, chimaphila, taraxacum, cantharides, turpentine, oil of santal, corn silk, apocynum. 32. Antilithics, Lithotriptics (Gr.

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against, +

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stone, +

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to rub). - The former prevent the formation of urinary and biliary concretions in the excretory passages; the latter dissolve them when formed: biliary calculi: alkaline waters, turpentine, etc.; vesical calculi: (1) uric acid or urates: alkaline salts, magnesium citro-borate, etc.; (2) calcium oxalate: acids, carbonated waters, etc.; (3) phosphatic deposits (calculi): ammonium benzoate, nitric acid, etc. 33. Diaphoretics, Sudorifics (Gr.

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through, +

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to carry;

L. sudor, sweat, + facere, to make). - These increase the action of the skin, causing sweat-secretion; are called sudorifics when the secretion is so profuse as to form beads on the surface: (a) Simple - which enter circulation and stimulate the sudoriferous glands, by which they are eliminated: pilocarpus, ammonium acetate and citrate, sarsaparilla, guaiacum, mezereum, sassafras, senega, serpentaria, salicylates; (b) Nauseating - which relax and dilate the superficial capillaries: ipecac, tartar emetic, opium, Dover's powder, alcohol, ether, spirit of nitrous ether, lobelia, tobacco, vapor and Turkish baths, wet-pack, hot drinks; (c) Refrigerant - which reduce circulation by acting on the sweat-centres in the spine and medulla: potassium citrate, aconite, veratrum viride, tobacco, lobelia, pilocarpus, spirit of nitrous ether, opium. 34. Antihydrotics, Anhydrotics (Gr.

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against,

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not, +

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sweat). - These check perspiration by reducing the action of the sweat-glands, or the excitability of the sweat-centres, or the circulation in the skin: belladonna, chloralformamide, muscarine, pilocarpine, strychnine, quinine, etc.

35. Anthelmintics ((Jr.

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against, +

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a worm). - These destroy {Vermicides, L. vermis, worm, + caedere, to kill) or expel (Vermifuges, L. vermis, wonr, + fugare, to put to flight) intestinal worms. Vermifuges: castor oil, jalap, scammony. Vermicides, for: (a) Thread worms (Oxyuris vermicularis): vegetable astringents, alum, iron sulphate, aloes, tannin, lime water, quassia, all by enema; (6) Round worms (Ascaris lumbricoides): santonin, spigelia, chenopodium, each in combination with cither calomel (castor oil), senna, or compound jalap powder; (c) Tape worms (Taenia solium +) Taenifuges: aspidium, kamala, kousso, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, turpentine.