Censes, an official enumeration of persons and their property, generally with such facts as tend to show their moral, social, physical, and industrial condition. In the Pentateuch the enumeration of the people is repeatedly enjoined, and the most ancient statistical record of the kind is that of Moses in the wilderness. There is record of a census in China ordained by the emperor Yee 2042 B. C, and of one in Japan under the mikado Sujin in the last century before Christ. Under the constitution of Solon, the citizens of Athens were divided and registeredCenses 0400100 into four classes, according to the amount of their taxable property or income. The Roman census originated in the distribution of citizens into classes effected by Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, in a most solemn manner on the Campus Martins, where every citizen had to appear, and to declare upon oath his name and dwelling, the number and age of his children, and the value of his property, under the penalty of having his goods confiscated, and of being scourged and sold for a slave. The whole population was divided into six classes based upon property qualifications, each comprising a number of centuries. Augustus, who hud the population numbered, enlarged the scope of the census, and improved the mode of taking it. - In the 16th century the practice of keeping church registers of births, marriages, and deaths, out of which grew the modern systems of recording the movements of the population, came into use. No exact popular enumerations were made in the 17th century, but in the 18th great progress was made in the development of statistical science.

In Russia partial censuses were taken by order of the government in 1700, 1704, 1705, and 1710. In 1719 a com-mission was organized by Peter the Great to visit the principal provinces of the empire for the purpose of making a general census. The commission was charged to ascertain the number of peasants, mechanics, domestics, and persons without regular employment. The whole population was returned excepting females, who were omitted because the census was taken solely for purposes of revenue and military conscription. Females, however, were subsequently included, but returned with less exactness than the males. In 1722 insane and infirm persons without means of subsistence were included in the enumeration, and it was ordered that a census should be taken at intervals of twenty years. Accordingly enumerations were taken in 1742, 1762,1782, and 1796. The taking of the census was eventually vested in the central administrations of the provinces, which were held responsible for its correctness. As early as 1802 a "central bureau of statistics" was organized under the direction of the ministry of the interior, to which the results of the statistical inquiries of the several departments of the government were transmitted, and which published from time to time statistical exhibits of the public administration, population, territorial extent and subdivision, agriculture, commerce, and industry of the empire.

The central bureau of statistics was reorganized in 1852, and again in 1858, under the name of "central statistical commission," which has charge of the preparation and publication of statistical information of various kinds; but one of its chief functions is the enumeration of the population. Censuses were taken in 1812, 1815, 1834, 1851, 1858, and 1867. Formerly the range of inquiries was very limited, but in the most recent censuses has been extended so as to include the legal population by sexes; the number of houses in towns, and of estates in villages and country; and the number of churches and chapels, benevolent institutions, schools, fairs, markets, post stations, and manufacturing establishments. The census is taken by means of printed schedules which are distributed and collected by the local administrative authorities. The time in which the census is to be taken is fixed by the government, a longer time being allowed for the Asiatic than for the European provinces. The digesting and publication of the returns devolve upon the central statistical authorities. A separate mode of taking the census prevails in the province of Finland, which has a special statistical bureau.

It is taken by the civil authorities in conjunction with the clergy, and relates exclusively to population. - In Prussia census taking dates from the time of Frederick William I., by whom measures were instituted to ascertain the number of the population. This was done through officers of the government, not by an actual enumeration, but by calculations based on various data. This imperfect system was greatly improved by Frederick II. From 1748 to the close of the century an enumeration of the inhabitants, under the direction of the superior authorities of each province, was made annually, except during a few years when it was prevented by war. In 1805 a central bureau of statistics was organized, which has existed with progressive changes in its constitution to the present time. It embraced within its functions general statistics; births, marriages, and deaths; schools and churches; medical statistics; and statistics of mechanical trades and manufactures. At first inquiries into these various subjects were made annually; but after 1820 annual inquiries were made only as to the general movement of the population and births, marriages, and deaths, information relating to the other subjects being collected once in three years.

Upon the establishment of the customs union in 1834, the existing system of triennial population censuses was adopted. At first the inquiries related to the actual population, according to the age, sex (arranged in yearly classes), birthplace, and civil condition; mental and physical disabilities; school attendance, religion, immigration, and emigration. In 1840 the enumeration was made by names, which resulted immediately in a large increase in the population returns. In 1846 the number of families was determined; in 1849 the distribution of the population by habitations; in 1858 the number of persons of each sex between 17 and 45 years of age was returned in five classes; in 1861 the unmarried and widowed were specially classified, and inquiry was made as to the language spoken, and the social condition and occupation of the people. The Prussian census is taken by civil officers in December, on one day, by means of printed schedules. Besides the census, extensive statistical information relating to a great variety of subjects is prepared and published by the statistical bureau, and by the several departments of the government. In most of the minor German states the census is taken tri-ennially under the regulations of the customs union, and differs but little from the Prussian system.

In Bavaria, besides the triennial census, a more extended one is taken every 12 years. The first census of the new German empire was taken Dec. 1, 1871. - The first census in Austria was taken in 1754, and was followed by a general enumeration of the population at triennial periods. Until 1857 this information was obtained for military purposes; but in that year a new census law was made which provided that a census should be taken every six years by the civil authorities, and should embrace an enumeration of the population and the useful domestic animals. Printed schedules. with detailed instructions, are distributed by municipal and administrative officers, to be filled up by the heads of families, owners of tenement houses, and those in charge of convents, schools, and public institutions. Any person refusing to furnish the required information is liable to punishment by fine and imprisonment. The inquiries relate to the composition of families, including servants, age, sex, names, and titles, civil state, social condition, religion, occupation, marriages, births, and deaths, and the number of cities, towns, hamlets, villages, dwellings, and renters. The number of Austrian subjects living in foreign parts is obtained through the imperial legations.

The census returns are tabulated and published by the "central statistical commission," under whose direction many other statistical inquiries are carried on. - In Sweden the science of statistics has been more particularly cultivated than in any other country. As early as 1686 a law was promulgated requiring the clergy to keep registers of marriages, legitimate and illegitimate births, deaths, persons removed from or settled in the parishes, and of the inhabitants arranged by habitations and households. This information was tabulated, and published for the first time in 1740 by the Stockholm academy of sciences, for the purpose of showing the total population of the realm. After 1749 annual consolidated returns were made by the clergy. In addition, general censuses were taken at irregular intervals from 1749 to 1775, and subsequently at quinquennial periods. These censuses exhibited the number, sex, age, and occupation of the inhabitants; the number and sex of married and single perons. widows, and widowers; the number of blind, deaf and dumb, and insane; of pupils attending schools; of persons not belonging to the established church; and the number of inmates of hospitals, asylums, and prisons.

To these was added in 1804 the number-of vaccinated persons; in 1821, the number of first, second, and third marriages, the age of the married, the number of legitimate children deceased when less than a year old, and the number of immigrants and emigrants; in 1831, the number of marriages, births, and deaths among all classes, the number of legitimate and illegitimate children, stillborn, and deceased in their second and third year, by months; the number and age of persons deceased in hospitals, asylums, and prisons; and the movement of the population not belonging To the established church. The census is taken every five years, by means of printed schedules, through the joint agency of the civil authorities and the clergy. The most recent was taken Dec. 31, 1871. A separate census is taken of the Laplanders and Finns. The governors of provinces are required to prepare every five years statistical summaries upon a variety of subjects not included in the census. A central statistical bureau was organized in 1857, charged with the superintendence and publication of population and other statistics.

There has been a decennial census in Norway since 1815, the last having been taken Dec. 31, 1805. Inquiries are made as to age, sex, civil state, number of families and inhabitants, useful domestic animals, and the territorial area of each district. Annual exhibits are made up of births, marriages, and deaths; of commerce and navigation; of the administration of justice; and of the population suffering from physical or mental disabilities. - General censuses were taken in Spain in 1787 and 1798. The next one was taken in 1857, and was followed by another in May, 1800, which is the last general census. The population was, however, determined by calculation in 1807. The inquiries relate to name, sex, age, birthplace, civil condition, occupation, physical disabilities, degree of education, school attendance, habitation, and the distribution of population in cities, towns, villages, and hamlets. The census is taken in one night, by government officials charged with the collection and consolidation of the returns. - In Denmark a general population census was taken every five years between 1840 and 1800. It is now decennial, the last having been taken Feb. 1, 1870. The movement of the population is ascertained by means of civil registers. - The first direct and simultaneous enumeration of the people throughout the kingdom of Portugal was made Jan. 1, 1804, in pursuance of a law passed the preceding year, providing for a decennial census.

The enumeration, made by means of household schedules, was completed in one day, and comprised inquiries as to sex, age, civil condition, occupation, nationality, habitual or accidental sojourners, and the present and absent. - In Switzerland census taking was instituted about the middle of the 18th century. In 1800 a law was enacted prescribing a decennial census for the whole federation, and in the same year the first census under the law was taken. The inquiries include sex. age, civil condition, origin, birthplace, domicile, religion, language, physical disabilities, immigration, the distribution of real property, and the number of families and of habitations and other buildings. - Belgium ranks among the first nations of the world in completeness of its national statistic-. In 1841 a central commission was established by royal decree. A general census was taken in 1840. In 1850 a new law was passed providing that a general census should be taken every ten years, which should exhibit the actual as well as the legal population. The prescribed inquiries include surnames and Christian names, sex, age by year and month, birthplace, civil condition, occupation, domicile, and town and country population.

In the second census, taken under this law in 1866, comprehensive inquiries into the agricultural, mining, and manufacturing interests of the kingdom were made. Three schedules, printed in the French, German, and Flemish languages, were distributed and collected in one day respectively by special census agents. The statistics of schools and public institutions were taken by means of special schedules. The census of the army was taken by the military authorities. Refusal to furnish information to the census agents was punishable by tine and imprisonment. In 1858 a special census of deaf mutes and blind was taken. The census returns, together with the yearly abstracts from the civil registers, and the results of special inquiries, are prepared for publication by the central statistical commission. A census was taken Dec. 1, 1870. - In the Netherlands the census is taken decennially, the last dating Dec. 31, 1871. It embraces inquiries as to name, sex, age, place of birth, civil state, profession, occupation, or condition, physical disabilities, religion, number of families and habitations.

The army and navy, inmates of hospitals, almshouses, prisons, schools, and public institutions generally, are separately enumerated. - The present bureau of statistics in Italy was organized in 1800, with the well known statistician Dr. P. Maestri as chief. Provision was made for decennial censuses, the first of which was taken in 1861, and the latest Dec. 31, 1871. It was taken by municipal and administrative officers, in one day, by means of previously distributed schedules, embracing inquiries designed to show the actual population by age, sex, civil state and domestic relations, families, habitations, nativity, religion, language, physical and mental infirmities, occupation, emigration and immigration, aggregations of population by communes, and aggregations of habitations. The census returns were revised by local commissioners appointed throughout the kingdom, and published in three large volumes under the general direction of the bureau of statistics. - The first general enumeration of the kingdom of Greece was made in 1830. The census was taken annually till 1845, and subsequently in 1848, 185:), 1850, 1861, 1868, and in May, 1870. Prior to 1801 a mere enumeration of the inhabitants was made; since that date the range of inquiries has been greatly extended and more comprehensive official publications have appeared.

The movement of the population is determined from civil registers kept by the municipal authorities. Tables of births, deaths, and marriages are published at irregular intervals. - In Turkey the object of the census, which is very imperfect, is to provide the basis for taxation and conscription. A census officer in each province prepares an annual exhibit of the number of births, deaths, absentees and travellers, public health, movement of real property, taxable values, and losses by tire, disease, etc. An annual statement is prepared by the head of each village of the age, occupation, religion, military service, liability to taxation, etc, of every male inhabitant under his jurisdiction. This statement is transmitted to the comptroller of the census of the province, and by him forwarded after verification to the chief comptroller of statistics in Constantinople. - In France the first census of which the records are extant was taken in 1700, the results of which were published in 1720. During the latter half of the 18th century numerous statistical reports relating to population and other subjects were published by the government as well as by individuals.

A general enumeration of the population was made in 1800, and in the following year it was decreed that a national census should be taken every five years. Pursuant to this law censuses were taken in 1800 and 1821; and in 1826 the extent of the population was computed. Since 1820 the census has been taken regularly at quinquennial periods. The last, however, was taken in May, 1872. In 18:30 individual schedules were used, in which the age of each person was for the first time recorded. Up to that time only the legal population had been ascertained, but in 1841 the actual population was made the basis of the census. The enumeration has been usually made in May and June. The inquiries embrace surnames and Christian names, sex, age, civil state, birthplace, occupation, religion, degree of instruction, and infirmities of many kinds. At times other subjects of inquiry, such as the proportion of the rural to the town population, diseases, the number of households, inhabited and uninhabited houses, buildings in course of construction, and live stock, have been connected with the census. Statistics relating to population are also derived from other sources. Particulars of births, marriages, and deaths are taken from the civil registers.

Reports are prepared of cases of mental aberration, of the inmates of public charitable and penal institutions, of charitable associations, life annuity and insurance companies, savings banks, and public pawn houses. The judicial authorities furnish criminal statistics annually. The reports of population are prepared by the bureau de la statistique in the ministry of commerce, agriculture, and public works. - The first census of Great Britain was taken in 1801, and embraced the sex but not the age of all subjects, the number of families, and the occupations, classified so as to exhibit the number employed in agriculture, in trade and manufactures or handicrafts, and those not comprised within these two classes. The first census of Ireland was taken in 1811, but not until recently have the results been received as trust worthy. Dr. Jarvis considers the Irish census of 1841, 1851, and 1861 among the best in the world. In Great Britain and Ireland the census is decennial, and includes the general statistics of population.

For climatic reasons, the month selected is March or April. The most recent census was taken in 1871. The census of Ireland was intrusted to a royal commission, that of Scotland to the registrar general of Scotland. Great Britain was divided into 32, 606 districts, to each of which a special enumerator was appointed. Each enumerator had a district of less than two square miles in area, and containing an average of 131 houses and 600 persons. In addition to the 32,606 enumerators, there were 027 superintendent registrars and 2,197 registrars. The police assisted in enumerating the houseless population. The army and the navy were returned by the naval and the military authorities; the merchant seamen by the customs officers and the registrar general of merchant seamen; and British subjects in foreign states and in India, and the population of the colonies, by the secretaries of state for foreign affairs, India, and the colonies. "Householders' schedules," distributed in advance, were required to be filled up on the night of April 2, and were collected by the enumerators the following day.

These schedules contained inquiries in regard to the name, relation to head of family, condition, sex, age, occupation, and birthplace of every person in Great Britain; and also as to the number of blind and deaf and dumb. Travellers were enumerated at the hotels and houses at which they arrived, on the following day. At the same time schedules were delivered in the proper quarters for collecting information respecting places of worship, schools, and miscellaneous institutions. In Ireland the census has been taken by the constabulary force. The mode of enumeration is essentially the same as in England. The schedules, however, are more comprehensive, and include inquiries relating to insanity, idiocy, degree of education, school attendance, religion, civil state, when married, birthplace, language, residence, and buildings other than habitations. An agricultural census has been taken in Scotland and Ireland for many years. A cattle census was taken in England for the first time in May, 1800, and was followed soon after by a more comprehensive agricultural census.

The movement of the population of the United Kingdom is annually determined by the registrar general's office, through the agency of the district registrars, Besides the registrar general's office, there exists in almost every department of the British government a special statistical service for the preparation and publication of statistical reports upon the various interests of the kingdom. - The origin of the American census may be traced to the colonial period, when the British board of trade caused enumerations of the population to be made at different times, which was done under the immediate direction of the colonial governors, through the agency of the sheriffs and their deputies. These produced, however, little more than approximations to the actual number of the population.

The census of the United States presents the unusual fact of being ordained by the constitution of the government, the first article of which prescribes a general enumeration of the people within three years after the first meeting of congress, and within every subsequent term of ten years thereafter. The immediate object of the census was the apportionment of representatives and direct taxes. The agents employed to ascertain and report the elementary facte are the United States marshals in the several states and territories. The first census was taken in 1790, and recorded the names of heads of families, enumerated the free white males of 10 years and upward, the same under 10, and gave the number of females and the number of slaves. The second and third censuses distinguished the sexes and colors of free persons, classifying the free males under 10 years of age, those from 10 to 10, 10 to 26, 26 to 45, 45 and upward; the slaves were simply taken by number. In 1810 the marshals were directed to make return of the several manufacturing establishments and manufactures within their several districts. A like division was made of population by the fourth census, which distinguished the number of persons engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures respectively.

By this census an account of manufactures was returned, and a digest thereof was published in 1823. The enumeration of the fifth census distinguished the sexes of all free white persons, and the ages of white males and females, by periods of 5 years up to the age of 20, thence by periods of 10 years to the age of 100 and upward, specifying the deaf and dumb and blind under the age of 14, those between 14 and 25, and those over that age; the free colored persons and slaves were classified by sex, and the ages under 10, and from 10 to 24, 24 to 36, 36 to 55, 55 to 100, and 100 and upward, distinguishing the colored deaf and dumb and blind without regard to age. The sixth census, taken in 1840, distinguished the whites by sex and by age, as follows: 1, all under 5 years, thence to 10, thence to 15 and 20, thence by tens to 100 and upward, specifying the deaf and dumb, blind, insane, and idiotic; the free colored population and slaves by sexes and ages, first under 10, thence to 24, 30, 55, 100, and those above 100; also the deaf and dumb, blind, insane, and idiotic, without respect to age.

In this enumeration the marshals were required to take a census of persons receiving pensions from the United States, with the name and age, and to make returns of mines, agriculture, commerce, manufactures, and schools. In 1850 the scope of inquiry was so greatly enlarged as to make that year an epoch in the growth of the census in this country. For the purpose of preparing adequately for the greatly enlarged work proposed to be undertaken in the enumeration, a census board was established provisionally, consisting of the secretary of state, attorney general, and postmaster general. Upon the dissolution of this board the control of the census, which had been previously in the department of state, was transferred to the department of the interior, under the provisions of the act of May 23, 1850, and the office of superintendent of census was created. The census of the United States has continued to be taken under the law of 1850, though this is regarded as very defective. In order to facilitate comparisons, the general forms and moulds of preceding census publications were retained in that of 1870, there being for the first time no return of slaves.

But the important improvements made in existing schedules, and the addition of new tables, together with the superintendence of the eminent statistician, Gen. Francis A. Walker, give to the ninth census a completeness of detail and accuracy of result not presented by any previous one; while as a comprehensive exhibit of the social and industrial condition of a people, it surpasses the censuses of all other countries. The constitution contains no requirement for any enumeration of persons outside the several states; but the census law of 1850 makes provision for enumerating the inhabitants of the territories upon the same terms as those of the states; and even prior to the adoption of that law the territories were included in the census. There is no provision for an enumeration of tribal Indians, but the statistics concerning this class of the population in the census of 1870 were obtained by extensive inquiries conducted through the agents of the Indian office. Statistics relating to commerce and navigation and immigration are not within the province of the census, but are reported regularly by the bureau of statistics. In the United States the legal and not the actual population are enumerated.

In the census of 1870 the general tables of population give the number of families and dwellings, with the average number of persona to each, the number of white, colored (distinguished as black andmulattoes), Chinese, and Indians, showing the age, sex, and nationality, and whether either or both parents were of foreign birth. The classification of ages adopted for the first time gives the number under one year, by years up to 5, from 5 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 18, 18 to 20, 21, 21 to 25, by quinquennial periods from 25 to 80, and by single years from 80 upward; thus exhibiting the number of the school, the military, and the voting age. Dr. Edward Jarvis of Dorchester, Mass., the highest American authority on vital statistics, maintains that the population should be exhibited by states in each year of age, as necessary to determine many' anthropological questions, and as having an important agency in the development of political and social science. This is done in many European countries, with valuable results.

Another most important feature which appears for the first time in the ninth census is the distinction between native and foreign-born in the tables of age and sex; this will indicate how foreigners, as distinguished from natives, are affected by the climate and the other conditions of life in the United States. Next to the enumeration of inhabitants, the occupations of the people, as illustrating their industrial and social character, form the most important features of the census. In preparing for the ninth census special attention was given to this class of statistics, which show the number of persons of each sex from 10 to 15 years of age, from 15 to GO, and 60 and over, with nativity, in each occupation, arranged under the general heads of agriculture, professional and personal services, trade and transportation, and manufactures and mining. The tables of school attendance and illiteracy show the total number that attended school, distinguished as native and foreign, together with the white, colored, Chinese, and Indians of each sex; the number over 10 years of age who cannot read, and those unable to write, distinguished as native and foreign, with classifications of color and sex, distinguishing also Indians and Chinese, for three periods of life: 10 to 15, 15 to 21, and 21 and over.

Previous tables of illiteracy gave only the number over 21 years of age who could not read and write. The blind, the deaf and dumb, the insane, the idiotic, and those appearing in two, three, or four classes of these unfortunates, are classified by race, place of birth, age, and sex. It was also sought in the census to show, for each month in the year, the number of births, of "marriages, and of deaths, thus making the vital statistics of the United States comparable in these particulars with those of many European countries which give the month for the three capital events of life. The returns of marriages, however, were found to be so far imperfect as not to justify publication. In the opinion of Superintendent Walker, the experience of this census, as well as of the censuses of 1850 and 1860, "has shown that the statistics of this subject are only to be collected through a permanent registration, and under a system of penalties." The same authority claims that statistics showing the month of birth for all children born within the census year are of a high degree of value for nine months, as they exhibit with accuracy the varying influence of the seasons upon human reproduction in each section of the country; but in the 10th month, counting backward from the date of enumeration, a very perceptible disturbance is introduced, while in the 11th and 12th months the numbes of births diminishes with extraordinary rapidity almost to zero.

Thus the number of births reported in Massachusetts in May. 1870, was 3,771; in April, 3,430; in March, 3,287; in February. 3,139; in January, 3.117; in December (1869), 3,229; in November. 2,705: in October. 2,899; in September, 2,830; in August, 2,429; in July, 1,584; in June, 567. This significant peculiarity is attributed by Superintendent Walker to the tendency of families to speak of infants of between 11 and 12 months of age, and even between l0 and 11 months, as a year old. Dr.

Jarvis, however, after a most thorough and intelligent examination of the subject, reaches the conclusion that little children were incompletely reported by the ninth census. The mortality statistics are presented by states, and exhibit the various causes of death, and the specified occupations of those having died, with distinction of race, color, sex, and age. The classification of age exhibits the number having died under one year of age, by years up to 5, by quinquennial periods from 5 to 95, and those of 95 and over. The causes of death are distributed into the general classes of unknown, general diseases, local diseases, conditions not necessarily associated with general or local diseases, poisons, parasites, malformations, and accidents and injuries. The proportion of deaths by selected diseases to the total number of deaths, and also to the number of persons living, is given for each state and territory. The scientific direction of the compilation of the tables of mortality was assumed by the surgeon general of the army, and the compilation, in respect to the classification of diseases, and to the periods of time and the sections of territory to be separately presented, was conducted under the supervision of Assistant Surgeon J. J. Woodward, U. S. A. The schools are classified as public, classical, professional, technical, and all other, with the kinds and numbers in each class, together with the teachers and pupils of each sex in each kind, and the school income, distributed into three sources.

The statistics of libraries show the total number of all classes, with the number of volumes in each, distinguishing the private from those other than private, the latter being classified as United States, state, and territorial, town, city, etc, court and law, school, college, etc, Sunday school, church, historical, literary, and scientific societies, charitable and penal institutions, benevolent and secret associations, and circulating libraries. Newspapers and periodicals are classified by the various periods of issue, with the number, circulation, and copies annually issued in each class, distinguishing those devoted to advertising, agriculture and horticulture, benevolent and secret societies, commercial and financial, illustrated, literary, and miscellaneous, devoted to nationality, political and religious, sporting, technical, and professional. The number of church organizations, edifices, and sittings, and value of property are given for each denomination. In the tables of wealth, taxation, and public debt are exhibited the assessed and true value of real and personal estate; taxation, classified as state, county, town, city, etc.; and public debt, with the same classification, and the bonded distinguished from all others.

Many new and valuable features have been introduced into the agricultural schedules, the most important of which is that showing the total value of farm productions, which removes the difficulty that statisticians have experienced in approximating to a correct total valuation of the agricultural production of the country. The general statistics of agriculture present by states, territories, and counties the number, size, and value of farms, with the value of farming implements; the acres of improved and unimproved land; the amount of wages paid during the year; the value of orchard, garden, and forest products respectively, of home manufactures, and of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter; the total value of all live stock, with an enumeration of the kinds; the crops produced, spring and winter wheat being distinguished, dairy products, wax and honey, and sugar and molasses, classified as cane, sorghum, and maple. Selected statistics of agriculture are given for townships where the value of all productions equals or exceeds $ 100,000. The statistics illustrating the various manufacturing resources of the country are of exceptional value and interest.

The steam and water power of the country employed in manufactures is reported for the first time, as no statistics of this kind had ever been prepared in the United States, except a report for Rhode Island and one for the city of Philadelphia. So also are presented for the first time the number of male and female adults employed, as distinguished from the children and youth, who are likewise enumerated. The general statistics of manufactures indicate the total number of establishments devoted to each industry; the number and horse power of steam engines and water wheels; the number of hands employed, classified as males above 1G, females above 15, and youth; the amount of capital invested, and the annual wages paid, together with the value of materials and products. Special statistics exhibit, with a degree of minuteness not before attained, extended information concerning selected industries. Thus, in the tables of cotton manufactures, in addition to the general results mentioned above, and the number and kinds of machines employed, six columns are devoted to the classification of materials, and 20 to products; while in the report of 1800 the classification of materials was limited to two columns, and that of pro-duets to four.

The statistics of mining show the extent and condition of the leading industries in the United States, and in each state and county; and similar statistics relating to fisheries are presented. Most of the above mentioned statistics are presented for states, territories, and counties, but not for civil divisions less than counties, with the exception of the population tables. But the census report includes tables for 50 principal cities having a population of more than 25,000, showing the area, families and dwellings, with the average number of persons to each, also the number of persons in each class of occupations, with age and sex, and selected nativities. It also contains historical notes respecting the area and political organization of the United States, and its geographical divisions, with descriptions of parcels of territory into which the territory of the United States has been divided by the successive boundaries of political divisions, and tables showing the parcels of territory composing each political division at specified dates. One of the most important features of the census report of 1870 is the geographical illustration of important subjects by means of maps, which is now introduced for the tirst time.

These maps represent the whole area of the United States; most of them are double, presenting two distinct subjects, generally selected for purposes of direct contrast. The population volume is illustrated with seven maps, which exhibit the density of total population; the distribution severally of the colored and the foreign elements of population; the dispersion over the states of the natives of certain specified foreign countries, viz.: Germany, Ireland, Sweden and Norway, England and Wales, China, and British America; the illiteracy and the wealth of each section in contrast; and the geographical and political divisions of the United States at each period of its existence, from the organization of the government to the latest census year. The volume on vital statistics contains seven maps showing the range, and, within the range, the degree of prevalence of four specific diseases, or groups of diseases, viz.: consumption, typhoid, typhus, and enteric fevers, malarial diseases and dysentery, diarrhoea, and enteritis; also the annual distribution of rain and the courses of the lines of equal temperature, thus atfording instruction upon the agricultural capabilities of the country and the conditions of human life in the United States; and a physical chart presenting the most complete and accurate series of elevations yet attained.

The five maps illustrative of the volume on industry exhibit the extent of cultivation of five principal crops, cotton, corn, wheat, hay, and tobacco, and also the dairy products of each state and section; also eight principal geological formations of the United States. The results of the ninth census appear in three quarto volumes: I. Population and Social Statistics; II. Vital Statistics; III. Industry and Wealth. A compendium has also been prepared for wide popular distribution, and congress has authorized the preparation and publication of a statistical atlas of the United States, based on the results of the ninth census, to consist of not more than 50 maps, to be compiled by Francis A. Walker, late superintendent. The period contemplated by law for the completion of the enumeration in 1870 was about 100 days; but the enumeration, which was begun June 1, 1870, was not substantially completed till Jan. 9, 1871, and the last returns were not received in Washington till Aug. 23, 1871. The enumeration was made by the 61 United States marshals and 6,572 assistants.

The compilation and preparation for the press were performed in Washington under the personal supervision of Superintendent Walker. This work was completed by Nov. 1, 1872; soon after which the first volume was given to the public, and the remaining two volumes early in 1873. This early publication of the complete results of the census is unprecedented. The total cost of the census, exclusive of printing the results, was about $3,500,000. - Independent of the federal census, most of the states, either in their constitutions or by act of legislature, have made provision for enumerations of their respective populations. The following statement exhibits the date of the first census in each state, with the interval at which succeeding censuses are to be taken:

STATES.

Date of first State Census.

Subsequent interval,

Years.

Alabama..

1875

10

Arkansas............

1875

10

California............

1852.1855

10

Florida.............

1875

10

Indiana..

1865

6

Iowa .................

1859*

10

Kansas.............

1865

10

Kentucky............

1850,1858

8

Louisiana............

1875

10

Massachusetts..........

1857,1865

10

Michigan..

1854

10

Minnesota .................

1865

10

Mississippi...........

..

10

Missouri..

1876

10

Nebraska............

1875

10

Nevada..

1867. 1875

10

New Jersey..

1855,1865

10

New York...

1855

10

North Carolina...

1865

10

Oregon...

1865

10

Pennsylvania..

1864

7

Rhode Island..........

1865

10

South Carolina..

1869,1875

10

Tennessee..

1871

10

Wisconsin...

1855

10

In the states not named in the above table, no provision is made for a separate census. - The first census of Brazil was taken in 1872. There was a census taken in the Argentine Republic in 18G9, in Colombia in 1870, and in Egypt in 18G2. in Abyssinia, Persia, and other cistern nations, there is either no census, or merely a general estimate of the population. In China there has been no census since that of 1812. The extent of the population is ascertained by estimates. The census of 1711 is the first on record that bears the appearance of credibility. - The subject of census systems has in recent years caused much discussion among statists and publicists of all countries, with the view of adopting such methods as will make the census of each nation the most comprehensive and accurate exhibit of the social and industrial condition of its people. The importance of such information in promoting the usefulness and happiness of a nation has been fully recognized. International statistical congresses for the consideration of these and kindred questions were held at Brussels in 1853, at Paris in 1855, at Vienna in 1857, at London in 1860, at Berlin in 1863, at Florence in 1867, at the Hague, Netherlands, in 1869, and at St. Petersburg in 1872. In these congresses it was strongly recommended that the census should be taken by means of prior schedules at least decennially on a single day, at the end of the year, when the smallest number of people are away from home, and should be by names and based upon the principle of the actual population, with data for determining the legal population.

Statisticians have agreed that the following inquiries relating to persons are indispensable: name, sex, age with date and year of birth, relation to head of family, civil or conjugal condition, profession or occupation, birthplace, and whether blind or deaf and dumb; and that the inquiries, where practicable and expedient, should also extend to language spoken, religion, residence, whether usual or temporary, children receiving instruction at school or at home, persons of unsound mind in public or private asylums, hospitals, and establishments. "The great object of the census," says Dr. Jarvis, whose study of the census systems of all countries has placed him in the front rank of authorities on this subject, "is to develop those points that best show the human status, the measure of vitality, the personal, domestic, and social conditions. It is important to make this analysis of nations as minute as possible, to learn as nearly as may be the exact measure of all the elements of force in each individual, and know what and how much he has in himself, and can contribute to the sum total of national power and wealth." In a recent examination of the census of 24 nations and 8 states and provinces, Dr. Jarvis found that no two were alike in their full purposes; only England and Scotland include the same inquiries in their schedules.

The following table, prepared by him, exhibits the personal inquiries made by the principal countries of Europe and by the United States at their enumerations, and published in their census reports; several countries not named are counted in the final column:

* Required in 1859, 1868, 1865, 1867, 1869, 1875, and every 10 years afterward.

SUBJECTS OF INQUIRY.

Hanover.

Norway.

Sweden.

Russia.

Denmark.

Prussia.

Austria.

Holland.

Belgium.

France.

Switzerland.

Italy.

Spain.

Portugal.

England.

Ireland.

United States.

Massachusetts.

New York.

Canada.

States making this inquiry.

1864

1865

1866

1868

1860

1864

1662

1859

1856

1861

1860

1861

1860

1864

1861

1861

1870

1865

1865

1861

Name..

..

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

25

Sex........

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

32

Age..

1

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

l

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

30

Relation to family .

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

4

Birthplace...

..

..

1

..

1

..

..

1

1

1

l

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

23

Absent..

..

1

1

..

..

1

1

1

..

..

l

1

..

1

1

1

..

..

..

..

14

Occupation..

1

..

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

l

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

25

Civil condition...

1

i

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

l

1

1

1

1

1

..

1

1

1

26

Sick or infirm...

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

1

..

..

..

..

3

Blind........

1

1

1

..

1

1

..

1

..

1

l

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

24

Deaf and dumb...

1

l

1

..

1

1

..

1

1

1

l

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

29

Insane...

..

l

..

..

1

..

..

..

.

1

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

1

1

1

16

Idiot........

..

..

..

..

1

1

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

1

1

1

14

Cretins...

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

Goitres..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

Color........

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

1

1

10

Foreigners..

..

..

1

..

..

1

1

..

..

1

l

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

21

Parentage..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

..

..

3

Convicts..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

..

..

3

Education.....

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

1

1

..

..

1

1

1

1

1

10

In school..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

1

1

..

1

1

..

..

1

1

..

..

1

10

Language......

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

l

1

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

3

Religion..

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

..

1

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

17

Pamper..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

1

1

1

..

6

Am't of real estate.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

. . . .

1

..

3

Voters..

..

..

.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

1

..

5

Voters naturalized..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

1

1

..

4

Family..

..

1

..

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

..

21

House..

..

l

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

..

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

29

House,stories..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

l

1

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

1

5

House,material..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

1

5

House,roof..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

l

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

8

Married in year...

..

..

..

..

1

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

..

..

3

Deaths..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1

1

..

..

3

No of inquiries..

7

10

11

3

18

14

10

12

10

20

14

19

11

11

18

22

22

22

19

18

..

Of 34 personal inquiries, it will be seen, only one, sex, is made by all. Age is inquired by all except Russia; name is omitted by Russia, Hanover, Baden, and Switzerland; birthplace by Norway, Russia, Prussia, Hanover, and Austria; civil condition by Russia, Baden, and the United States; and occupation by Norway, Russia, and Baden. Families, houses, religion, and the number of the blind and deaf and dumb were noted by nearly all. The United States is the most inquisitive; Ireland, France, and Italy come next in the order of the minuteness of investigation. In many European countries the enumeration is made in one day. In the United States the system of a protracted enumeration has been adhered to, which in the opinion of eminent statisticians will necessarily give but an approximation to the real number of inhabitants. The liability to error from this cause is comparatively small in rural districts; but in cities and manufacturing towns, where the inhabitants change their residences more frequently, the percentage of loss becomes very considerable.

Superintendent Walker maintains that "if the formation of subdivisions and the confirmation of assistants were vested in the department of the interior, with proper discretion as to the use of special agents, it would be possible to take the census of every city and manufacturing town in the United States in a single day, and to complete the enumeration of all properly agricultural sections in a period not exceeding three days, allowing, if need be, for the completion of the purely mining states and the territories, and perhaps for some portions of Texas, California, Kansas, and Nebraska, a longer period of time, not to exceed 30 days. Such an enumeration could be accomplished in the present condition of the settlement of the United States. It would cost little if any more than a census taken according to the present methods, and would be inexpressibly more satisfactory." The use of "prior schedules" in taking the census has been unanimously recommended by statisticians, not only as effecting a saving of time and expense, but also a higher degree of accuracy in the enumeration. These schedules, containing printed inquiries and directions as to tilling up, are distributed among families, and, after having been by them tilled up, are collected by the census agents.

This plan has been adopted with great advantage by most of the European countries, but has not been introduced into the United States, though its adoption has been urged upon the government by Dr. Jarvis and other high authorities. In the United States, Great Britain and Ireland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal, and Sweden and Norway, the census is decennial; while in Denmark, Franco, and Austria it is quinquennial. Most of the German nations and principalities take their census once in three years.