Petra (the Greek equivalent of the Heb. Sela, 'Rock'), the ancient stronghold of the Naba-tAeans was situated in the 'desert of Edom' in northern Arabia, near the points of intersection of great caravan-routes from Palmyra, Gaza, Egypt, and the Persian Gulf, four days' journey from the Mediterranean and five from the Red Sea. From it Arabia PetrAea got its name.
Petropolis, a town of Brazil, 25 miles N. of Rio. It was originally a colony of Germans (1845), and superseded Nictheroy as capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1894. Pop. 12,000, mainly Germans.
Petrovsk', a town of Russia, 65 miles NW. of Saratov, on a tributary of the Don. Pop. 13,316.
Petrozavodsk', a town of Russia, on the west shore of Lake Onega, 300 miles NE. of St Petersburg, has a cannon-foundry and small-arms factory. Pop. 13,027.
Petworth, a market-town of Sussex, on an eminence near the West Rother River, 14 miles NNE. of Chichester. Petworth House, the seat of Lord Leconfield, is an 18th-century mansion, with a fine park and many portraits and other relics of the Percies and Wyndhams. Pop. of parish, 2967. See F. H. Arnold's Petworth (1864).
Pev'ensey, a village of Sussex, on the English Channel, 12 miles by rail W. by S. of Hastings. The Romans built here a castle, whose walls enclose a Norman keep. The church is Early English. William the Conqueror landed on the shore of Pevensey Bay. Pop. of parish, 467. See Lower's Chronicles of Pevensey (3d ed. 1880).
Peveril Castle. See Peak.
Pezenas (Payz-na'), a town of France (dep. Herault), on the left bank of the river Herault, 32 miles by rail SW. of Montpellier. The vicinity produces excellent wine and brandy, and makes woollen and linen goods. Here Moliere wrote Les Precietises Ridicules. Pop. 6991.
Pfalz, German for the Palatinate (q.v.).
Pfalzburg. See Phalsbourg.
Pforzheim (P'fortz'hime), the chief manufacturing town of Baden, at the northern border of the Black Forest, 20 miles SE. of Carlsruhe by rail. It contains the remains of an ancient castle, from 1300 to 1565 the residence of the Margraves of Baden-Durlach, and was the birthplace of Reuch-lin. The town is famous for the manufacture of gold and silver ornaments, in which 8000 people are employed, and has further chemical and iron works, machine-shops, tanneries, paper-mills, etc. Pop. (1871) 19,801; (1900) 43,351.