Athens (Gr. 'Aθnvaι), anciently the principal city of Attica, and now the capital of the kingdom of Greece, situated in lat. 37° 56' N., lon. 23° 44' E., about 4 m. from the E. coast of the Saronic gulf, and 4 1/2 m. from the port town of Piraeus. It was built round a central rocky height, called the Acropolis, an elevation about 300 ft. above the average level of the town, and 600 ft. above the Mediterranean. Grouped near it are several smaller elevations, with valleys between. N. W. of the Acropolis is a moderate height on which stands the temple of Theseus. At a short distance from the N. W. angle is the Areopagus; and over against the Areopagus is the hill of the Pnyx, with the hill of the Nymphs a little north, and the Museum, or hill of the Muses, at a short distance to the south. N. E. of the city rises the conical hill of Lycabettus. The plain itself in which the city stands is bounded N. by Mt. Parnes, which separates it from Boeotia; N. E. by Mt. Pentelicus; S. E. by Mt. Hymettus, which descends to the sea; S. W. and W. by the Saronic gulf; and N. W. by Mt. AEgaleos. - A sketch of the history of Athens is necessary to the understanding of any description either of the ancient or modern city.
No doubt a stronghold on the rock, afterward called the Acropolis, was the germ from which it grew. When or by whom this was founded is unknown. According to the legends, Cecrops, sometimes represented as an Egyptian settler, sometimes as an autochthonous Pelasgian hero, first took possession of the rock, which from him was called Cecropia. He was succeeded by a line of 16 kings, bearing the names of Cranaus, Amphictyon, Erechtheus I. or Erichthonius, Pandion I., Erechtheus II., Cecrops II., Pan-dion II., AEgeus, Theseus, Menestheus, Demo-phon, Oxyntes, Aphidas, Thymcetes, Melan-thus, and Codrus. In the reign of the second or third king the city is said to have received its name from the goddess Athena (Minerva). Erechtheus is said to have built a temple to Athena on the Acropolis, where he placed the statue of the goddess, made of olive wood. The temple was called, from this legend, the Erech-theum. Theseus is said to have united the 12 communities, or cities, into which Attica was hitherto divided, into one political body.
Menestheus led the 50 dark ships of the Athenians in the Trojan war, and is pronounced by Homer the first of warriors, except Nestor. The 17th and last king of Athens was Codrus, who sacrificed himself for his country in a war with the Peloponnesian invaders, who, according to an oracle, were to be victorious if they did not slay the king of the Athenians. After him no one, so the legend says, was permitted to bear the title of king. His son Medon succeeded him under the name of archon, or ruler, holding the office, however, upon the hereditary principle, and for life. A line of life archons continued to rule through 12 reigns, Alcmseon being the last. During the government of his predecessor, .AEschylus, commenced the era of the Olympic games, celebrated at intervals of four years, at Olympia in Elis. This date - the earliest fixed point in Greek chronology - has been satisfactorily established at 776 B. C. After Alcmaeon, a series of seven decennial archons carried on the government till 683, when the office was made annual, its various functions were distributed among nine colleagues, and the right of election was extended to the entire class of the eupatridm or nobles.
One of these, the head of the college, bore the title of "the archon," and was designated as the eponymus - a magistrate in whose name the transactions of the year were dated and recorded. The office of archon lasted until long after the independent political existence of Athens and Greece had come to an end. The only important political body existing in Athens at the time of the first appointment of life archons was the senate or council of the Areopagus, which appears to have been in its earliest constitution the representative'of the Homeric boule, and until the time of Solon was called simply the boule, or senate. In the course of time the oppressions and abuses of the eupatridse gave rise to popular discontents, and Draco was appointed in 624 to draw up a code of written laws. He made no change in the political forms, but merely attempted to introduce a code the severity of which made it impossible to execute it. Twelve years after Draco's legislation Cylon, a member of the eupatrid order, attempted to usurp the supreme power of the state, but failed.
Cylon escaped, and his partisans, who had taken refuge, some at the altar of Athena, others at the altar of the Eumenides, were put to death by the direction of Megacles, the representative of the house of the Alcmaeonidoe. This act was supposed to have brought upon that race the curse of the gods, and they were expelled from the city in 597. Epimenides, the Cretan sage, was invited to purify the city from the pollution of sacrilege by expiatory rites. His visit is placed in 596. - The glory of Athens as a political commonwealth dates from the age of Solon, a lineal descendant of King Codrus, born about 638 B. C. At a time of great political disturbance, resulting in part from the oppressions of the eupatridae, he was chosen archon in 594, and vested with unlimited power to make any changes that might seem necessary in the constitution of the state. He framed a new constitution, changing the title to political power from birth to property. He divided the citizens into four classes: 1. The pente-co8iomedimni, or those whose annual revenue was equal to 500 medimni of corn and upward. 2. The hippeis, or knights, whose income ranged between 300 and 500 medimni, and who were sufficiently wealthy to furnish a war horse. 8. The zeugitce, whose income ranged between 200 and 300 medimni, and who were able to keep a yoke of oxen. 4. The thetes, whose income fell short of 200 medimni.
The 4th class were exempt from taxation and excluded from public office, but they served as light troops in the army. Only the first class were eligible to the higher offices of the state; the 2d and 3d classes filled the inferior offices; the 2d class served in the army as horsemen, and the 3d as heavy-armed foot soldiers. All classes had the right of voting in the public assembly, which elected the archons and other magistrates. He established another legislative body, called the senate or council of the four hundred, elected by the assembly, 100 being taken from each of the four ancient tribes, into which the people were divided long before Solon. The court of the Areopagus was endowed with enlarged powers, and with the general supervision of the conduct and lives of the citizens and the institutions of the state. Solon's kinsman Pisistratus made himself master of Athens in 560, adorned the city with many public works, collected a public library, and called around him the most distinguished poets, artists, and scholars from every part of Greece. He died in 527, and was succeeded by his two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus. By the conspiracy of Harmodius and Aristogiton, Hipparchus was slain in 514, and Hippias was compelled to quit Athens for Asia in 510. Clisthenes and Isagoras were now rivals for power, and the constitution of Solon went for a time into full operation; . but Clisthenes soon reorganized the people of Attica by dividing them into ten tribes, instead of the old Ionic four tribes; and these ten tribes were local, and were subdivided into districts or townships called demes ( . It was customary to designate every citizen by affixing to his name the epithet indicating the deme to which he belonged.' The senate was also changed, and its powers and duties were greatly increased; it now consisted of 500 members, 50 being taken from each tribe. The general control exercised by the people over the affairs of government, through the ecclesia, was also greatly enlarged. The judicial powers of the people were regulated by the establishment of the heliastic courts, of which ten were organized, either by Clisthenes, or soon after his time. The new arrangement of the tribes led to a new arrangement of the military service, the administration of which was placed in the hands of ten generals, one being chosen from each tribe. With them was associated, however, the polemarch, or third archon, who under the old constitution held the exclusive military command. The ostracism was also introduced by Clisthenes. - The prosperity of Athens excited the jealousy of the Spartans, who soon made several attempts to overthrow the growing democracy. Their first plan was to establish Isagoras, the rival of Clisthenes, as tyrant of Athens; but the expedition set on foot for the purpose failed.
They next planned the restoration of the exiled Hippias; and thus began that series of events which resulted in the Persian invasions of Greece, in repelling which the Athenians, under their generals Mil-tiades, Themistocles, and Aristides, took so conspicuous a part. The history of Athens in this struggle is completely identified with that of Greece until the battle of Plataea, in 479, when the Persians were finally vanquished. The conduct of the Athenians in meeting the invaders had given Athens the leadership of the country; and this was now acknowledged in the formation of the so-called confederacy of Delos, a union of numerous states under the Athenian hegemony. The rebuilding of Athens on a larger scale, and with stronger defences, excited the jealousy of the AEginetans and the Spartans, and attempts were made to interfere.
These were frustrated by the policy of The-mistocles. The city was surrounded by massive walls, the fleet was increased, and the harbors of Piraeus and Munychia were fortified with walls and towers, vast ruins of which remain to this day. - The progress of Athens in letters and arts in the time of her hegemony was wonderful; but her most brilliant period was that of Pericles, who came forward as a popular leader in 469. With slight interruptions, his administration lasted from 469 till his death in 429, though he held no permanent office. The names of AEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes in dramatic poetry, of Phidias and his school in plastic art, and of Anaxagoras and Socrates in philosophy, are connected with this period. The treasury of Delos was removed to Athens, and the amount of contributions increased beyond the assessment of Aristides. Public buildings of extraordinary splendor were erected. The great structures of the Periclean age were the Odeon, finished in 444; the Parthenon, 387; the Propylsea, 432; and the Erechtheum, which was not quite completed at the breaking out of the Peloponnesian war.
This magnificent system of public works was under the general superintendence of the sculptor Phidias. The architects of the Parthenon were Ictinus and Callicrates. Mnesicles was the builder of the Propylaea. - The Peloponnesian war broke out in 431. The Lacedaemonian troops ravaged the plain of Athens, and the inhabitants of the country crowded into the city. In the next year a second invasion took place, and the plague carried off not less than a fourth of the inhabitants. The disasters in the field were accompanied by violent changes in the city. (See Greece.) After the defeat of the Athenians at AEgospotami and the surrender of the city in 404 to the Spartan general Lysander, the democracy, which had been restored, was again abolished, and a government of thirty established, under the control of Sparta, known in history as the thirty tyrants. The walls of Athens were demolished by the Lacedaemonians, and the arsenals and docks at Piraeus destroyed. The Spartan rule was overthrown by a body of exiles, headed by Thrasybulus, who restored the reign of the ancient laws.
But Athens never regained her leadership in Greece. - The period between 403 and 360 B. C, usually designated as that of the Spartan and Theban supremacy, is signalized by the adventures of Xenophon, the Athenian, in the expedition of Gyrus the Younger, and the retreat of the 10,000; the war of the Lacedaemonians, under Agesilaus, in Asia Minor; the Corinthian war; the peace negotiated by Antalcidas and bearing his name in history, 387; the partial reorganization of the Athenian confederacy on the basis of the confederacy of Delos; and by numerous distant expeditions, both by the Lacedaemonians and the Athenians. In 361 a general peace was concluded by consent of all parties except the Lacedaemonians; but in the following year the Athenians went to war with the Olynthians for the possession of Am-phipolis, and this war brought them into collision with Macedonia under the lead of Philip, and after his death under that of his son Alexander. As the Macedonian successes increased, a party grew up in Athens which favored a conciliation of the conquerors.
Until the death of Philip and the accession of Alexander, Demosthenes and the true Athenian patriots of his school were able to make a vigorous opposition to this movement; but when Alexander destroyed Thebes, and the Athenians could only protect themselves against him by almost complete submission, the Macedonian party triumphed, and in spite of the efforts of the great orator Athens sank into entire subjection to the invaders. A tranquil period, one of the most inglorious in the political history of the city, now ensued. When the news of Alexander's death arrived (323), a fresh attempt was made to overturn the Macedonian supremacy. Leosthenes, the Athenian, defeated the army of Antipater, the Macedonian general, at Lamia, a short distance N. of the pass of Thermopylae; but the defeat of the Greek forces at Crannon in Thessaly once more placed the Macedonians in the ascendant. The Lamian war closed with the unconditional surrender of Athens to Antipater. From this time Athens became the victim of the contending chiefs of Macedonia. Demetrius Pha-lereus ruled the city ten years, supported by a Macedonian garrison; but in 307 Demetrius Poliorcetes was sent from Ephesus by his father, and compelled his namesake, the Pha-lerean, to surrender the city.
The conqueror announced to the people the restoration of their ancient constitution, and was the object of extraordinary honors, though he did nothing to really elevate Athens, and his rule only added to her degradation. Athens continued under the Macedonian influence down to the conquest of Greece by the Romans, though nominally governed by her own laws, and preserving her ancient customs, rites, and ceremonies of every description. In 200 the last Philip of Macedon was involved in a war with Rome, and Athens, having taken sides with the Romans, suffered from his barbarism. The city was relieved by a Roman fleet; but before Philip withdrew from the siege he laid waste the gardens and suburbs, including the lyceum and the tombs of the Attic heroes, and destroyed the temples that stood on the Attic plain. Philip was defeated at the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197, and in the following year Greece was declared free by the Roman consul Flamininus, at the Isthmian games. War was renewed by Perseus, and the Macedonian empire was finally overthrown by Lucius AEmilius Paulus in 168. In 147 war broke out between the Achaean league and Rome, but it was closed with the capture and sack of Corinth by the consul Mummius in the following year, which saw the whole of Greece reduced to a Roman province, under the name of Achaia. - Under the Romans Athens was prosperous and respected.
Her schools of eloquence and philosophy were open to the civilized world, and the sons of distinguished Roman citizens were sent there to complete their education. Her splendid temples remained uninjured; the magnificence of the city had been increased by the liberality of foreign potentates. Athens occasionally suffered during the civil wars. She took part with Mithridates, and was besieged and captured by Sulla, who destroyed the long walls and the fortifications, annihilated the commerce of Piraeus, and left the city crippled in all her resources. The groves of the academy and the lyceum were cut down, and columns were carried off from the temple of Olympian Zeus to adorn some public building at Rome. The establishment of the empire made but little difference in the condition of Athens, and she continued the centre of the world of literature and art down to the commencement of the Christian era. St. Paul visited the city, and delivered his discourse on Mars Hill, probably about the middle of the 1st century. The emperor Hadrian, in the first part of the 2d century, finished the temple of Olympian Zeus, established a public library, and built a pantheon and gymnasium. Marcus Aurelius increased the number of the Athenian schools and the salaries of the teachers.
About the middle of the 3d century the Goths, crossing the Hellespont and AEgean, descended upon Attica. Athens male a brave defence under the inspiration of the scholar and philosopher Dexippus, and suffered but little from the invasion before the enemy were driven back. In A. D. 258, a few years before the arrival of the Goths, the walls, which had been in a ruinous condition since the siege of Sylla, were repaired by Valerian. In 396 Alaric advanced upon Athens; but, not willing to undergo the delay of a siege, he accepted the hospitalities of the magistrates, and retired, leaving the city and Attica unharmed. For more than 100 years after this Athens enjoyed great prosperity as the chief seat of learning and culture; and we hear of her principally through the many learned men of the time who received their education in the city. - In the 5th century the beautiful Athenais, daughter of the Athenian philosopher Leontius, became a Christian, was baptized at Constantinople under the name of Eudocia, married the emperor Theodosius II., and did much by the influence of her example, and by building churches, to promote Christianity in Athens, the local government having recently authorized, by direction of an imperial rescript, the public recognition of Christianity there.
The temple of Olympian Zeus was consecrated to Christ the Saviour; the Parthenon to the Holy Wisdom (St. Sophia), afterward changing the designation to the Panagia and the Mother of God; and the temple of Theseus to St. George of Cappadocia. After Justinian in the 6th century had broken up the schools, we scarcely hear of the city for nearly 400 years. - In the 12th century Athens was taken and plundered by Roger, king of Sicily. The fourth crusade again brought the name of Athens to the notice of Europe. Greece was parcelled out among the Frankish princes after the capture of Constantinople in 1204. Otho de la Roche was made duke of Athens in 1205, and four successors of his family held the dukedom till 1308. Walter de Brienne succeeded, and was overthrown by the Grand Catalan company, whose aid he had invoked. A duke of the Sicilian branch of the house of Aragon was invested with the dignity by the Catalans, and in this line the dukedom remained till near the end of the 14th century. Six dukes of the Florentine family of Acciajuoli followed, ruling Athens till 1456. The ducal court of Athens was one of the most brilliant in Europe. In 1456, when it was captured by Mohammed II., Athens appears to have been prosperous, and the number of its inhabitants is said to have exceeded 50,000. In 1467 the Venetians went to war with the Turks, and, invading Greece with a powerful fleet, landed at Pirasus, and expelled the Turks from Athens after a bloody battle.
Athens remained under the Venetians till 1470, when the sultan entered Greece with a large army and retook the city. He placed Athens under a way wode, who held his office from the chief eunuch of the harem. The external affairs of the city were managed by the way wode; a cadi, or judge, decided the controversies between the Ottomans, without interfering in those of the Christians. The garrison on the Acropolis was under the command of the Turkish disdar. The proper municipal affairs of the city were managed by magistrates elected from the principal families by the people, and called by the ancient name of archons. This form of administration remained unchanged from 1470 to 1687. In the latter year Mo-rosini, the Venetian admiral, having gained brilliant victories in the war between the republic and Turkey, captured Athens, and obliged most of the Turks to leave the city. But an epidemic sickness and a fresh muster of the Turks compelled him to withdraw in March, 1688. A large number of the citizens fled, some to Salamis, AEgina, and other islands, some to Corinth, some to Nauplia, and others to Cephalonia. The city remained deserted till the following year, when the Turks entered it and committed a large part of the houses to the flames. The Athenians, however, began gradually to return.
The sultan granted them a free pardon, and remitted the tribute for three years. From 1690 to 1754 the Athenians lived quietly, under a political organization essentially the same as that already described. Between 1754 and 1777 Athens was frequently harassed by Albanian incursions. In the latter year a battle was fought at Calandria, near Athens, by the Athenian Turks and Greeks, under the way-wode, named Chasekes, against these barbarians, commanded by the deli pasha, and a decisive victory gained. In 1778 Chasekes fortified Athens with a wall, using materials taken from many of the ancient structures. The conduct of Chasekes gained him so much popularity, that his reappointment was solicited and obtained of the Porte, and finally he was appointed waywode for life. Having secured his end, he threw off the mask, and showed himself to be a tyrant. The tide of popular feeling turned against him, and he was banished; but by intrigue and bribery he was again restored. The contest continued 22 years, during which the game was repeated five times; and finally, in 1795, he was beheaded in Cos, the place of his exile. In this period the prosperity of Athens declined. Her population and wealth greatly diminished.
A pestilence ravaged the city in 1789 and again in 1792; about 1,200 perished in the former, and 1,000 in the latter. In the movement toward a revival of Greek independence, which distinguished the close of the last century and the beginning of the present, Athens played a prominent part. New schools were established, and the whole influence of all her educational institutions was on the side of Greek freedom. The actual war of independence commenced in 1821. The fortunes of Athens were variously affected during the seven years of its continuance. The Turkish garrison was besieged in the Acropolis April 28, but after many tragical scenes was relieved July 20, and the Greek troops were compelled to retreat by the Turks under Omer Pasha, Briones, and Omer Bey. Many of the inhabitants were slain, and the city was plundered and burned. Many of the Athenians fled to Salamis and AEgina, and some of them joined the troops concentrating at the isthmus of Corinth. In September, 1821, Omer Pasha retired from Athens with the greater part of his forces, and his lieutenant soon afterward with the remainder.
The Acropolis was again left in the hands of the resident Turks, and the Athenians, returning from their places of refuge, besieged them, and compelled them to surrender, June 21, 1822, 1,160 prisoners being taken. Before these could be conveyed to a place of safety, a rumor of a new invasion spread through the city, and caused the Athenians such alarm that they fell upon the Turks and put to death about 400, in violation of the terms of the surrender. During the next two years violent dissensions between the Greek leaders delayed the progress of the war; but in spite of the treachery of Odysseus, a leading general, who joined the enemy and made hostile movements against Athens, the body of the troops and citizens faithfully supported Guras, the commander of the city, and finally gained a decisive victory, capturing Odysseus, who was put to death. Early in 1826 the Turkish forces, under Kiutahi Pasha and Omer Pasha, overran Attica. Numerous conflicts occurred in the neighborhood of Athens. On Aug. 15 the Turks forced their way into the city, and the Greeks retired into the Acropolis, where they were long besieged, suffering great hardships. Guras was killed in an outwork.
During the siege the Greek forces outside the city, under the command of the English Lord Cochrane, Gen. Church, and others, strove to relieve the garrison. In May a bloody and decisive battle was fought, and the Greeks were entirely defeated. Cochrane and Church were compelled to seek refuge on board their ships, and the posts in the neighborhood of Piraeus were abandoned. The citadel was compelled to surrender June 5. More than 2,000 men and 500 women were inarched down from the Acropolis, and transported to Salamis, .AEgina, and Poros. Thus, after a siege of 11 months, Athens was again placed under Turkish domination. The city remained in the possession of the Turks till 1832, when the intervention of the great powers had secured independence to the Greeks under a republican form of government, with President Capo d'Istria at its head. During these last years almost all the modern buildings of the city had been demolished. Scarcely a private dwelling was uninjured, and the remains of antiquity shared in the general calamity. The city recovered slowly, and had little prosperity until subsequent events drew back to it some part of its former population.
Capo d'Istria was assassinated in 1831. In August, 1832, Otho, the second son of the king of Bavaria, who had been selected by the great powers, England, France, and Russia, was proclaimed king at Nauplia. He arrived at the end of January, 1833. The king, only 17 years old when he was chosen, attained his majority, which was fixed at 20, in 1835. In that year the seat of government was transferred from Nauplia to Athens, and from this date recommences the history of Athens as a new centre of civilization in that quarter of the world. Its prosperity now quickly revived. A new liberal constitution, drawn up by an assembly convened at the demand of the people, and formally accepted March 16, 1844, made great changes in the government of Greece, of which the city speedily felt the favorable results. Since 1844 there have been few events of importance in the history of Athens. In 1854, during the Crimean war, revolutionary movements having broken out against the Turks, Athens was occupied by a garrison of French and English troops, which was not wholly withdrawn till 1857. In 1854 also the Asiatic cholera visited the city, causing terrible suffering and a very great number of deaths. - Our knowledge of the appearance and topography of ancient Athens is derived from several sources: from the ruins now visible in the modern city, from which almost alone scholars have been able to ascertain the positions of many walls and buildings; from the casual references and allusions of ancient historians, orators, and dramatists; but most of all from the detailed account of Pausanias, who visited Athens in the time of the An-tonines, a period of great splendor.
By the aid of these means of information, interpreted and arranged by many eminent scholars - among whom Col. Leake and the German philologist Forchhammer are prominent as having established the principal points almost beyond a doubt - a very accurate idea has been formed of the ancient capital, its fortifications and environs. In describing it, we shall, after a few necessary explanations, follow the route taken by Pausanias, using his descriptions in their order, and filling the gaps left by him with information derivable from other sources. - Athens - that is, all the district lying within the fortifications - consisted of three parts:
1. The Acropolis, often called simply the Polis.
2. The Asty, or upper town, as distinguished from the port towns, and therefore really including the Acropolis. 3. The port towns, Piraeus, Munychia, and Phalerum. The Acropolis was in itself a citadel; the Asty was surrounded by walls; and three similar Avails, the two long walls and the Phaleric wall, connected the Asty with the port towns. About the position of these last three there has been little doubt; but the questions concerning the walls of the Asty itself have been matter for controversy. For a long time the views of Col. Leake on this point were considered the true ones; but Forchhammer's theory is now generally adopted as correct. The wall around the Asty measured 60 stadia; that around Piraeus (with Munychia) the same; the length of each of the long walls was 40 stadia, and that of the Phaleric wall 35. The walls of Piraeus, and probably the others also, were 60 feet in height. Between the long walls, which were 550 feet apart, ran a carriage road from the Asty to Piraeus; and this was probably lined with houses, so that the city was continued through the whole distance.
Although some kind of fortifications probably surrounded the Asty from the earliest times, the great wall around it, to which we have alluded, was built by Themistocles as soon as possible after the battle of Salamis. The port towns, though also slightly fortified by him, were first regularly walled and laid out under Pericles, by whose advice they were connected with the Asty by the northern long wall and the Phaleric wall. The southern long wall was not built until about the beginning of the Peloponnesian war; the Phaleric wall then became comparatively useless, and was allowed to decay. The position of the gates in the wall of the Asty has been a matter of much doubt. The locations given in the accompanying map are those agreed upon by the best authorities, though many of them are still uncertain. - Pausanias apparently entered the city by the Piraic gate, and his first mention is of the Pompeium, a building used as a depository of certain very valuable sacred vessels ( ) when not in use.
Plan of Athens and the Port Towns.
Here were several statues, among them one of Socrates. Beyond this, in passing toward the Acropolis, were the temples of Demeter (Ceres), Hercules, and several minor deities; then the gymnasium of Hermes (Mercury); all these were on the road leading toward Piraeus, and passing between the hills of the Museum and the Pnyx. The former of these, lying on the historian's right, and S. W. of the Acropolis, was a considerable elevation, crowned by a fortress, and probably covered with houses. Upon it was the monument of Philopappus, which still remains in a ruined state. The hill of the Pnyx, the height lying to the left of Pausanias, was one of the famous localities of Athens. Here was the bema, or pulpit of stone, from which the great Athenian orators spoke to the assembled people, gathered in a semicircular level area of large extent, which was the Pnyx proper ( . The bema and traces of the levelled area still remain. Beyond the Pnyx, to the northeast, was the Areopagus, or hill of Ares (Mars), on the S. E. summit of which the famous court or council of the Areopagus held its sittings. N. W. of the Pnyx was still another hill, that of the Nymphs. Along the road taken by Pausanias colonnades extended, probably forming the entrances to dwellings in the rear. Pausanias next entered the district of the Asty called the inner Ceramicus (the outer Ceramicus lying outside the walls), at that prominent point of Athens, the Agora, or market place. This was a square surrounded by colonnades, temples, and public buildings, decorated with statues and paintings. On the right, as Pausanias entered it, stood the Stoa Basileius (royal colonnade), in which was held the court of the archon basileus. Upon its roof and near it were numerous statues, which Pausanias describes. Next this stoa was another, the Stoa Eleutherius, decorated with paintings by Euphranor. Near this, again, stood the temple of Apollo Patrous, that of the Mother of the Gods, and the council house of the 500. According to the account of the historian, the Tholus, a circular stone edifice dedicated to the gods, the temple of Aphrodite Pandemus, the altar of the Twelve Gods, and a very great number of statues of gods and heroes, also stood around the market place; and on the fourth side were the Stoa Poecile, the temples of Aphrodite Urania and Hephaestus, and the Eurysaceum, a temple to the memory of Eurysaces, a son of Ajax. In the Agora was also an enclosure where the votes for ostracism were received.
Many of these things are not mentioned until later in the historian's account, for Pausanias now changed his route, passed down the road continuing the street of the Ceramicus on the other side of the Agora and leading to the Ilissus, and only returned to the Agora after describing much of the remainder of the city. Near the end of the long street, which was generally lined with private houses, he found the Odeon, first built for a public theatre, but afterward used as a granary, and near it the Enneacrunus, or fountain of Callirhoe, the only supply of fresh running water in ancient Athens, the rest used by the inhabitants having been drawn from wells. Beyond these were several smaller temples. Returning to the Agora, and describing those parts of it not alluded to before, Pausanias now began a new excursion, passing up the Ceramicus toward the gate, noticing the gymnasium of Ptolemy and the temple of Theseus, or Theseum. This edifice, at this day the best preserved monument of the splendor of ancient Athens, was a structure of Pentelic marble, a peripteral hexastyle of the Doric order of architecture, 104 ft. long, 45 broad, and 33 1/2 high to the summit of the pediment. Its sides and pediments were adorned with sculptures, some of which remain, though much injured.
Many of these, as well as parts of the building, were painted. They set forth incidents in the lives of Theseus and Hercules. Pausanias turns to the right at the Theseum, and visits the temple of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), the Aglaurium or sacred enclosure dedicated to Aglaurus, and the Prytaneum, an edifice in which were deposited the laws of Solon. The Olympieum, S. E. of the Acropolis, was the largest and must have been in some respects the most magnificent of all the Athenian temples. It was begun by Pisistratus and finished by the emperor Hadrian, so that its construction was continued at intervals through a period of 700 years. It was 350 ft. long, 171 broad, and of great height, surrounded by a peristyle comprising 160 columns, 16 of which remain standing; they are 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and more than 60 ft. high. Several minor buildings are next noticed by Pausanias, among them the Pythium and the Delphinium, both temples of Apollo. After visiting certain gardens which appear to have been in this quarter of the city, he describes the Cynosar-ges and the Lyceum, both outside the walls; the former a place sacred to Hercules, the latter the famous gymnasium in which Aristotle expounded his doctrines.
Pausanias returned along the Ilissus, passing several lesser altars and sanctuaries, and his account makes its next important subject the Panathenaic Stadium, a partly natural amphitheatre in the hills, in ancient times furnished with marble seats from which an immense multitude could witness the games below. The terraces of this amphitheatre are still to be traced. The historian returns to the Prytaneum, notices the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, which still exists, among the most beautiful of the smaller relics of Athenian art, and enters the sacred enclosure of Dionysus, in which stood two temples, and near which was the Diony-siac theatre. Near the theatre, again, stood the Odeon of Pericles, the roof of which is said to have been formed in imitation of the tent of Xerxes. Passing westward along the base of the Acropolis, Pausanias mentions the tomb of Talos, the temple of AEsculapius (Asclepieum), and several other monumental tombs and temples, which were here clustered together. - In following his description of the Acropolis we are aided by the magnificent ruins still remaining of the temples that covered its summit, and may safely supply many details of the account.
The principal buildings on the summit of the Acropolis were the Propylaea, the Erechtheum, and the Parthenon. The Propylaea served at once as an architectural embellishment and a military defence. Among the ancients it was more admired than even the Parthenon, for the skill with which the difficulties of the ground were overcome, and for the grandeur of the general effect. The approach was a flight of 60 marble steps, and was 70 ft. broad. At the top of the steps was a portico of six fluted Doric columns, 5 ft. in diameter and 29 ft. high. The side wings, on platforms, 78 ft. apart, had three Doric colums in antis fronting upon the grand staircase. The north wing contained the Pinacotheca, a hall 35 ft. by 30; the hall of the south wing was 27 ft. by 16. Behind the Doric hexastyle was a magnificent hall 60 ft. broad, 44 deep, and 39 high, with a marble ceiling resting on enormous beams, supported by three Ionic columns, on each side of the passage. At the east end of this hall was the wall, through which there were five entrances, with doors or gates. The central opening, through which the Panathenaic procession passed, was 13 ft. wide and 24 ft. high; those next the central are, on each side, 9 1/2 ft. wide, and the smallest 5 ft., the height varying in proportion.
These gates were the only public entrance into the Acropolis. Within the wall, on the eastern side, was another hall, 19 ft. deep, its floor elevated about 4 1/2 ft. above the western, and terminated by another Doric portico of six columns. The pediments and ceilings of this structure have been destroyed. Most of the columns remain, some of them entire, with heavy fragments of the architraves. Passing through the Propylaea, one came to the Erechtheum, on the left or north side of the Acropolis, and the Parthenon on the right, near the southern or Cimonian wall. The form of the Erechtheum was oblong, with a portico of six Ionic columns at the east end, and a kind of transept at the west, a portico of four columns on the north, and the portico of the caryatides, standing on a basement 8 ft. high, on the south. At the western end there is a basement, on which are four Ionic columns half engaged in the wall, and supporting a pediment. The eastern and western divisions of the temple are on different levels, the eastern being 98 ft. higher than the western. Enough remains of this extraordinary and beautiful temple to give a correct idea of its outward form; but the interior is in so ruinous a condition that the distribution and arrangement of the divisions are subject to the greatest doubt.
There remains to be described the Parthenon, the noblest monument in Athens. It was built of Pentelic marble, under the superintendence of Phidias, by Ictinus and Callicrates. It stands on a basis approached by three steps, each 1 ft. 9 in. high, 2 ft. and about 4 in. wide. Its breadth, on the upper step, is 101.34 ft.; its length, 228 ft.; the height to the top of the pediment from the upper step of the stylobate, 59 ft., and with the stylobate, 64 ft. The temple is Doric, octostyle, or with eight columns at each end, and peripteral, or colonnaded all round, there being 15 columns on each side, not counting those at the corners - 46 in all. The length of the secos, or body of the temple, is 193 ft., and its breadth 71 ft., omitting fractions. The space between the peristyle and the wall is 9 ft. wide at the sides and 11 ft. at the fronts. The body is divided by a transverse wall into two unequal portions: the eastern was the naos proper, an apartment for the statue of the goddess, 98 ft. in length; the western, the opisthodomos, which was commonly used as the treasury of the city, 43 ft. long. Within the peristyle, at each end, were eight columns, 33 ft. high, on a stylobate of two steps.
Within the naos was a range of ten Doric columns on each side, and three at the west end, forming three sides of a quadrangle; above them, an architrave supported an upper range of columns, which Wheeler, at the time of whose visit they were still standing, calls a kind of gallery; 14 ft. distant from the western columns is the pavement of Piraic stone, on which the great chryselephantine statue of Athena was placed. Besides the internal decorations, the outside of the temple was ornamented with three classes of sculpture: 1. The sculptures of the pediments, being independent statues resting upon the deep cornice. The subject of those on the eastern pediment was the birth of Athena; of those on the western, the contest between Poseidon and Athena for the possession of Attica. 2. The groups in the metopes, 92 in number, representing combats of Hercules and Theseus, the Centaurs and Amazons, and perhaps some figures of the Persian war. These groups were executed in high relief. 3. The frieze round the upper border of the cella of the Parthenon contained a representation in low relief of the Panathe-naic procession. All these classes of sculpture were in the highest style of the art, executed by Phidias himself, or under his immediate direction.
Most of them were in place when Wheeler visited Athens, in 1676; and drawings of the figures in the pediments were made in 1674 by Carrey, a French architect in the suite of the marquis de Nointel, minister of France at the Porte. The interior of the temple was thrown down in 1G87, by the explosion of a bomb in the Turkish powder magazine. The front columns of the peristyle escaped, but eight on the north side and six on the south were overthrown. Morosiui, in endeavoring to remove some of the figures on the pediments, broke them, and otherwise did great mischief. At the beginning of the present century, Lord Elgin dismantled a considerable part of the a record of money paid for polychromatic decorations. The Parthenon was built in the best period of architecture, and under the inspiration of the highest genius in art. Its aspect is simple, but scientific investigation has not yet exhausted its beauties and refinements. Unexpected delicacies of construction have not ceased to be discovered in it. In 1837 Penne-thorne, an English traveller, noticed the inclination of the columns. Hofer, Schaubert,and others have examined the subject, and published their observations upon the inclination of the columns and the curved lines of the stylobate and architraves.
Mr. Penrose, an English scholar and architect, visited Athens in 1845, and was afterward sent by the society of dilettanti to complete the investigations he had already commenced. The results were published in a splendid folio, in 1851. They may be briefly summed up thus: The lines which in ordinary architecture are straight, in the Parthenon of the remaining sculptures, which form the most precious treasures of the British museum at the present moment. A question has been much discussed as to whether any portion of the exterior of the temple was decorated with painting. It is hardly possible to doubt the fact, after a personal examination. Many of the mouldings have traces of beautifully drawn patterns. Under the cornices there are delicate tints of blue and red, and of blue in the triglyphs. Architraves and broader surfaces were tinged with ochre. All these figures were executed so delicately and exquisitely, that it is impossible to accept the theory sometimes advanced of their being the work of subsequent barbarous ages. There are other traces of colors on the inner surface of the portion of the walls still standing, which evidently belong to a period after the stonecutters Eulogius and Apollos converted the Parthenon into a church.
Among the inscriptions there is one, found in 1836, containing Doric temple at Athens are delicate curves. The edges of the steps and the lines of the entablatures are convex curves, lying in vertical planes and nearly parallel, and the curves are conic sections, the middle of the stylobate rising several inches above the extremities. The external lines of the columns are curved also, forming a hyperbolic entasis. The axes of the columns incline inward, so that opposite pairs, if produced sufficiently far, would meet. The spaces of the intercolnnmiations and the size of the capitals vary slightly, according to their position. From the usual points of view these variations and curves are not perceptible, but they produce by their combination the effect of perfect harmony and regularity; and the absence of these retinements is the cause of the universal failure of buildings constructed in modern times according to what have been supposed to be the principles of Hellenic architecture. This subject is treated by Mr, Penrose in great detail, and with remarkable precision; also by M. Beule, in V Acropole (d'Athenes (Paris, 1853-'5). - Besides these famous buildings, there were on the Acropolis others of less size, but great beauty.
Such were the temple of Nike Apteros (the Wingless Victory), the remains of which have been discovered and restored, the temple of Rome and Augustus, and the temple of Artemis Brauronia. Among the celebrated statues and works of art on the summit of the Acropolis was the colossal statue of Athena Promachus, which represented the goddess holding a spear and in full armor. It was of such height that it could be seen at a considerable distance from the coast, above the Parthenon and the other highest buildings of the city. - The population of ancient Athens has been a subject of much controversy; but the results reached by different authorities differ by only a few thousands from the estimate of Leake, who supposes the city, including the port towns, to have contained about 192,000 inhabitants. Of these, all who corresponded to our laboring classes were slaves; a large proportion of the remainder were metceci, or residents of foreign birth; while the actual Athenian citizens, freemen in the enjoyment of all the civic rights, formed the smallest class of all.
This statement uses the word citizen in a narrow sense, applying only to those within the walls; but the political privileges of an Athenian citizen were extended to all free-born and properly qualified citizens of Attica. They were generally divided into etipatridce, or patricians, geomori, or landholders, and demiwrgi, or tradespeople. (See Attica.) - The government of Athens in the time of its prosperity was in the hands of three bodies: the nine archons, elected annually; the boule, or council of state (of 400 members under Solon's constitution, 500 under Clisthenes, and after the year 806 B. C. increased to (600 members); and the assembly of the people (ecclesia). Among the archons were divided special departments of the executive power. (See Archon.) The boule debated important measures previous to bringing them before the assembly of the people, received reports, decided to what courts certain appeals should be made, etc. Its members held office for one year, and it held daily meetings. The ecclesiae were of three kinds: assemblies of the people held on fixed days, at intervals of about a month; those called on extraordinary occasions by committees (as we should call them) of the boule; and those which in important cases included not only the citizens of the city but of all Attica. These assemblies had the ultimate power of decision in all cases without appeal, made war and concluded peace, passed laws and made alliances, and confirmed or censured the acts of officials.
Their meetings, usually held in the Agora, on the Pnyx, or in the theatre of Dionysus, were conducted with many ceremonies. The chief court of the Athenians was that of the Areopagus, the origin of which is lost in prehistoric legends. Men who had held the rank of archon composed it. Its jurisdiction extended over all cases of treason and special cases of murder, serious assault, and arson. (See Areopagus.) Next stood the court of the ephori, who numbered 50, chosen from the citizens, who tried ordinary cases of murder and assault. There were several other courts of less importance. There were few taxes in ancient Athens. The state derived a great part of its income from the rent of its lands to private citizens. The taxes, including harbor dues, market taxes, taxes paid by foreign residents, the tax set upon public prostitutes (after the time of Pericles), and a few others, were farmed out. Upon the actual citizens there fell almost no burden of taxation. The fines imposed by the courts were also a considerable source of income for the state, and of course the largest sums of all were those extorted from enemies and foreign allies of the city. - The ceremonies connected with religious worship at Athens were perhaps more magnificent than in any other city of the ancient world.
The chief among the great solemnities were the Pana-thensea, the Dionysiac festival, and the Eleu-sinian mysteries. (See Bacchanalia, Eleusis, and Panatheslea.) The rites and temples were under the charge of priests, whose offices were generally hereditary. Immense sums were annually expended by the state in beautifying the temples, sacred enclosures, and monuments of the gods, and the days dedicated to them were celebrated with magnificent ceremonies. - The private life of the Athenians in the most ancient days of the city was simple; but with the administration of Pericles, or even before it, their customs became extravagant and sensual. The magnificent Athenian banquets of this and subsequent periods surpassed almost all others of the time. The guests reclined on couches about the tables, while dancers of both sexes, musicians, and the songs of hired slave girls accompanied the most extravagant feasts. These ended with symposia, or drinking bouts, generally scenes of the wildest license. The education of the citizen before this period of luxury was as follows: After having his name inscribed by his father or other relative in the catalogue of his phratry (see Attica) when he was but three or four years old, the young Athenian was brought up during the next few years in the part of the house devoted to the women (gynceceum). At seven his actual education was begun under a pedagogue or tutor, under whose guidance he visited the schools and places of public athletic exercises, pursuing courses of rhetoric, mathematics, music, philosophy, and also of manly arts - riding, spear-throwing, wrestling, etc.
Women and girls were scarcely allowed by decorum any social intercourse, nor were any facilities furnished them for education. This accounts for the fact that the most intelligent and brilliant women of Athens were found among the hetcera, a term which is wrongly translated by our word prostitutes; for these women, though actually hired mistresses, were generally an orderly, highly educated class, and only obeyed customs which were sanctioned by the age. An Athenian could marry at or after the age of 14. Heiresses were compelled by law to marry their next of kin, outside the natural limits of course, that the property might not pass to another gens. Divorce was obtained by the simple consent of both parties; adultery was severely punished.
1. Erechltheum. 2. Propylan. 3. Temple of Nike Apteros. 4. Temple of Ares. 5. Sanctuary of Semnae. 6. Odeon of Herodes. 7. Theatre of Dionysus. 8. Stoa Eumenea. 9. Monument of Lysicraies.
Plan of Ancient Athens.
Present Appearance of the Theseum.
General View of the Acropolis at the Present Day. (From a recent Photograph.).
Ground Plan of the Acropolis.
Ruins of the Propylaea.
Portico of the Erechtheum, with Caryatides.
Ruins of the Erechtheum.
Ruins of the Parthenon.
General View of Modern Athens. (From a recent Photograph).
The Athenian private houses were generally small frame buildings, with tiled roofs: the streets between them were narrow and crooked. Only as late as the time of Clisthenes were fine private houses constructed, and the custom once begun, it increased so fast that Demosthenes severely reprimanded certain citizens for building houses far surpassing the public edifices; no ruins remain to give us an idea of these. The dress of the Athenians was very simple. The older men wore white robes or himatia, the younger the saffron-colored clilamys or tunic. The women wore the chiton, a long woollen robe; over it a cloak or wrapping, the diploi-don; and outside this again a simple shoulder cloak or cape, the hemidiploidon. This dress varied little in times of festival. - In the present political division of the kingdom of Greece, Athens is the capital of the nomarchy of Attica and Bceotia, as well as of the entire kingdom. Its population in 1871, after a slow increase for several years, was 48,107. It is the residence of the king and court, and the seat of several important institutions of learning, art, and public charity.
Among these are the university, employing more than 50 professors and instructors, and having a free library of more than 90,000 volumes; an observatory and botanical garden; two gymnasia on the German system; a military school, schools for the special education of priests and teachers, a polytechnic school, a seminary for girls, etc.
An "American female school" founded by Rev. J. H. Hill, is also maintained in the city; it was for a long time under the direct patronage of the government. The grammar and primary schools are excellent, and instruction is generally sought and widely diffused. Among the institutions of art is an association for the promotion of the study of the fine arts, and there are several museums in which the scattered relics of the old splendor of the city have been brought together and carefully arranged. Under the head of public charities fall an asylum for the blind and a hospital, both of considerable size. Among the public buildings are the palace, a fine building of three stories, near Mount Lycabet-tus, the chamber of deputies, the barracks, mint, theatre, and extensive structures intended for the assemblies of the national academy, and for the museum and polytechnic school. There are also about 100 churches, some of them admirable specimens of architecture. The largest is that of St. Nicodemus, built during the middle ages, in the Byzantine style. Like most of the others, it is not of great size, and depends for its effect on the beauty of its construction.
The general appearance of the modern city is not especially attractive on near approach, though the magnificent height of the Acropolis, crowned with the ruins we have noticed above, and the pleasant situation of the town itself, give it a picturesque aspect when one views it from some distant point. Parts of the city have the dirt and squalor peculiar to nearly all towns of southeastern Europe; but its condition has been gradually improved since it became the royal residence, and now there are several broad streets and squares, well kept and clean. The hotels, shops, cafes, etc, are among the indications of the improvement of the city, and the local trade is active, though there is comparatively little commerce with foreign ports. - See Forchhammer's Topogra-phie von Athen (in the Kieler philologische Studien for 1841, Kiel), and his essay in defence of his views in the Zeitschrift fur Alter-thumswissenschaft (1843, Nos. 69, 70); Leake's "Researches in Greece" (London, 1814), and especially his "Topography of Athens" (1821); also his work "On some Disputed Questions of Ancient Geography" (1857); "Wordsworth's "Athens and Attica" (London, 1836); Stuart and Revett's "Antiquities of Athens" (London, 1825-'7); Mure's "Journal of a Tour in Greece" (Edinburgh, 1842); Kruse's Hellas (Leipsic, 1826); K. O. Mailer's Attika (in Ersch and Gruber's Encylelopa-die, English translation by Lockhart, London, 1842); Prokesch's Denkiourdiqkeiten (Stuttgart, 1836); the article "Athenae" in Smith's " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography" (London, 1854); Boeekh's "Public Economy of the Athenians" (translated by Lewis, London, 1842); Wessenberg's "Life in Athens in the Time of Pericles" (London, no date); Prof. Felton's "Greece, Ancient and Modern."