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British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6



Marsh plants, or Helophytes as they are called, are unlike aquatic plants in that though their roots grow in water-logged soil in which there is 80 per cent of water, yet their stems are never quite submerged and are usually erect, many aquatic plants being submerged and lying on the surface of the water. They usually grow in shallow water, if submerged at all, and in still or but little disturbed water...

TitleBritish Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6
AuthorA. R. Horwood
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1919
Copyright1919, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonA British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts
-Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes Plate L
1. Great Spearwort Rannuculus Lingua, L.) 2. Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris, L.) 3. Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris, L.) 4. Sundew (Drosera rofundifolia, L.) 5. Water Dropwort (Oenanthef...
-Key To Plate L
-Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes
Marsh plants, or Helophytes as they are called, are unlike aquatic plants in that though their roots grow in water-logged soil in which there is 80 per cent of water, yet their stems are never quite s...
-Great Spearwort (Ranunculus Lingua, L.)
This fine plant has been recognized by its achenes in deposits of Interglacial, Neolithic, and Roman age. It is found in the Warm Temperate Zone, in Temperate Europe, N. and W. Asia, as far as the Him...
-Marsh Marigold (Caltha Palustris, L.)
This is an Arctic plant found in Pre-, Inter-, and Late Glacial, Neolithic, and Roman deposits. It is a plant of the Cold Temperate and Arctic regions, found in Arctic Europe, North and W. Asia, as fa...
-Grass Of Parnassus (Parnassia Palustris, L.)
There are not any instances of the occurrence of Grass of Parnassus in early beds. It is confined to the North Temperate Zone of Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, Western Asia, as far east as N.W. Himalayas...
-Sundew (Drosera Rotundifolia, L.)
This interesting plant is found to-day, and not earlier, so far as we know, in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, Siberia, Western Asia, East and West North America, from the Arcti...
-Water Dropwort (Oenanthe Fistulosa, L.)
In spite of its tender character this plant has been found and identified from seeds in Interglacial beds at West Wittering in Sussex. It is found in the North Temperate Zone at the present day in Eur...
-Valerian (Valeriana Dioica, L.)
Widespread as a marsh plant Valerian is found throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe generally. In Great Britain it is found in Cornwall and S. Somerset in the Peninsula province; throughout th...
-Key To Plate LI
-Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes - Plate LI
1. Valerian (Valeriana dioica, L.). 2. Cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris, Pers.). 3. Wild Rosemary (Andromeda polifolia, L.). 4. Bog Pimpernel (Anagallis tenella, Murr.). 5. Water Violet (Hottonia pa...
-Cranberry (Oxycoccus Palustris, Pers. = O. Quadripetala, Gilib.)
Though an Arctic plant the Cranberry has not been found in any early deposits. At the present day it occurs in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, but not in Turkey, in N. Asia, and...
-Wild Rosemary (Andromeda Polifolia, L.)
Though not found there at the present day this typical bog plant has been discovered in Late Glacial beds at Hailes and Corstorphine near Edinburgh. At the present time it is found in the North Temper...
-Bog Pimpernel (Anagallis Tenella, Murr.)
Though a true bog plant it belongs rather to southern types (not northern), and has not been discovered up to the present in any ancient deposits. In the North Temperate Zone it occurs in Europe, sout...
-Water Violet (Hottonia Palustris, L.)
This local, but widely-dispersed aquatic, once known in the London area, is generally found in the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe, except in Spain, Greece, and Turkey, and Western Siberia. In Great...
-Key To Plate LII
-Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes - Plate LII
I. Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliala, L.). 2. Bog Speedwell (Veronica scutellata, L.). 3. Marsh Red Rattle (Pedicularis palitstris, L.). 4. Bladderwort (Ulrictdaria vulgaris, L.). 5. Butterwort (Pin...
-Bog Bean (Menyanthes Trifoliata, L.)
Being strictly paludal this plant is one of those widely preserved in ancient deposits, as in Preglacial beds in Norfolk, Early Glacial beds in Norfolk, Interglacial beds at West Wittering, Late Glaci...
-Bog Speedwell (Veronica Scutellata, L.)
Though an Arctic plant no seeds of this common bog plant have as yet been discovered in peat or other deposits yielding such remains. It is found in Arctic Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, N. Americ...
-Marsh Red Rattle (Pedicularis Palustris, L.)
As an Arctic plant the occurrence of this plant in Neolithic beds in Edinburgh and Renfrewshire is quite what one would expect. It is general throughout the Arctic and Temperate Zones in Arctic Europe...
-Bladderwort (Utricularia Vulgaris, L.)
Though paludal, there is no record of Bladderwort in early seed-bearing beds. The present range is Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, N. America, or the N. Temperate Zone. In Great Britain it is found in the...
-Butterwort (Pinguicula Vulgaris, L.)
Butterwort is found in the Arctic and North Temperate regions in Arctic Europe, N. Asia, and N. America, but it is not found in any early deposits like other members of its association. In Great Brita...
-Golden Dock (Rumex Maritimus, L.)
This is one of those marsh plants that commonly occur in ancient deposits, being found in Preglacial, Early Glacial beds in Norfolk, Interglacial beds in Suffolk, and Late Glacial beds in Suffolk. To-...
-Key To Plate LIII
-Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes - Plate LIII
I. Golden Dock (Rumex maritimus, L.). 2. Bog Myrtle (Myrica Gale, L.). 3. White Willow (Salix alba, L. 4. Marsh Helleborine (Helleborine longifolia, Rendle and Britten). 5. Bog Asphodel (Nartheciu...
-Bog Myrtle (Myrica Gale, L.)
Though unknown in a fossil state in England Bog Myrtle is found in the Oak Zone in Gothland and elsewhere. In the N. Temperate Zone it is found in W. and N.W. Europe, N. Asia, and N. America. In Great...
-White Willow (Salix Alba, L.)
As with the Crack Willow there have been no traces of this tree preserved in early leaf or seed deposits. It is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, N.W. India. In Grea...
-Helleborine (Helleborine Longifolia, Rendle And Britten = Epipactis Palustris, Crantz)
There is no trace of this Orchid in a fossil state. It is found at the present day in Europe and Siberia in the North Temperate Zone. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula province, but not in...
-Bog Asphodel (Narthecium Ossifragum, Huds.)
Though a northern bog plant no trace of it occurs amongst the remains of Arctic plants found in North Britain and other parts. It is distributed generally in the North Temperate Zone north of the Alps...
-Common Jointed Rush (Juncus Articulatus, L. = J. Lamprocarpus, Ehrh.)
This common marsh plant is known to us from its present distribution alone, which covers the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, Himalayas, N. America. In Great Britain it is fo...
-Key To Plate LIV
-Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes - Plate LIV
1. Galingale (Cyperus longus, L.). 2. Common Spike Rush (Eleocharis palustris, Roem. and Schult.). 3. Cotton Grass (Eriophorum angustifolium, Roth.). 4. Prickly Twig Rush (Cladium Mariscus, Br.). ...
-Galingale (Cyperus Longus, L.)
This maritime sedge is not represented in any of the early deposits in Great Britain. To-day it is to be found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, South of France and Germany, and in North Africa. ...
-Common Spike-Rush (Eleocharis Palustris, Roem. And Schult.)
The antiquity of this plant is shown by its occurrence in the Pre-glacial deposits of Pakefield, Suffolk, early Glacial beds at Beeston, Norfolk, Interglacial, Late Glacial, Neolithic, and Roman depos...
-Cotton Grass (Eriophorum Angustifolium, Roth)
This Arctic plant is found in Preglacial deposits in Norfolk and Suffolk, and at Hoxne, Suffolk, in Interglacial beds. To-day it is to be found in N. Temperate and Arctic Europe, except N. Asia, N. Am...
-Prickly Twig Rush (Cladium Mariscus, Br.)
Though unknown in a fossil state in Great Britain, this sedge is found in Prussia in the Birch, Pine, and Oak Zones, and in Gothland. To-day it ranges in the N. Temperate Zones from Gothland southward...
-Hummock Sedge (Carex Paniculata, L.)
The Hummock Sedge is found in the North Temperate Zone south of Sweden to the Canaries, and in W. Siberia. It is not found in any early plant beds. In Great Britain it is absent in the Peninsula provi...
-Great Prickly Sedge (Carex Vulpina, L.)
This common sedge is found throughout the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, and N. America. It is not known in any early deposits. In Great Britain it does not grow in Cardigan, Isle of...
-Section XI. Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors
The plants which are found on heaths and moors are those that require humus in a sour (or acid) and free state. The soil is barren and not rich in nitrogen that can be readily assimilated, and consequ...
-Key To Plate LV
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors - Plate LV
1. Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris, L.). 2. Grassy Stitchwort (Stellaria graminea, L.). 3. Pretty St. John's Wort Hypericum pulchrum, L.). 4. Furze (Ulex europoeus, L.). 5. Broom (Cytisus scoparius, L...
-Grassy Stitchwort (Stellaria Graminea, L.)
The Grassy Stitchwort has been found in deposits of Roman age. At the present day it is found in Arctic Europe, Siberia, Western Asia, as far as the Himalayas. It is common in every county in Great Br...
-Pretty St. John's Wort (Hypericum Pulchrum, L.)
This plant is not found in seed-bearing beds. It is a plant of the Northern Temperate Zone, found in Arctic Europe, eastwards to Lithuania and Turkey. In Great Britain it is generally common, but does...
-Furze (Ulex Europaeus, L.)
Though ubiquitous in certain habitats, no traces of Furze occur in Glacial deposits. The present range is from Denmark to Italy, the Canaries, and Azores, or the Warm Temperate Zone. Furze is found in...
-Broom (Cytisus Scoparius, Link.)
As with Furze, commonly distributed as it is this shrub is not found in any early deposits. Its present range is from Gothland southward, but it is absent from Greece and Turkey, occurring in N. Asia,...
-Tormentil (Potentilla Erecta, Hampe = P. Tormentilla, Scop.)
This is one of the Arctic plants which have been detected in early deposits, e.g. Interglacial, Late Glacial, Neolithic, and Roman deposits. The range to-day is Arctic Europe, West Siberia, the Azores...
-Heath Bedstraw (Galium Saxatile, L.)
This lowly but widespread plant is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe and West Siberia, but not in any early deposits. In Great Britain it is found in all parts except in Hunts, Cardigan, Mid...
-Key To Plate LVI
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors - Plate LVI
1. Heath Bedstraw (Galium saxatile, L.). 2. Cat's Foot (Antennaria dioica, Gaertn.). 3. Common Hawkweed (Hieracium vulgatum, Fr.). 4. Sheep's Bit Scabious (Jasione montana, L.). 5. Harebell (Campa...
-Cat's-Foot (Antennaria Dioica, Gaertn.)
The Cat's Foot is found at the present day in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, East and West North America, and so far this is all our knowledge of its age and di...
-Common Hawkweed (Hieracium Vulgatum, Fr.)
The present distribution of this Hawkweed is Arctic Europe, N. Asia, and X. America, or the Northern Temperate and Arctic Zones. It is found in every county in Great Britain except E. Cornwall, West K...
-Common Hawkweed
Unlike the Mouse-ear Hawkweed this has a tall stem. The leaves are green or bluish-green, and oblong, the radical leaves stalked, in a rosette, toothed in the middle or lower half, the stem-leaves sta...
-Sheep's Bit Scabious (Jasione Montana, L.)
This plant is known only from its present distribution in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and W. Asia. In Great Britain it is not found in W. Kent, Hunts, Gloucs, Mid Lancs, S.E. Yorks,...
-Rhamphomyia, Lepidoptera, Ino Statices, Staphylinidae, Anthobium, Curculionidae, Gymnetron, Otiorhynchus
The capsules open at the base, being pendent. The seeds remain in the capsules and are blown out by the wind. The inner face of such hanging capsules is thick and woody, the thick part is egg-shaped a...
-Whortleberry (Vaccinium Myrtillus, L.)
Seeds and other parts of this plant are known from Neolithic deposits in Renfrewshire. Hence it is a fairly ancient species. It is found in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, and N.W. America. In Great Br...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors
(Heath plants are adapted to dry-soil conditions, and for this reason some of them are common to other habitats, such as dry pastures, which may formerly have been heaths, commons, etc. Heath plants a...
-Key To Plate LVII
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors - Plate LVII
1. Ling (Calluna vulgaris, Hull). 2. Cross-leaved Heath (Erica Tetralix, L.). 3. Crimson Heath (Erica cinerea, L.). 4. Dodder (Cuscuta etiropoea, L.). 5. Eyebright (Euphrasia nemorosa, H. .Mart.)....
-Ling (Calluna Vulgaris, Hull)
Though it is so widespread to-day Ling is not known from any early deposits. It is found in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones in Arctic Europe, not in Greece or Turkey, W. Siberia, Azores, Greenlan...
-Cross-Leaved Heath (Erica Tetralix, L.)
This common heath is found to-day (we have no earlier records) in the North Temperate Zone in N. and W. Europe, as far east as Russia. It is common in all parts of Great Britain, except E. Gloucs, as ...
-Crimson Heath (Erica Cinerea, L.)
Generally distributed throughout Western Europe as far east as Germany and N. Italy in the North Temperate Zone, there are no records of the occurrence of this plant in any ancient deposits up to the ...
-Dodder (Cuscuta Europaea, L.)
A parasite and sporadic in its occurrence, this curious form of plant life has left no trace of its occurrence in ancient deposits. Its present distribution in the North Temperate Zone is Europe, N. A...
-Eyebright (Euphrasia Nemorosa, H. Mart. = E. Officinalis, L., In Part)
There are no traces of Eyebright, which is a northern type, in any ancient deposits. It is found in the Arctic and N. Temperate Zones in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, the Himalayas, and N. America. A...
-Red Rattle (Pedicularis Sylvatica, L.)
Unlike the Marsh Red Rattle this is not an Arctic plant, and does not occur in any ancient deposits. The range is throughout Europe, except Greece and Turkey or the N. Temperate Zone. It is found in e...
-Cow-Wheat (Melampyrum Pratense, L.)
Another of those Arctic plants not found in early deposits is Cow-wheat. To-day it is found in the Arctic and N. Temperate Zones in Europe (except Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey), and in Siberia. Cow-wh...
-Key To Plate LVIII
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors - Plate LVIII
1. Cow Wheat (Melampyrum pratense, L.). 2. Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium, L.). 3. Creeping Willow (Salix repens, L.). 4. Great Wood Rush (Luzula sylvatica, Gaud.). 5. Meadow Wood Rush (Luzula campes...
-Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium, L.)
As a southern type we have no record of the occurrence of Pennyroyal in early deposits. Its present distribution is Europe, N. Africa, and N. and W. Asia, or the North Temperate Zone. In Great Britain...
-Creeping Willow (Salix Repens, L.)
A typical upland plant, Creeping Willow is found in Late Glacial beds at Edinburgh and in Perth, and in Neolithic deposits at Cambridge and in Renfrew. It is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, ...
-Great Wood Rush (Luzula Sylvatica, Gaud.- L. Maxima, D.c.)
This is a woodland arctic type which is known to us only from its present distribution in N. Temperate and Arctic Europe (except Greece) and Russia. In Great Britain it is found in every county except...
-Meadow Wood Rush (Luzula Campestris, D.c.)
Widespread and growing at high elevations, the only knowledge we have so far of this common meadow plant is to be gained from its present distribution in the North Temperate Zone in Europe (except Gre...
-Early Sedge
Chimney-sweeper, all in black, Go to the brook and wash your back; Wash it clean or wash it none, Chimney sweeper, have you done? In the North they are called ewe-knots. When it appears the ewe...
-Early Sedge (Carex Caryophyllea, Latour. - C. Verna, Chaix)
The Early Sedge is found in Europe, N. Asia, in the N. Temperate Zone, and has been introduced into N. America. It is unknown in Glacial beds. In Great Britain it is absent in N. Devon, Pembroke, Card...
-Key To Plate LIX
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors - Plate LIX
1. Green-ribbed Sedge (Carex binervis, Sm.). 2. Small Bent Grass (Argostis canina, L.). 3. Heath Hair Grass (Deschampsia flexuosa, Trin.). 4. Mat Grass (Nardus stricta, L.). ...
-Green-Ribbed Sedge (Carex Binervis, Sm.)
This tall, graceful sedge is found in the North Temperate Zone in W. Europe, N. Asia, and N. Africa. It is not found in any early plant-beds. It is found in all parts of Great Britain, except Northant...
-Small Bent Grass (Agrostis Canina, L.)
Seeds of grasses are so small that they are liable to be overlooked in plant beds, and so far this plant has not been found. It grows to-day in N. Temperate and Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, Himalaya...
-Heath Hair Grass (Deschampsia Flexuosa, Trin.)
This Arctic plant is found in the North Temperate and Arctic regions in Arctic Europe, N. and W. Asia, N. America, Fuegia. It is unknown in early plant beds. In Great Britain it is found in every coun...
-Mat-Grass (Nardus Stricta, L.)
Though an Arctic type of grass this species is not met with in early deposits, but is found in Temperate and Arctic Europe, the Azores, and Greenland. In Great Britain it is found in every county exce...
-Section XII. Flowers Of The Rocks, Walls, Stony And Gravelly Places
We have already alluded, under Section VI on Mountains, Hills, and Dry Places, to certain Lithophytes, chiefly surface plants, which were grouped together primarily on a physical basis- - their altitu...
-Yellow Wall Fumitory (Corydalis Lutea, D.c.)
No trace of this plant has occurred in ancient deposits. It is found south of Belgium throughout Western Europe. The Yellow Fumitory is found throughout England, Wales, and Scotland, where it is natur...
-Key To Plate LX
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Gravelly Places - Plate LX
1. Yellow Wall Fumitory (Corydalis lutea, D.C.). 2. Wallflower (Cheiranthus Cheiri, L.). 3. Vernal Whitlow Grass (Erophila verna, E. Meyer). 4. Cheddar Pink (Dianthus glancus, Huds.). 5. Field Mou...
-Wallflower (Cheiranthus Cheiri, L.)
Long cultivated as it has been no seeds of the Wallflower have been discovered in early beds. It is confined to the North Temperate Zone in Central and North Europe. Everywhere it is only naturalized,...
-Vernal Whitlow Grass (Erophila Verna, E. Meyer)
There is no record of this in beds containing fossil remains of recent plants. It is distributed throughout temperate Europe, Asia as far as the Himalayas, North Africa. This little plant is known in ...
-Cheddar Pink (Dianthus Glaucus, Huds.)
This plant is quite unknown except from its present-day distribution, which is from Belgium southwards to Lombardy and Hungary. It is native in these islands only at its single locality in North Somer...
-Field Mouse-Ear (Cerastium Arvense, L.)
This plant has not been discovered in any early deposits containing seeds. It is distributed at the present time throughout Arctic Europe, North Africa, Siberia, West Asia to the Himalayas, North Amer...
-Sand Spurrey (Spergularia Rubra, Pers.)
No instance of the occurrence of this plant in Glacial, earlier or later, beds is known at present. To-day it is found in the Temperate Northern Zone in Europe, North Africa, Siberia, Western Asia to ...
-Key To Plate LXI
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Gravelly Places - Plate LXI
1. Sand Spurrey (Spergularia rubra, Pers.). 2. Bird's-foot (Ornithopus perpusillus, L.). 3. Horseshoe Vetch (Hippocrepis comosa, L.). 4. Rue-leaved Saxifrage (Saxifraga tridactylites, L.). 5. Mead...
-Bird's-Foot (Ornithopus Perpusillus, L.)
Nothing is known of the distribution of this plant except from its distribution to-day in the Northern Temperate Zone in Europe and North Africa. In Great Britain it is absent from Radnor, Carmarthen,...
-Horseshoe Vetch (Hippocrepis Comosa, L.)
This plant is found at the present day (not in any earlier beds) in Western and Southern Europe and North Asia in the North Temperate Zone. In Great Britain it is found in South Devon and Somerset in ...
-Rue-Leaved Saxifrage (Saxifraga Tridactylites, L.)
Small-seeded as it is there is nothing to prevent its occurrence in Glacial beds, but the minuteness of the seeds would seem to prevent their detection. The Northern Temperate Zone of Europe, N. Afric...
-Meadow Saxifrage (Saxifraga Granulata, L.)
As with the Rue-leaved Saxifrage, we have no evidence as to the antiquity of this plant. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, W. Africa, Western Asia as far east as the Himalayas. It is ...
-Pennywort (Cotyledon Umbilicus-Veneris, L.)
Known only from its distribution to-day in the North Temperate Zone, Pennywort is found in Europe from France southwards, W. Asia, the mountains of N. and Tropical Africa. It is found in Great Britain...
-Key To Plate LXII
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Gravelly Places - Plate LXII
1. Pennywort (Cotyledon Umbilicus, veneris, L.). 2. Orpine (Sedum Telephium, L.). 3. Biting Stonecrop (Sedum acre, L.). 4. Houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum, L.). 5. Golden Rod (Solidago Virgaurea, ...
-Pennywort
The follicle when ripe contains many seeds, which are shaken out by the wind, and this causes dispersal over a wide area. Pennywort is entirely a rock plant, growing on rocks, largely harder granit...
-Orpine (Sedum Telephium, L.)
Orpine is known entirely, as far as age and distribution go, from its occurrence to-day in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, Siberia, as far as Kamschatka, W. Asia. It is found throughout the Penins...
-Biting Stonecrop (Sedum Acre, L. = S. Drucei (British Plant))
Stonecrop is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe, North Africa, Siberia, but only at the present day. In Great Britain it is absent in Hunts, Cardigan, Mid Perth, Shetlands. It grows in Yorksh...
-Houseleek (Sempervivum Tectorum, L.)
Europe and Western Asia are the regions in the North Temperate Zone in which alone to-day this plant is known. The Houseleek is not a native, and its existence depends largely on the former use to whi...
-Golden Rod (Solidago Virgaurea, L.)
This common rupestral plant is found in the North Temperate and Arctic Zones to-day in N. Temperate and Arctic Europe generally. It is unknown earlier than this, and is found in Asia eastward to the H...
-Key To Plate LXIII
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Gravelly Places - Plate LXIII
1. Mouse-ear Hawkweed (Hieracium Pilosella, L.). 2. Wall Lettuce (Lactuca muralis, Gaertn.). 3. Rampion (Campanula Rapunculus, L.). 4. Ivy-leaved Toad Flax (Linaria Cymbalaria, Mill.). 5. Wall Spe...
-Wall Lettuce (Lactuca Muralis, Gaertn.)
There is no trace of Wall Lettuce in ancient deposits. It is found in the North Temperate Zone in Europe and Western Asia. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula, Channel, Anglia provinces, exc...
-Middle Lias
The plant is infested by a fungus, Puccinia prenanthis. Photo J. H. Crabtree - Wall Lettuce (Lactuca muralis, Gaertn.) Photo H. Irving - Rampion (Campanula Rapunculus, L.) The eagle w...
-Rampion (Campanula Rapunculus, L.)
This plant is known entirely from its distribution at the present day in the North Temperate Zone, where it ranges from Denmark southward (except in Greece), in Europe generally, N. Africa, W. Siberia...
-Ivy-Leaved Toad Flax (Linaria Cymbalaria, Mill.)
The comparatively recent introduction of this plant into the British Isles precludes its being ancient in this region. It is found to-day in the N. Temperate Zone from Holland southwards, except in Tu...
-Wall Speedwell (Veronica Arvensis, L.)
A Southern plant, Wall Speedwell is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, Himalayas, and has been introduced into America. It is unknown in early deposits. This plant is...
-Key To Plate LXIV
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Gravelly Places - Plate LXIV
1. Pellitory-of-the-Wall (Parietaria ramiflora, Moench). 2. Silky Wind Grass (Apera Spica-venti, Beauv.). 3. Silvery Hair Grass (Aira caryophyllea, L.). 4. Flat-stalked Poa (Poa compressa, L.). 5....
-Silky Wind Grass (Apera Spica-Venti, Beauv.)
This graceful but rare grass is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, but not in any early beds. In Great Britain it is found in W. Cornwall, N. Hants, W. Sussex, throughout th...
-Silvery Hair Grass (Aira Caryophyllea, L.)
This slender, graceful grass is found throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe, N. Africa, and has been introduced into N. America. It is unknown in early plant beds. It is absent in Great Britai...
-Flat-Stalked Poa (Poa Compressa, L.)
This more or less local mural grass is found in the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, N. and W. Asia, and is possibly native in America, there being no trace of it in early plant beds. In Great Britain it ...
-Sand Fescue (Festuca Myuros, L.)
The distribution of Sand Fescue to-day is the N. Temperate Zone in Europe, and N. Africa, and it has been introduced into N. America. In Great Britain it is found in the Peninsula province, except in ...
-Some General Hints And Notes - Section X - Flowers Of The Bogs And Marshes
Bogs and Moors.1 - Bog and moor both owe their origin to the clearing of forests from regions which became waterlogged, and thus established conditions suitable for the formation of peat. A fen resemb...
-Local Character Of Bogs And Moors
Owing to the necessity for the development of peat on a large scale and the dependence on more or less moist conditions, bogs and moors are not widely dispersed in the British Isles; and indeed the pl...
-Marsh Plants And Aquatic Plants
Since marshes are areas where plants are in various stages of submergence, it is not unnatural that they should show various degrees of connection with plants that are entirely submerged, or aquatic p...
-Peat And Its Characteristics
Peat is the result of the accumulation of vegetable matter in such a state that it has preserved its original character to a very great extent. It is relatively dry at the surface, and owing to oxidat...
-Ancient Peat Deposits
As a whole peat deposits are not older than the Glacial epoch, and a great proportion of them belong to the Recent or present period coeval with the formation of the alluvium of our modern rivers. Hut...
-Lowland And Upland Moors
Moors as a whole, being based upon a peat soil, are developed in regions that are humid, and it is natural that they occur most frequently in the uplands. But there are lowland moors also, which usual...
-Lowland And Upland Bogs
As there are lowland and upland moors, so there are lowland and upland bogs or tracts of fen. But the greater portion of the fen formation, which is made up of fen and carr (or wooded fen), is lowland...
-Xerophytic Types
The submerged parts of bog and marsh plants are exposed to the same conditions as aquatic plants, but the water in which they grow is deficient in some salts, especially nitrates, though rich in lime....
-Vestiges
Many causes have contributed to the disappearance of the wet-soil types of vegetation such as bogs and marshes. The moorlands, which are drier, and situated mainly above the zone of cultivation, have,...
-Drainage And Its Effects
For agricultural purposes a soil must be drained of superfluous moisture. Hence practically all land below the altitude of 1000 ft. has been subjected to repeated drainage, after tree-felling, followe...
-The Lowland Character Of Marshes
The marsh plants as a whole are of Arctic origin, a large proportion of them being of northern type. They are ascending species, which, owing to the milder conditions since the Glacial epoch, have gra...
-Tree Associations Of Marshes
That the marsh vegetation is a more or less natural formation is shown by the usual occurrence of a certain tree association, which gives it a distinctive character. The tree flora of the moors is def...
-Marshes And Wet Meadows
The margin of a marsh usually shows the wet-meadow type of vegetation that results when marshes are drained. The characteristic tree association may remain to some extent, and Alders and Willows are o...
-Wet And Submerged Character Of Marshes
Marsh vegetation is distinctly hygrophilous, or made up of plants that require a considerable amount of moisture; in the marsh the soil is saturated with water, but owing to the close association of t...
-Habitats Of Bog And Marsh Plants
A common characteristic of both bog and marsh plants is the moist nature of the habitat. The flora of a bog is exposed to wind and insolation, and sunshine for long periods, and it shows adaptation to...
-The Habits Of Bog And Marsh Plants
Hog plants as a whole are strikingly homogeneous in their habit of growth. The dominant habit is the grass habit, as in the case of the Sedges, Cotton Grass, etc. But the rosette habit is also not unc...
-Height Of Bog And Marsh Plants
Bog plants are perpetually exposed to wind, and are as a whole not tall. The development of the grass habit, in fact, establishes a more or less uniform height, which is from 9 in. to 1 ft. or 18 in. ...
-The Flowering Seasons Of Bog And Marsh Plants
As might be expected in the case of plants which flourish only where there is some degree of moisture, the flowering seasons of bog and marsh plants are as a whole rather late. The earliest plant t...
-The Duration Of Bog And Marsh Plants
Bog and marsh plants are amongst the most truly native of our wild plants. The vegetation they make up is essentially primitive, derived very largely from arctic or northern regions, where few or no a...
-The Pollination Of Bog And Marsh Plants
As might naturally be expected in the case of habitats so essentially moist as bogs and marshes, insects that get their livelihood in the imago stage are not conspicuously abundant. None the less many...
-The Dispersal Of Seeds Of Bog And Marsh Plants
The uniformity of the bogs and marshes as a whole is a factor in the mode of dispersal of the seeds, the wind playing an important part generally. The Great Spearwort, Sundew, Bog Pimpernel, Marsh ...
-The Fungal Pests Of Bogs And Marshes
As has been noted elsewhere, a damp habitat is not, as a whole, conducive to attack by fungi. There are some few paludal types of fungi, but they are not of frequent occurrence; and though moulds atta...
-Methods Of Survey
In some respects the bog and marsh are difficult to study on a sys-tematic plan; for the peaty soil and wet conditions render both inaccessible for a large part of the year, and the vegetation is so c...
-Heaths And Moors
In Section VIII some remarks have been made as to the similar character of Bogs, Heaths, and Moors, and the natural passage of one of them into the others has been pointed out in Sections I - III and ...
-Dry And Wet Heaths
Though heaths, as a rule, are dry compared with moors or bogs, they vary sufficiently to cause a difference in the flora according as they are dry or wet, relatively speaking. On the typically dry ...
-Ericaceous Plants And Heaths
One of the chief characteristics of the heath is the predominance of the plant which gives its name to this type of formation. Such plants as Ling, Bell Heather, Cross-leaved Heath, Ciliate Heath, Cor...
-Distribution Of Heaths
The heaths of the British Islands occupy certain well-defined areas, where there is a considerable rainfall, on more or less sandy or gravelly soils. Thus they occur in the south and west of England, ...
-Degenerate Woods And Heaths
From the frequent association of certain tree associations with heaths, it is probable that in some cases, at any rate, the heath is a degenerate type of woodland, as where Oak, Birch, and Pine occur,...
-Grass Heath
Where the soil is sandy there are frequently wide tracts of uniform so-called heath which are made up of a characteristic type of vegetation. They are more or less ancient pastures that have not, owin...
-Vestiges Of Heaths
Indications of heath or grass heath are occasionally to be found amidst meadow and pasture of a less special type, or purely neutral grassland. It may be that the one has invaded or obliterated the ot...
-Commonland, Furze, And Heaths
A feature that may be pointed out in studying the conditions of heath vegetation is the association of commonland with a certain type of soil which is suitable for the latter, and which is largely col...
-Wooded Heathland
Though heaths most often are open treeless tracts, they may be wooded, or have a scrub association. Much of the heathland in the south-east of England in fact is wooded, and elsewhere wood and heath a...
-Open Character Of Heaths
The heath, except where dominated by trees, is, as a rule, a very open association. The wide stretches of Ling, Heath, or Whortleberry are frequently unvaried by a single bush or tree over wide areas....
-Dry-Soil Types
The heath flora is especially exposed to dry-soil conditions. The conditions upon a heath further involve dry air, intense illumination, heat, and wind exposure. As a consequence, heath plants display...
-Extensiveness Of Heath Plants
A special feature of heaths is the well-marked continuity of the association of such dominant plants as Furze, Broom, Ling, Heath, Whortleberry, etc. This is partly due to the uniformity of the condit...
-Game And Moors And Heaths
An interesting feature of the moorlands and the heaths is the close association between gamebirds and Ericaceous types of plants. It is the game-birds, of course, that are dependent, and there is no r...
-Upland Heaths And Lowland Heaths
As intimated in Section XII, there are two altitudes at which Ling and Heath, or the chief components of a heath, occur. Though these two levels are not uniform, they serve to indicate the particular ...
-Transition To Pasture
The similarity between the true heath and the grass heath suggests that a heath may ultimately pass into pasture. Heaths may, in fact, at their margin, grade into dry pastures without Ling or other he...
-The Habitats Of Heath Plants
Owing to the uniform type of soil, rich in acid humus, demanded, heath plants as a whole exhibit a marked similarity in their choice of habitat. In this connection must be considered the relation betw...
-The Habit Of Heath Plants
No type of natural vegetation, perhaps, exhibits so marked a habit of growth on a wide scale as ericetal vegetation. The most obvious character in open association, where trees are absent, is the d...
-The Height Of Heath Plants
There is so little variation in the height of the dominant heath plants that the whole flora might be considered to range between a few inches and 2 ft. in height on the average. But in some places th...
-The Flowering Of Heath Plants
The exceptionally dry conditions of most heath vegetation have a noticeable effect upon the flowering seasons of the plants. A heath is exposed to intense illumination, a dry atmosphere, and hot sun, ...
-The Duration Of Heath Plants
It is of advantage to plants that are exposed to dry-soil conditions to continue their activities from year to year. By this means, with a rest period in winter, they are enabled with the renewal of t...
-The Pollination Of Heath Plants
Heath vegetation may be either open or closed in character, woodland in the latter case alternating with more open conditions. But everywhere it is never so protected or sheltered as in a true woodlan...
-The Dispersal Of Seed Of Heath Plants
Undoubtedly wind plays a great part generally in the dispersal of the seeds ef ericetal plants, on account presumably of the extensiveness of the dominant types, and of the need for dispersal to a dis...
-The Soil
There is one feature of heath vegetation which makes it more uniform than most formations; this is the nature of the soil, which is always of the same character. The plants that grow upon heaths are t...
-Method Of Survey
A heath presents a more or less uniform type of formation. There is no zonation, save at the periphery of a region of wood (or scrub), and except where it is wooded it presents a series of dominant as...
-Lithophytes
The plant formations hitherto considered have been either aquatic or terrestrial, and in the latter case made up of plants that grow upon soil derived from underlying rocks, often of considerable thic...
-Chomophytes And Chasmophytes
Lithophytes (or petrophytes) form the vegetation, including cryptogams, on the surface of rocks or stones, which can colonize steeply inclined or bare rock. Chomophytes are plants that can colonize...
-Walls
Walls are the artificial counterparts of rock habitats, and are dispersed uniformly over the country in the lowlands, as well as at higher altitudes. In the neighbourhood of villages and towns they ar...
-Conditions Of Alpine Rock Habitats
Alpine plants, as has been seen, are largely confined to regions where there are accumulations of mountain-top detritus, or where, as in the case of chomophytes, corries or ravines occur; they are gen...
-Siliceous Rocks And Soils
The type of rock termed siliceous is characterized by the closeness of the texture, as opposed to the openness and porosity of sandstones. The rock is denser, in fact, and when wet is pasty. Though pl...
-Limestones
Limestones, as a rule, form bold massifs or hills, and they are not covered by a great thickness of soil. Indeed, large areas are denuded of soil, forming pavements, and upon these plants grow as upon...
-Chalk
Limestone, in the last section, refers to the Palaeozoic limestones, which are developed in the moister west and north of England. The chalk and oolites, also limestones, which are not so compact or a...
-Other Rocks (Maritime)
In addition to inland rocks and rock soils there are the rocks along the coast, forming cliffs of some height, with bare faces and surfaces covered by grass or heath, etc. The proximity of the sea and...
-Sandy Fields
In many areas there are tracts of sandy ground, derived from sandstones or sands, especially in the east and south of England, where the rainfall is small (under 25 in.). Reference has already been ma...
-Gravelly And Stony Places
Gravelly soil is in general characteristic of heaths in the north and west of England, but in the south may be replaced by sand or clay. It is connected in the first case with the formation of moorpan...
-Altitudes Of Arctic-Alpine Or Boreal Plants
The lowest limit of the arctic-alpine vegetation in Scotland is the 2000-ft. contour, but in Ireland and elsewhere it is not so high. It is above the tree limit in this country. Ling and Whortleberry,...
-Talus Slopes Or Mountain-Top Detritus
The accumulation of talus slopes on sloping hillsides forms a transition between bare rock and rock with a thick layer of soil, the limestone pavement, and sandy and gravelly soils, being other transi...
-Habitats Of Plants Of Walls And Rocks
Rock plants are affected by a variety of factors, which in different areas and circumstances help to render the habitat diverse. The vegetation of the arctic-alpine rocks is typically of a dwarf habit...
-Habits Of Plants On Rocks And Walls
The outstanding feature of plants growing in these habitats is the adaptation (generally speaking) to dry conditions. Practically all of them are xerophytes. Mural plants are in other habitats largely...
-The Height Of Rock And Wall Vegetation
Altitude is largely responsible for the dwarf habit of alpine plants. When these are found at lower altitudes, or in moist situations, they are taller. The plants that grow on rocks are in general not...
-The Flowering Of Rock And Wall Plants
The principal factors that regulate flowering are, in the case of terrestrial plants, excessive rainfall, increased altitude, exposure to wind, insolation, or interrupted sunlight. The duration of the...
-The Duration Of Rock And Wall Plants
The duration of plants that are found upon rocks and walls is regulated by various causes. The arctic-alpine vegetation is exposed to such adverse conditions that it is normally perennial. But a few a...
-The Pollination Of Rock And Wall Plants
Growing in exposed areas, the arctic-alpine chomophytes and chasmophytes are not characterized by large or conspicuous or brilliant flowers. But in sheltered positions the alpine flora of Switzerland ...
-Dispersal Of Fruits And Seeds Of Rock And Wall Plants
Amongst the rock and wall plants there are few if any plants, at least amongst those enumerated here, that are adapted to dispersal of fruit or seed by the agency of animals. The absence of aquatic co...
-The Soil Of Rock And Wall Plants
In the case of petrophytes or plants that grow upon rocks, or rock debris, or in crevices, the composition of the rock is of importance in determining distribution. But since the highest rocks in this...
-Methods And Objects Of Survey
The progressive or retrogressive character of the vegetation of mountain-tops, where the soil is constantly changing its position, demands a close study of the ground, so that the order of succession ...
-Appendix I - Angiospermae (Summary Of Natural Orders)
Seed-plants (Spermatophytes). Ovules enclosed in an ovary. Perianth well-developed. ...
-Class I. - Dicotyledons
Embryo containing 2 or more (rarely 1) cotyledons, opposite or in a whorl. Leaves net-veined. Stem perennial, with pith, wood, and bark; with medullary rays, and increased by rings of wood on the outs...
-Division A. - Thalamifloroe
Petals distinct, rarely absent, not united with the sepals, stamens free, hypogynous. Order 1. Ranunculaceae. - Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs or woody, a few climbing. Leaves usually alternate, ...
-Division B. - Calycifloroe
Petals distinct; stamens perigynous or epigy-nous. Order 21. Aquifoliaceae. - Shrub, evergreen; leaves spinose, leathery; stipules small, falling; flower regular, unisexual, in cyme, axillary; sepa...
-Division B. - Calycifloroe. Continued
Sub-Class II Gamopetalae ( = Corolliflorae). Perianth, of calyx and corolla, petals united, stamens epipetalous. Order 37. Caprifoliaceae. - Shrubs (deciduous), twiners, or herbaceous plants;...
-Sub-Class III. - Apetalae
Perianth in a single whorl, as a rule, corolla, and frequently calyx absent. Flowers in catkins, or not; ovary superior or inferior; stigmas 2-3, or single. Order 61. Illecebraceae. - Herbaceous pl...
-Class II. - Monocotyledons
Cotyledon 1 (if more, alternate); leaves parallel veined; usually alternate, sheathing; parts of flower in 3's or 6's or 9's, etc., rarely in fours; wood in scattered bundles, not in rings; no medulla...
-Sub-Class I. - Petaloideae Orders 78-84, 88-90
Flowers usually bisexual, perianth in 2 rows, inner or both petaloid, hypogynous; ovary inferior or superior. ...
-Series Microspermeae
Order 78. Hydrocharidaceae. - Aquatic plants, floating or submerged; flowers regular, I-sexual; perianth 6-partite, in 2 series, inner petaloid; stamens 3 or more, epigynous; ovary inferior; 1- or 3 6...
-Series Epigyneae
Order 80. Iridaceae. - Herbaceous plants; with rhizome or corm; leaves equitant, ensiform, etc.; flowers 2-sexual, regular; perianth tubular, 6-partite, petaloid, in 2 rows as a rule; stamens 3, epigy...
-Series Coronarieae (And See Order 90)
Perianth in 2 series, petaloid or not; ovary superior, syncarpous; seeds albuminous. Order 83. Liliaceae. - Herbaceous plants, rarely evergreen undershrubs; flowers bisexual as a rule and regular; ...
-Sub-Class I. - Petaloideae (And See Orders 78-84) - Series Apocarpeae
Order 88. Alismaceae. - Aquatic or marsh plants; leaves mainly radical, net-veined; flowers usually bisexual; perianth 6-partite, wholly or in part petaloid; stamens 6 or more, hypogynous; ovary super...
-Series Coronarieae (And See Orders 83 And 84)
Order 90. Eriocaulonaceae. - Herbaceous plants; leaves linear, with grass habit; flowers 1-sexual, small, in head, with involucre; perianth of 2-6 scales, 3 inner, 3 outer; stamens 2-6; anthers 2-cell...
-Appendix II - The Genera Of British Flowering Plants
In the following summary 520 genera are included. A few must be regarded as British, only because the species have become established here in various ways. The European flora includes a far larger num...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 2
35. Draba. - Petals entire; filaments simple; pods oblong, flat, seeds in 2 rows, not margined. 36. Erophila. - Petals notched; pods oblong, linear, turgid. 37. Cochlearia. - Petals entire; fila...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 3
16. Hypericaceae 81. Hypericum. - Flowers yellow; sepals 5; petals 5; styles 3 or 5; capsule 3-celled; seeds numerous. 17. Malvaceae 82. Althaea. - Calyx double; inner 5-fid; outer of 6-9 l...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 4
122. Alchemilla. - Calyx 4-5-lobed, with 4-5 bracts; apetalous; stamens 1-4 in ring on throat of calyx, opposite epicalyx lobes; nuts 1-5. 123. Agrimonia. - Calyx 5-lobed, without scales; tube turb...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 5
Order 35 Araliaceae (Hederaceoe) 188. Hedera. - Shrub, climbing by roots; stem woody; calyx superior, limb 5-fid; petals, stamens, and styles 5-10; fruit a berry, 5-celled, 5-seeded. Order 36...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 6
227. Doronicum. - Phyllaries in 2 or 3 rows, equal; involucre hemispherical; ray florets in 1 row, ligulate, female; disk florets tubular, perfect; no pappus in ray florets; pappus rigid. 228. ...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 7
268. Moneses. - Flowers solitary; calyx 5-partite; petals spreading, slightly adhering below; stamens 10; stigma rayed; capsule 2-celled. Order 45. Monotropaceae 269. Hypopitys (Monotropa). - ...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 8
310. Atropa. - Calyx 5-partite; corolla bell-shaped; anthers not opening by pores but by slits; stamens included; fruit a berry, globose, 2-celled. 311. Datura. - Calyx falling; corolla funnel-...
-The Genera Of British Flowering Plants. Part 9
350. Ajuga. - Calyx ovate, bell-shaped, 5-cleft; corolla with short upper lip, entire or notched. Order 60. Plantaginaceae 351. Plantago. - Plant terrestrial; flowers bisexual; calyx 4-cleft; ...
-Monocotyledons Order 78. Hydrocharidaceae
394. Elodea (Anacharis). - Aquatic, submerged; plant dioecious; leaves linear, opposite or in whorls; flowers small, male rare, female long-stalked; calyx 3-partite; spathe 2-fid. 395. Hydrocharis....
-Monocotyledons Order 78. Hydrocharidaceae. Part 2
436. Lloydia. - Flowers white, small, erect; nectary transverse; anthers erect; perianth spreading, persistent; stigma 3-angled; seeds angular above. 437. Colchicum. - Style 4; ovary 4-5-lobed; ...
-Monocotyledons Order 78. Hydrocharidaceae. Part 3
477. Anthoxanthum. - Spikelets in spike-like panicle, interrupted; glumes unequal, awned, 6, third and fourth empty; stamens 2; paleae leathery, unequal. 478. Hierochloe. - Spikelets in an open ...
-Appendix III - Bibliography
This list of works is not intended to be exhaustive, and only a selection can be given. Fuller lists will in many cases be found in the works cited. Access to most of these can usually be had at an...
-I. Origin Of The British Flora
Arber, E. A. N., and Parkin, J.: On the Origin of Angiosperms. Benson, M.: The Origin of Flowering Plants. Bessey, C. E.: Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Angiosperms. Bower, F. O.: Plant Life o...
-II. British Distribution (Type, Altitude, Status, Etc.)
Bennett, A.: Supplement to Topographical Botany. Druce, G. C: Comital Census Numbers. Hooker, Sir W. J.: Flora Scotica. Lindley, J.: Synopsis of the British Flora. Marshall, E. S.: The Status of some ...
-III. Habitat (Ecology)
Adamson, R. S.: The Ecology of a Cambridgeshire Wood. Baker, J. G.: Elementary Lessons in Plant Geography. Boulger, G. S.: Plant Geography. Candolle, A. De: Geographie Botanique Rai-sonnee. ...
-IV. Habit
Areschoug, F.: Beitrage zur Biologie der Holzge-wachse. Areschoug, F.: Geophile Pflanzen. Boulger, G. S.: Aquatic Plants. Darwin, C: Climbing Plants. Darwin, C.: Insectivorous Plants. F...
-V. Characters, Height, Flowering Period, Duration
Druce, G. C: Hayward's Botanist's Pocket-book. Fox, H.: How to find and name Wild Flowers. Hooker, Sir W. J.: British Flora. Hooker, Sir W. J., and Arnott, G. A.: British Flora. Knapp, F. ...
-VI. Pollination; Fruit And Seed Dispersal
Allen, Grant: The Colour of Flowers. Aveblry, Lord: Flowers, Fruits, and Leaves. Beale, W. J.: Birds. Behrens, W. J.: Blumen u. Insekten. Darwin, C: Cross- and Self-pollination. Darwin,...
-VII. Soil
Aikman, C. M.: The Food of Crops. Bayliss, W. M.; The Nature of Enzyme Action. Brenchley, W.: Plant Poisons. Fream, W.: Soils and their Properties. Fream, W.: Elements of Agriculture. H...
-VIII. Fungal And Other Plant Pests
Berkeley, M. J.: Outlines of British Fungology. Board of Agriculture and Fisheries: Leaflets. Connold, E.: British Vegetable Galls. Cooke, M. C: Handbook of British Fungi. Cooke, M. C.: Fungi, their N...
-IX. Insect And Other Animal - Pests
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries: Leaflets. Bos, J. R.: Agricultural Zoology. Buckton, G. B.: Monograph of British Aphides. Cameron, P.: British Phytophagous Hymen-optera. Collinge, W. G...
-X. Names Of Plants, Nomenclature, Etc
Alcock, R. H.: Botanical Names for English Readers. Anon.: International Rules for Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna). Britten, J., and Holland R.: A Dictionary of English Plant-names. Brockett,...
-XI. Folk-Lore
Adams, H. G.: Moral, Language, and Poetry of Flowers. Adams, H. G.: Language of Flowers. Allen, G.: The Colour Sense. Allen, G.: Le veritable Language des Fleurs. Baring-Gould, S.: Curious Myths. Barr...
-XII. Uses
Aikman, C. M.: The Food of Crops. Archer, T. C: Popular Economic Botany. Bailey, L. H.: Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Bailey, L. H.: Plant Breeding. Bardswell, F.: The Herb Book. Candolle, A de: Origin ...
-XIII. General British Floras (A Selection)
Babington, G. C: Manual of British Botany. Bentham, G.: Handbook of the British Flora. Bentham, G., and Hooker, Sir J. D.: British Flora. Carter, H. G.: The Genera of British Plants. Dixon, H. N., and...
-XIV. Foreign Floras (A Selection)
Andersson, N. J.: Plantae Scandinaviae. Ascherson, P., and Graebner, P.: Synopsis der Mitteleuropäischen Flora. Bentham, G., and Hooker, Sir J. D.: Genera Plantarum. Boreau, A.: Flore de la centre de ...
-XV. General Works (A Selection)
Arthur J. C., and MacDougal, D. T.: Living Plants. Avebury, Lord: On Seedlings. Avebury, Lord: On Buds and Stipules. Baillon, M. H.: Natural History of Plants. Bary, A. de: Comparative Ana...
-Appendix IV. Flower Glossary
Achene a hard, dry, indehiscent, one-celled, one-seeded fruit; e.g. Buttercup. Acicular needle-shaped, tapered. Acuminate coming: to a point, which is elongate, with concave sides. A...
-Appendix IV. Flower Glossary. Part 2
Connate united around the stem. Connective a process connecting the cells of the anthers with the filament. Connivent uniting together. Cordate heart-shaped. Coriaceous leat...
-Appendix IV. Flower Glossary. Part 3
Glabrous smooth. Glandular bearing glands or slender wart-like outgrowths from the surface. Glaucous bluish green. Glumes bracts or scales enclosing the spikelets in Grasses. G...
-Appendix IV. Flower Glossary. Part 4
Palate the projecting part of the throat of a gaping corolla, or base of the lower lip. Palea the inner glume, enclosing the flower in a Grass. Palmate with lobes radiating from a centr...
-Appendix IV. Flower Glossary. Part 5
Scarious thin, dry, semi-transparent, or not green. Schizocarp a fruit splitting up into several one-seeded divisions. Sclerophyllous term applied to xerophytic bush-land. Scorpioid ...
-Introduction
In this volume are included the remaining- British species not described in Vols. II-V. They are also arranged in systematic order under each section based on broad ecological lines. To assist in the ...
-Introduction. Part 2
The influence of man over the character of the present flora has been emphasized in previous volumes. His relation to the status of plants, as defined by Watson, has been ably defined by the Rev. E. A...
-Introduction. Part 3
When a species is not adapted to cross-pollination, but is self-pollinated, and produces a larger range of forms, they are not the result of natural selection, but rather, as De Vries explains in rega...
-Introduction. Part 4
Amongst British wild plants some genera are more liable to hybridize than others. Exactly which are species and which are hybrids, indeed, is not certainly known. Willow hybrids are generally fertile,...
-Introduction. Part 5
Calyx None. Corolla Tubular florets gamopetalous, 5-lobed, epigynous, yellow; ligulate florets, gamopetalous, 3-lobed, epigynous, ligule white. Andrcecium In disk florets only, syngenes...
-Introduction. Part 6
And indeed this naturally leads up to the next plan, and that is to collect or examine any fresh or dried specimen unknown to one, and by aid of the knowledge already gained to refer it to its genus, ...
-Introduction. Part 7
The rano-e of our native species should, however, be studied in relation to that of the range on the Continent. The countries in which British species are found on the Continent or elsewhere are cited...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows
(In this volume the remaining - British species, not described in greater detail in Vols. II-V, are arranged according to their principal habitat. Some of the species might be included in more than on...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows. Order Ranunculaceae
Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus Repens, L.) This common buttercup is found in Arctic Europe, parts of Asia, Africa, and has been introduced into America. It is found in every part of the British Isl...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows. Order Cruciferae
Jersey Mustard (Brassica Adpressa, Boiss.) This plant is found in the Channel Islands, in Jersey, Alderney, when native, but is a casual elsewhere, and is confined to Europe. It grows in sandy fiel...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows. Order Caryophyllaceae
Proliferous Pink (Diatithns Prolifer, L.) This pretty plant is quite rare, being found, south of Perth, in only eight counties, and in the Channel Islands. It occurs also elsewhere as a casual. The...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows. Order Malvaceae
Mountain Crane's Bill (Geranium Pyrenaicum, Burm. Fil.) This plant may be found by the roadside, often near gardens, on railway banks, by river sides, in hedgerows, and in pastures and meadows, but...
-Flowers Of The Fields And Meadows. Order Leguminosae
Meadow Or Zigzag Clover (Trifolium Medium, L.) This plant is found in dry pastures, on rocky soils, meadows, and on banks of railways, streams, etc. As the name implies, the hairy stem is zigzag, t...
-Fields And Meadows
Caraway (Carum Verticillatum, Koch) The habitat of this plant is meadows and fields or upland marshy places. The root is made up of several rootlets in a bundle. The habit is erect, the stems finel...
-Fields And Meadows. Continued
Master Wort (Peucedanum Ostruthium, Koch) The habitat of this plant is moist meadows. The habit is erect, with round, hollow, stout, furrowed stems. The leaves are triangular, biternate, with 3 bro...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Rubiaceae
Erect Bedstraw (Galium Erectum, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is pastures, downs, banks, waste places, railway banks. The habit is erect, or ascending, the stem being smooth or hairy, sparingly ...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Dipsaceae
Purple Scabious (Scabiosa Columbaria, L.) Dry pastures and banks are the habitat of Purple Scabious. The habit is erect. The rootstock is woody and tufted. The stem is simple or branched above, hai...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Composite
Sneezewort (Achillea Ptarmica, L.) The habitat of this plant is meadows, pastures, waste places, hedgerows, moist places, and thickets. The habit is erect, the stem rigid, ribbed, with few branches...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Composite. Part 2
Brown Knapweed (Centaurea Jacea, L.) This plant is an alien, or native perhaps, in meadows in Sussex. The leaves are linear to lance-shaped, the lower leaves broader, toothed. The flowerheads are p...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Composite. Part 3
Tuberous Thistle (Cnicus Tuberosus, Roth) The habitat of this plant is meadows, calcareous downs, cliffs, and woods. The rootstock consists of fibrous, spindle-shaped, fleshy tubers. Similar in hab...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Primulaceae
Oxlip (Primula Elatior, Schreb.) The habitat of this plant is meadows, clayey woods and copses. The plant has the rosette habit. The aerial stems are scapes. The leaves are radical, wrinkled, th...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Gentianaceae
Gentian (Gentiana Germanica, Willd.) The habitat of this plant is calcareous places. The habit is erect. The stem is ascending, much-branched, larger than the Autumnal Gentian (q.v.), with opposite...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Boraginaceae
Field Scorpion Grass (Myosotis Arvensis, Hill) The habitat of this plant is fields, hedge banks, woods, shady places, waste places, cultivated ground. The habit is erect. The stems are numerous, th...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Plantaginaceae
Lamb's Tongue (P/Antago Media, L.) The habitat of this plant is fields, roadsides, waste places, usually on dry soil. It is an erect plant, with the rosette habit. The aerial stems are scapes, the ...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Scrophulariaceae
Thyme-Leaved Speedwell (Veronica Serpyllifolia, L.) The habitat of this plant is fields, moist waste places, and waysides. The habit is ascending, the stem branched, downy, with glands, the leaves ...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Orobanchaceae
Yarrow Broomrape (Orobanche Arenaria, Borkh.) This plant is parasitical upon Achillea Millefolium, which grows in fields and by the wayside. The stem is simple and leafless. The corolla is tubular,...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Labiatve
Basil Thyme (Calamintha Acinos, Clairv.) The habitat of this plant is fields, banks, dry gravelly places, cornfields, limestone rocks. The habit is prostrate, then ascending, with branches downy, s...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Illecebraceae
Knawel (Scleranthus Perennis, L.) The habitat of this plant is dry fields and sandy fields. The habit is prostrate, the stem simple, or branched irregularly, bluish-green. The leaves are erect, all...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Polygonaceae
Bistort (Polygonum Bistorta, L.) The habitat of this plant is moist meadows. It has a large II rhizome, twisted (hence Snakeweed). The habit is erect. The stem is simple, with egg-shaped leaves, al...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Orchidaceae
Green Winged Orchid (Orchis Morio, L.) The habitat of this plant is pastures and meadows. The habit is erect. There are 2 root tubers, which are globose. The scape bears radical leaves at the base,...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Iridaceae
Jersey Crocus (Romulea Columnae, S. & M.) The habitat of this plant is sandy pastures or other places, dry sandy soil. The habit is that of other bulbous plants, the corm being sheathed, egg-shaped...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Amaryllidaceae
Spanish Daffodil (Narcissus Major, Curt.) The habitat of this plant is pastures, copses, orchards, etc, where no doubt it has been planted. It differs from the ordinary daffodil in being more robus...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Liliaceae
Grape Hyacinth (Muscari Racemosum, Lam. & D. C) The habitat of this plant is grassy places. The habit is lily-like, or that of a geophyte. At the base of the small bulb are small bulbils. The long ...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Melanthaceae
Meadow Saffron (Colchicum Autumnale, L.) The habitat of this plant is meadows and woods. The plant has the lily habit, with tuberous root-stock. The leaves are vernal, the flowers autumnal, rarely ...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Cyperaceae
Great Prickly Sedge (Carex Muricata, L.) The habitat of this plant is ditches, gravelly pastures, marshes, copses. The habit is tufted. The stems are slender, with short stolons, wiry, 3-angled, ro...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Gramineae
Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum Odora-Tum, L.) This grass grows everywhere in pastures and meadows or in woods. The habit is typically grass-like, erect. The stem is smooth and shining, nearly sim...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Gramineae. Part 2
Fiorin Grass (Agrostis Alba, L.) The habitat of this plant is pastures and waste places, grassy places. The plant has the grass habit. The stem is more or less prostrate below, rooting, then erect,...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Gramineae. Part 3
Silver Oat Grass (Arrhenatherum Avenaceum, Beauv.) The habitat of this plant is fields, pastures, hedges, hedgerows, etc. The habit is erect. The root is fibrous and creeping. The stem is smooth, s...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Gramineae. Part 4
Green Quaking Grass (Briza Minor, L.) The habitat of this plant is fields, dry sandy fields in the S.W., and cultivated ground. The habit is similar to that of the last. The stems are tufted, erect...
-Fields And Meadows. Order Gramineae. Part 5
Lop Grass (Bromus Racemosus, L.) The habitat of this plant is fields and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is erect and rigid. The leaves are rigid, fringed with hairs, and otherwise, as t...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields
(N.B.- Some of the plants placed in the section on Waste Places, might be equally included here, and vice versa, but the choice is arbitrary, and those only that are more general in cornfields, or the...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Papaveraceae
Poppy (Papaver Lecoqn, Lamotte) The habitat of this plant is the sides of fields, chiefly on calcareous soil. The habit is erect. The plant differs from the smooth-headed Poppy in having the sap da...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Cruciferae
Mithridate Mustard (Thlaspi Arvensc, L.) The habitat of this plant is cornfields, fields, and roadsides, cultivated ground. The habit is erect. The stem is simple, slender, the radical leaves stalk...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Caryophyllaceae
Night - Flowering Catchfly (Silene Noctiflora, L.) The habitat of this plant is sandy cornfields, gravelly fields, cultivated fields, on light soil. The habit is erect. The stem is rounded, glandul...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Leguminosae
Lucerne (Medicago Sativa, L.) The habitat of this plant is cultivated ground, railway banks, hedges, and fields, hedgebanks and borders of fields, and it is frequently sown by farmers. The plant ha...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Umbelliferae
Broad-Leaved Parsley (Caucalis Latifolia, L.) The habitat of this plant is cornfields, waste places, chiefly on a chalky soil. The habit is erect. The stem is rough, simple, finely furrowed, round....
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Rubiaceae
Vaillant's Bedstraw (Galium Vaillantii, D.C.) The habitat of this plant is fields. The habit is spreading, and the plant resembles G. spurium, but has stiffly hairy fruit, with hooked bristles, and...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Valerianaceae
Lamb's Lettuce (Valerianella Eriocarpa, Desv.) The habitat of this plant is fields, banks, etc. The habit is erect, branched, with slender spreading stems. The flowers are small, pale-lilac, in cro...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Composite
Corn Chamomile (Anthemis Arvensis, L.) The habitat of this plant is borders of cultivated fields, fields, and waste places. The habit is erect or prostrate below. The stem is much-branched, downy, ...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Primulaceae
Blue Pimpernel (Anagallis Femina, Hill) This plant is a casual, and found on cultivated ground, being local. The habit is nearly erect, the leaves egg-shaped, stalkless. The petals are blue, and ha...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Convolvulaceae
Small Bindweed (Convolvulus Arvensis, L.) The habitat of this plant is cornfields, hedges, fields, waste places, and cultivated ground generally. The plant is a trailing or climbing plant, revolvin...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Scrophulariaceae
Male Fluellin (Linaria Spuria, Mill.) The habitat of this plant is cornfields, ballast hills, the former sandy and chalky. The stem is trailing, downy, with short and long hairs, short-stalked. The...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Labiate
Corn Mint (Mentha Arvensis, L.) This plant is found in cornfields, cultivated fields, and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is short, branched, with short hairs, dense, and turned back. Th...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Polygonaceae
Black Bindweed (Polygonum Convolvulus, L.) The habitat of this plant is fields, waste places, and cultivated land. The habit is trailing or creeping, twining. The root is fibrous. The stem is angul...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Euphorbiaceae
Dwarf Spurge (Euphorbia Exigua, L.) The habitat of this plant is cornfields, fields, cultivated ground. The habit is erect, branched from the base. The stem secretes a milky juice, possibly a prote...
-Flowers Of The Cornfields. Order Graminaceae
Foxtail Grass (Alopecurus Agrestis, L.) The habitat of this plant is cornfields, fields, and roadsides. The habit is erect, prostrate below. The stem is rough. The leaves are flat, with rough edges...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast
(The maritime species form a distinct formation, growing in a fringe or zone around the coast. A few, however, are found on high mountains, and at a distance from the sea, where the water is brackish ...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Ranunculaceae
Thalictrum dunense, Dum, - The habitat of this plant is sandy shores and sand-hills or dunes (hence dunense). The plant is similar in habit to T. minus. The stem is leafless. The floral branches are h...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Cruciferae
Queen Stock (Matthiola Incana, Br.) The habitat of this plant is sea cliffs. The plant has the shrub habit. The stem is branched, erect, hoary. The leaves are entire or obscurely toothed, oblong to...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Frankeniaceae
Sea Heath (Frankenia Laevis, L.) The habitat of this plant is salt marshes, ballast hills. The plant has the shrub habit. The stems are creeping, slightly downy, prostrate, wiry. The leaves are in ...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Resedaceae
White Rocket (Reseda Alba, L.) This plant occurs by roadsides, in garden rubbish-heaps, and near the seashore, in waste, sandy places. The habit is erect. The stem is shrubby below. The leaves have...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Violaceae
Viola Curtisii, Forst The habitat of this violet is sandy shores and dunes. The habit is creeping. There is no rootstock. The stems are rough, angular, and the plant is branched, tufted, stolonifer...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Caryophyllaceae
Seaside Mouse-Ear (Cerastium Tetrandrum, Curt.) The habitat of this plant is sandy and waste places, usually near the sea, pastures, walls, etc. The habit is branched. The plant is clammy. The stem...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Malvaceae
Guimauve Or Marsh Mallow (Althaea Officinalis, L.) The habitat of this plant is marshes near the sea. The habit is erect. The plant is softly downy, velvety, the stem more or less simple. The leave...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Geraniaceae
Bloody Crane's Bill (Geranium Sanguineum, L.) The habitat of this plant is rocky, dry places, sandy shores. The habit is prostrate, then ascending, the stem geniculate. The rootstock is stout and b...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Leguminosae
Annual Rest Harrow (Ononis rcclinata, L.) - Annual Rest Harrow is found in short turf near the coast, sandy places, sea cliffs. The habit is prostrate, or ascending. The plant is spreading, hairy, cla...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Leguminosae. Continued
Slender Bird's Foot (Lotus Angustissimus, L.) The habitat of this species is dry banks near the sea. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The stem is not wavy, and very hairy, dark-green, very s...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Rosaceae
Rubus Dumnoniensis, Bab The habitat of this plant is sandy places among rocks by the coast. The stem is strong and stout, furrowed, with a few short, stiff hairs at first. The prickles are crowded,...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Crassulaceae
White English Stonecrop (Sedum Anglicum, Huds.) The habitat of this species is rocks, and banks chiefly near the sea, sandy places. The plant has the cushion habit, forming matted tufts. The plant ...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Onagraceae
Evening Primrose (Enothera Odorata, Jacq.) The habitat of this plant is sandy ground on the coasts of Somerset and Cornwall. The habit is erect. The stems are purplish, branched, with spreading hai...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Umbelliferae
Slender Hare's Ear (Bupleurum Tenuissimum, L.) (The habitat of this plant is salt marshes, pastures near the sea, and waste places. The habit is more or less the grass habit. The stem is solid, wav...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Dipsaceae
Sea Scabious (Scabiosa maritima, L.) - The habitat of this plant is sandy places. The habit is the rosette habit more or less. The leaves are deeply-divided nearly to the base. The flower-heads are pu...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Composite
Sea Aster (Aster Tripolium, L.) The habitat of this plant is muddy salt-marshes. The plant is erect in habit. The root is spindle-shaped, with long fibres. The stem is hairless, leafy, corymbose ab...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Composite. Continued
Kamtchatka Wormwood (Artemisia Stelleriana, Besser) The habitat of this plant is seashores. The plant is densely white-felted. The leaves are deeply divided nearly to the base, with broad, blunt se...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Plumbaginaceae
Jersey Thrift (Statice (Armeria) plantaginea, All.). - The habitat of this plant is dry sandy places, sandy banks. The plant has the rosette habit. The plant is hairless and is more rigid, stouter, an...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Gentianaceae
Centaurium (Erythrcea) Latifolium, Sm The habitat of this plant is sands by the sea. The plant has the rosette habit. The stem is short, more or less simple, branched, 3-cleft at the top. The lowes...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Boraginaceae
Blue Gromwell (Pneuimaria (Mertensia) Maritima Don) The habitat of this plant is northern seashores and sea shingle. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The root-stock is fleshy, and the plant ...
-Flowers Of The Sea-Coast. Order Scrophulariaceae
Euphrasia Scotica, Wettst This plant is distinguished by its long and slender habit, the leaves being shorter and narrower with longer internodes and more compact flowers than in E. minima, to whic...
-Sea-Coast
The spike is dense as a rule. The flowers are whitish. The bracts are broadly ovate, acute, with 8-14 acute teeth. The calyx has small stiff bristles, and glandular and lance-shaped, narrowly-pointed ...
-Sea-Coast. Order Orobanchaceae
Broomrape (Orobanche Amethystea, Th.) This plant is a native species, parasitical on Daunts gummifer, in habitats near the sea, as a rule. The habit is like that of Common Broomrape, with which it ...
-Sea-Coast. Order Plantaginaceae
Buckshorn Plantain(Plantago Coronopus, L.). - The habitat of this plant is all the maritime coasts, dry and gravelly commons inland, gravelly barren spots near the sea, and it becomes more maritime no...
-Sea-Coast. Order Illecebraceae
Whorled Knot Grass (Illecebrum Verlicillatum, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet sandy and boggy places. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The stem is slender, hairless, and the plant is br...
-Sea-Coast. Order Chenopodiaceae
Goosefoot (Chenopodium Botryoides, Sm.) The habitat of this plant is muddy coasts or tidal rivers, moist sandy places near the sea, on the S.E. coast. The habit is erect or prostrate. The leaves ar...
-Sea-Coast. Order Chenopodiaceae. Part 2
Atriplex Babingtonii, Woods The habitat of this plant is sea-coasts. The plant has been regarded as a subspecies of A. patula. The habit is as in the last. The plant is pale and very mealy. The ste...
-Sea-Coast. Order Chenopodiaceae. Part 3
Glasswort (Salicomia Europcea, L. =5. Procum-Bens, Sm., Seg., S. Herbacea, L.) The habitat of the plant is muddy seashores, salt-marshes, maritime and inland, it being abundant and often social. Th...
-Sea-Coast. Order Chenopodiaceae. Part 4
Salicomia Appressa, Dum This plant is dingy-red to crimson in colour. It is a prostrate plant, triangular in outline, fan-shaped, the branches ascending at the tip. The stems are loose, prostrate, ...
-Sea-Coast. Order Chenopodiaceae. Part 5
Seablite (Suaeda Fruticosa, Forsk. = Obtusifolia, Steud.) The habitat of this plant is sandy, pebbly, or shingly coasts, where the plant is a factor in forming lateral banks and in protecting the c...
-Sea-Coast. Order Polygonaceae
Polygonum Roberti, Lois. = P. Raii, Bab. - The habitat of this plant is sandy seashores. The habit is prostrate. The stem is long, straggling. The leaves are flat, elliptic to lance-shaped, bending to...
-Sea-Coast. Order Euphorbiaceae
Portland Spurge (Euphorbia Portlandica, L.) The habitat of this plant is sandy seashores. The habit is erect or ascending. The rootstock is cylindrical, woody, twisted. The plant is bluish-green, h...
-Sea-Coast. Order Liliaceae
Asparagus (Asparagus Officinalis, L.) The habitat of this plant is sea-cliffs. The habit is prostrate below. The rootstock is prostrate, the young shoots having triangular scales below. The stems a...
-Sea-Coast. Order Juncaceae
Baltic Rush (Juncus Balticus, Willd.) The habitat of this plant is sandy wet seashores, inland lakes (Aberdeen). The habit is rush-like. The rootstock is far-creeping, not tufted. The stems are rig...
-Sea-Coast. Order Naiadaceae
Sea Arrow Grass (Triglochin Maritimum, L.) The habitat of the plant is muddy salt marshes. The habit is tufted. The stems are thickened below. The leaves are radical, linear, fleshy, flattened at t...
-Sea-Coast. Order Cyperaceae
Heleocharis Uniglumis, Sch The habitat of this species is wet sandy places, especially near the sea. The plant has the sedge habit more or less. The rootstock is far-creeping. The stem is clothed w...
-Sea-Coast. Order Cyperaceae. Part 2
Triangular Bulrush (Scirpus Triqueter, L.) The habitat of this plant is muddy tidal rivers. The plant has the bulrush habit. The stems are acutely 3-sided, with concave faces. There are 1-2 long sh...
-Sea-Coast. Order Cyperaceae. Part 3
Distant-Spiked Sedge (Carex Distans, L.) The habitat of this species is marshes, chiefly maritime, and wet meadows. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is tufted and creeping. The stems ar...
-Sea-Coast. Order Graminaceae
Spartina Stricta, Roth The habitat of this plant is muddy salt marshes, creeks, mudflats, in south and east of England. The plant has the grass habit. It forms small tufts 1/2 to 1/2 ft. high. The ...
-Sea-Coast. Order Graminaceae. Part 2
Alopecurus Bulbosus, Gouan The habitat of this plant is salt marshes in the south. The plant has the grass habit. The stem is smooth, prostrate or ascending or erect, tuberous (hence bulbosus), for...
-Sea-Coast. Order Graminaceae. Part 3
Perennial Beard Grass (Polypogon Littoralis, Sm.) This species is found in sandy places near the coast and in muddy salt marshes. The plant has the grass habit. It has been considered a hybrid betw...
-Sea-Coast. Order Graminaceae. Part 4
Dog's Tooth Grass (Capriola Dactylon, Druce = Cynodon Dactylon, Pers.) The habitat of this plant is sandy shores in south-western England. The plant has the grass habit, and to some extent mimics P...
-Sea-Coast. Order Graminaceae. Part 5
Borrer's Manna Grass (Glyceria Borreri, Bab.) The habitat of this species is salt marshes on the eastern and southern coasts. The plant has the grass habit. The plant is bluish-green in colour. The...
-Sea-Coast. Order Graminaceae. Part 6
Festuca Ambigua, Le Gall The habitat of this plant is sandy places, walls, and sandy shores. The plant has the grass habit. This plant has been regarded as a variety of F. ciliata = F. bar-bata and...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses
(N.B.- The woodland plants preceded the vegetation of the open country, e.g. meadows and cornfields, but they may be found lingering where woods have been cut down, in shaded places, or in the open. S...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Ranunculaceae
Meadow Rue (Thalictrum Majus, Crantz) The habitat of this plant is copses, wet rocky places, damp bushy and stony places. The habit is erect. The stem is branched, tall, with numerous large leaves ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Berberidaceae
Barren Wort (Epimedium Alpinum, L.) This plant is found in plantations, rock-works, old castle gardens, and subalpine woods in which it has been planted. The habit is prostrate or erect. The stem p...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Fumariaceae
White Climbing Fumitory (Corydalis Clavi-Culata, D.C.) The habitat of this plant is thickets, heaths, copses, banks, thatched roofs, stony places, trees, or damp and loose soil in shady places. It ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Cruciferae
Mountain Bitter Cress (Cardaminc impatiens, L.) - The habitat of this plant is woods, shady copses, talus slopes, rocks, hilly districts, preferably on limestone. The habit is as in the last, but the ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Violaceae
Dog Violet (Viola Sylvestris, Kit. = Reichen-Bachiana, Jord.) The habitat of this plant is woods and shady places, hedgebanks, and thickets. The habit is diffuse, the stem short without a true sobo...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Caryophyllaceae
Wood Stitchwort (Stellaria Nemorum, L.) The habitat of this plant is damp woods, chiefly in the north. The habit is grass-like. The stem is erect or ascending, round, stout, downy above, shining, b...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Hypericaceae
Tutsan (Hypericum Androscemum, L.) The habitat of this plant is thickets. The habit is that of undershrubs in general, the stem being shrubby, erect, square, flattened at the margin. The leaves are...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Malvaceae
Hairy Mallow (Althcsa Hirsuta, L.) This species is an alien, found in woods, fields, dry places, cornfields, and cultivated ground. The habit is prostrate or ascending. The stems are stiffly hairy,...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Tiliaceae
Linden (Tilia Parvifolia, Ehrh. = Ulmifolia, Scop. = Cordata, Mill.) The habitat of this tree is woods. It has the tree habit, with smooth bark, and drooping branches. The twigs, etc, are smooth, t...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Geraniaceae
Wood Geranium (Geranium Sylvaticum, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods, thickets, in the north, moist meadows, mountain districts in North Britain. The habit is erect. The stem is branched abov...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rhamnaceae
Buckthorn (Rhanmus Catharticus, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedges, thickets, woods, chiefly on chalk. The plant has the shrub habit. The plant is rigid, much-branched, with black bark. The br...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Aceraceae
Common Maple (Acer Campestre, L.) The habitat of this tree is thickets and hedgerows, woods and hedges. The habit is the tree habit. The trunk is often thick, with a straight bole, much-branched ab...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Leguminosae
Bitter Vetch (Vicia Orobus, D. C) The habitat of this plant is northern rocky woods or western wooded rocky districts. The habit is erect or ascending, the stem downy, stout, with tendrils or petio...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea
Bullace (Prunus Insititia, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and hedges. The habit is that of a shrub, in general like that of the Sloe, which it resembles (though it is taller), but the strai...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 2
Rubus Fissus, L This shrub is a native species found in sunny spots and wet places. The habit is shrub-like, erect or arched. The stem bears many slender awl-like scattered prickles, from an oblong...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 3
Rubus Cariensis, Genev This species is locally abundant in the west, especially in N. Devon. The habit is shrub-like, suberect, high-arching, the plant very dark purple. The leaves are very large, ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 4
Rubus Lindleianus, Lees The habitat of this species is wood borders and hedges. The habit is erect, and arching, the stem shining (hence nitidus, Bell Salter), glossy. The leaflets are inversely eg...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 5
Rubus Pulcherrimus, Neum The habitat of this plant is wood borders, hedges, and commons. The habit is prostrate, arching, forming extensive patches as underwood in woodlands. The stem is rather hai...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 6
Rubus Rhombifolius, Weihe The habitat of this plant is thickets and open commons. The habit is similar to the last, the stem dark-red. The prickles are broad-based, the leaflets rhomboid or egg-sha...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 7
Rubus Thyrsoideus, Wimm The habitat of this species is thickets and hedges. The habit is striking, tall, erect, high-arching. The stem is strong, smooth, and rarely roots. The leaflets are flat or ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 8
Rubus Lentiginosus, Lees The habitat of this species is rough, rocky, and bushy ground. The habit is arching, prostrate. There are numerous prickles. The leaves are 3-5-lobed, with finely pointed, ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 9
Rubus Colemanni, Babington The habitat of this species is thickets, hedges, and heaths. The habit is arching, the stem having many flattened prickles, and occasionally acicles and stalked glands, w...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 10
Rubus Iricus, Rogers The stem of this species is stout, with many widespreading, white hairs. The leaves are large, 5-lobed, with very long, narrow stipules, fringed with hairs. The leaflets are th...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 11
Rubus Lettii, Rogers The habitat of this plant, first found in Ireland (now in two vice-counties there), is woods. The habit is higharching. The stem is stout, bluish-green, clothed with long, fine...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 12
Rubus Mucronatus, Bloxam The habitat of this plant is bushy places, hedges, heaths, and banks. The habit is arching-, prostrate. The stem is nearly round. The prickles are very slender. The leaflet...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 13
Rubus Infestus, Weihe The habitat of this plant is thickets and hedges. The habit is high-arching, then bent down. The stem has mixed prickles, bent down, sickle-like, and hooked. The pricklets, ac...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 14
Rubus Echinatus, Lindl The habitat of this species is thickets and hedges. The stem is furrowed and hairy. The numerous prickles are long and nearly equal. The leaflets are thick, lobed, deeply cut...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 15
Rubus Griffithianus, Rogers This species occurs chiefly in hilly places. The stem and the prickles, which are unequal, are dark-red with appressed and widespreading hairs. The prickles are large, u...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 16
Rubus Ericetorum, Lefv The habitat of this plant is woods, thickets, and commons. This species is near the last, but is stronger armed and more glandular. The stem is strong and sharply angled, wit...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 17
Rubus Thyrsiger, Bab The habitat of this plant is bushy places and hedges. The habit is arching, prostrate. The stem has abundant, somewhat spreading, partly closely - pressed hairs. The leaflets a...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 18
Rubus Fuscoater, Weihe The habitat of this species is bushy places. The habit is nearly prostrate. The stem is stout and very hairy, dull purplish-brown. The prickles are very unequal, from a long,...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 19
Rubus Serpens, Weihe The habitat of this species is hilly woods. The stem is green, with short prickles. The leaves are 3-5-lobed. The leaflets are unequal, irregularly toothed, the terminal one wi...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 20
Rubus Balfourtanus, Blox The habitat of this plant is thickets and hedges. The habit is arching, prostrate. The stem has many fine, silky hairs. The stalked glands are short, fairly numerous, unequ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 21
Avens (Geum Urbanum, L.) The habitat of this plant is thickets, borders of copses, hedges, and hedgebanks. The habit is that of a rosette plant. The radical leaves are long-stalked, with lobes each...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 22
Downy Rose (Rosa Omissa, Desegl.) The habitat of this species is thickets. The mature thorns are straight, rarely or slightly curved. The stem is tall, prickly, nearly straight. The leaflets are eg...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rosacea. Part 23
Pyrus Semipinnata, Roth This plant is found in seven vice-counties, but is as a whole doubtful. The plant resembles P. fennica, Bab. = P. pinna-tifida, Ehrh., having oblong, lance-shaped leaves, bl...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Ribesiaceae
Gooseberry (Ribes Grossularia, L.) The habitat of this plant is copses. The habit is of the bush or shrub type. The plant is spreading, the stem and branches prickly, with 1-3 thorns at the base of...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Crassllaceae
Orpine (Sedum Fabaria, Koch = Purpureum, L.) The habitat of this plant is copses, stony hedgebanks, and thickets. The habit is the rosette habit. The fleshy leaves check transpiration, and the succ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Onagraceae
Rose Willow Herb (Epilobium Roseum, Schreb.) The habitat of the plant is copses, wet or moist places, brook sides. The habit is erect. The stem is much-branched, brittle, with autumnal stolons, wit...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Umbelliferae
Astrantia (Astrantia Via For, L.) The habitat of the plant is woods in hilly districts. The habit is the rosette habit. The radical leaves are 5-7-divided, palmate, the lobes egg-shaped, lance-shap...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Caprifoliaceae
Guelder Rose (Viburnum Opulus, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet woods, copses, thickets, and hedges. The habit is the tree or shrub habit. The branches are square when young, slender. The buds ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Rubiaceae
Madder (Rubia Peregrina, L.) The habitat of this species is copses and rocks, chiefly near the sea, stony places in S. and W. England. The habit is erect or spreading. The plant is smooth, shining,...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Composite
Elecampane (Inula Helenium, L.) The habitat of the plant is copses, and meadows, or moist pastures. In Scotland it is found naturalized about old houses and castles. There is a large, succulent roo...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Composite. Part 2
Burdock (Arctium Nemorosum, Auct. Angl. = A. Newbouldii, Williams) The habitat of the plant is woods. The leaves are convolute, heart-shaped, oblong to ovate, on hollow stalks, angular, rfearly fla...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Composite. Part 3
Savoy Hawkweed (Hieracium Boreale, L.) The habitat of this plant is copses, hedgebanks, banks, and heaths. The plant has the erect habit. The stem is very hairy, often reddish, downy above, leafy. ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Campanulaceae
Spiked Rampion (Phyteuma Spicatum, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and thickets. The habit is erect. The stem is smooth and ribbed. The lower leaves are heart-shaped to egg-shaped or oblong,...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Ericaceae
Strawberry Tree (Arbutus Unedo, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods. The plant has the shrub habit. The stem is small, with rough bark, rounded, much branched. The small branches and leaf-stalks...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Monotropaceae
Yellow Bird's Nest (Monotropa Hypopitys, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods, near roots of fir and beech, and the plant is a saprophyte. The plant feeds on decaying vegetable matter. The stem w...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Priulaceae
Sowbread (Cyclamen Hederwfolium, Ait.) The habitat of this species is hedgebanks, copses, woods, and plantations. The habit is like that of a bulbous plant. The root is a flattened tuber, turnip-sh...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Oleaceae
Privet (Ligustrum Vulgare, L.) The habitat of this shrub is woods, thickets, especially in the south. The plant has the shrub habit. The plant is nearly an evergreen, with smooth slender branches, ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Apocynaceae
Great Periwinkle ( Vinca Major, L.) The habitat of this plant is copses and hedges. The habit is that of a trailer. The stem is slightly ascending, then prostrate, and does not root again. The leav...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Polemoniaceae
Jacob's Ladder (Polemonium Caeruleum, L.) The habitat of this plant is copses, streams, bushy hilly places. The plant has the rosette habit more or less. There is a short, creeping rootstock. There...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Boraginaceae
Tuberous-Rooted Comfrey (Symphytiim Tuberosum, L.) The habitat of this plant is copses in wet places, shady places, damp woods, and river banks. The habit is erect, the stem being slender, glandula...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Scrophulariaceae
Knotted Figwort (Scrophularia Nodosa, L.) The habitat of this plant is thickets, plantations, shady places, moist hedg-es, and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is four-angled, without win...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Orobanchaceae
Toothwort (Lathrcea Squamaria, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and thickets, or damp shady places, where it is parasitical on the roots of hazel, etc. The habit is erect, that of a parasite....
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Labiatae
Bastard Balm (Melittis Melissop/Iyllum, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and copses in the south. The habit is erect, more or less pyramidal. The stem is simple or branched. The leaves are ob...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Aristolochiaceae
Asarabacca (Asarum Europaeum, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods (in Yorks), shady places, banks, under hedges. The habit is rosette-like. The rootstock is creeping and fleshy. The stem and bra...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Thymeleaceae
Mezereon (Daphne Mezereum, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and copses. Mezereon has the shrub habit. The branches are few and erect. The leaves are deciduous, inversely egg-shaped or spoon-s...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Loranthaceae
Mistletoe (Viscum Album, L.) The habitat of this plant is woodlands, where it is parasitic on trees - Hawthorn, Apple, Poplar, rarely on Oak. It is a parasite, with the shrub habit. The branches ar...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Euphorbiaceae
Spurge (Euphorbia Stricta, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods. The habit is erect, spurge-like. The stem is much branched. The leaves are oblong, lance-shaped, scattered, clasping. The flo...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Amentaceae
Silver Birch (Betula Alba, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and heaths. The Birch has the tree habit. The bark is silvery white, flaky. The branches are erect, or drooping. The leaves are smo...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Salicaceae
White Poplar (Populus Alba, L.) The habitat of this tree is moist woods, river banks, etc. The White Poplar has the tree habit. The bark is grey and smooth. The branches are spreading. The buds are...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Orchidaceae
Bird's Nest Orchis (Neottia Nidus-Avis, Rich.) The habitat of this species is dark woods, especially beech woods, but it grows also on hazel, like Toothwort. It is a saprophyte, with the habit of a...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Orchidaceae. Part 2
Broad-Leaved Helleborine (Helleborine Latifolia, Sw.) The habitat of this orchid is woods, mountain woods, etc. The habit is erect. The stem is erect. The stem is downy above, solitary. The leaves ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Orchidaceae. Part 3
Red Helleborine (Cephalanthera Rubra, Rich.) The habitat of this plant is woods and copses. The habit is erect. The stem is slender, red-tinted. The leaves are lance-shaped, acute, and the bracts a...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Orchidaceae. Part 4
Man Orchis (Aceras Anthropophora, R.Br.) The habitat of this plant is copses, pastures, dry chalky places. The habit is erect. The root-knobs or tubers are egg-shaped. The leaves are oblong to lanc...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Iridaceae
Foetid Iris (Iris Faetidissima, L.) The habitat of this orchid is copses and dry hedgebanks. The habit is typically flag-like. The rootstock is stout and creeping. The stem is flattened at the marg...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Amaryllidaceae
Daffodil (Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus, L.) The Daffodil is a native species, and is found in woods, copses, and pastures. The habit is erect. The bulb has membranous outer scales. The 2-3 leaves are...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Liliaceae
Butcher's Broom (Ruscus Aculeatus, L.) The habitat of this shrub is copses and thickets. The plant has the shrub habit. The stems are tufted, branched, rigid, erect, stout, angled. The young shoots...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Liliaceae. Continued
Bath Star-Of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum Pyre-Naicum, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods and copses. The habit is lily-like. The bulb is egg-shaped. The aerial stem is a tall, stout scape. The leav...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Juncaceae
Hairy Wood Rush (Luzula Vernalis, D.C. = Juncoides Pilosum, Morong.) The habitat of this rush is woods, thickets, and shady places. The habit is the usual rush type. The rootstock is short and tuft...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Cyperaceae
Grassy Sedge (Carex Remota, L.) The habitat of this sedge is copses and damp places. The habit is sedge-like. The stem is slender, inclined, 3-angled. The leaves are channelled, narrow, as long as ...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Cyperaceae. Continued
Fingered Sedge (Carex Digitata, L.) The habitat of this species is copses on limestone. The habit is sedge-like. The stems are smooth, slender, erect or curved, sheathed below, bluntly 3-angled. Th...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Graminaceae
Millet Grass (Milium Effusum, L.) The habitat of this grass is damp, shady woods. The habit is grass-like. The stem is stoloniferous below, tall, tufted, erect, shining. The leaves are lance-shaped...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Graminaceae. Part 2
Mountain Melic Grass (Melica Nutans, L.) The habitat of this plant is calcareous woods. The habit is the grass habit. The plant is stoloniferous. The stems are thread-like, drooping, 3-sided, rough...
-Flowers Of The Woods And Copses. Order Graminaceae. Part 3
Various-Leaved Fescue (Festuca Heterophylla, Lam.) The habitat of this plant is woods and plantations. The stem is tall. The plant is not stoloniferous. The radical leaves are long, bristlelike, de...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges
(As in the case of cornfields, hills, waste places, walls, etc, the plants that are included here may be found in some other habitats occasionally, since the roadside and the hedge are of modern origi...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Cruciferae
Barbarea Arcuata, Reichb The habitat of this plant is roadsides, banks of ditches, cultivated ground. The habit is the rosette habit, the plant having radical leaves and an erect stem. The plant is...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Caryophyllaceae
Soapwort (Saponaria Officinalis, L.) The habitat of this plant is roadsides, hedges, riverbanks, fields, banks of streams on the borders of Wales, etc, in which last case it may be indigenous. The ...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Geraxiace.ae
Small Crane's Bill (Geranium Pusillum, L.) The habitat of this plant is waysides, hedge-banks, cultivated ground, and waste places. The habit is prostrate, then erect, or with a semi-rosette habit....
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Leguminosae
Smooth Tare (Vicia Tetrasperma, Moench) The habitat of this plant is hedgerows, bushy places, hedges, meadows, cornfields, and woods. The habit is climbing. The stems are thread-like. The leaflets ...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Leguminosae. Continued
Common Vetch (Vicia Sativa, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedges, roadsides, waysides, where it is an escape from cultivation. The habit is as in the last, climbing or trailing. The stem is stou...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Rosacea
Wild Plum (Prunus Domestica, L.) The habitat of this species is hedges. The plant has the tree or bush habit. Suckers are produced, but the plant when cultivated is usually grafted. The branches ar...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Rosacea. Part 2
Rosa Suberecta, Ley This species occurs in 23 vice-counties, chiefly in North England and Scotland. The leaflets are glandular, nearly hairless or grey-downy, the bracts vinous-red. The leafstalk h...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Rosacea. Part 3
Rosa Cuspidatoides, Crepin The prickles of this rose are sickle-like. The leaflets are broadly oval, hairy, glandular below. The flowers are rose colour. The sepals are nearly simple. The fruit is ...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Rosacea. Part 4
Rosa Glauca, VILL The habitat of this species is hedges, thickets, chiefly in hilly northern districts. The plant forms a compact bush. The rootstock is erect, arched. The leaflets are hairless or ...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Rosacea. Part 5
Cinnamon Rose (Rosa Cinnamomea, L. = R. Blanda, Aiton) This rose is an alien species, introduced. The stem has deep-red bark, slender, horizontal, or bent-back prickles, unequal, numerous, awl-like...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Onagraceae
Broad Smooth-Leaved Willow Herb (Epilobium Montanum, L.) The habitat is shady banks, walls, cottage roofs, dry places, woods, etc. The habit is the rosette habit. The rosettes are stalk-less, oblon...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Umbelliferae
Corn Parsley (Carum Segetum, Benth. And Hook. Fil.) The habitat of this plant is hedgebanks, waste places, damp calcareous fields, and near the sea. The plant has the rosette habit, with radical le...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Rubiaceae
Ladies' Bedstraw (Galium Verum, L.) The habitat of this plant is sandy banks, shores, pastures, down's, dry sandy places, etc. The habit is erect or ascending. The stem is branched, rather woody, 4...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Dipsaceae
Shepherd's Rod (Dipsacus pilosus, L.) - The habitat of this plant is moist hedges, banks, and shady places. The habit is erect. The stem is slender, rough, branched, leafy, and the ribs have short, so...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Composite
Feverfew (Chrysanthemum Parthenium, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedges, hedgebanks, and waste places. The habit is erect. The plant is strong-scented. The stem is downy, branched above, furrow...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Composite. Continued
Oxtongue (Picris Echioides, L.) The habitat of this species is hedges, pathways, hedgebanks, ditches, borders of fields, and waste places on a stiff soil. The habit is as in the last. The stem is e...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Boraginaceae
Gromwell (Lithospermum Officinale, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedgebanks, woods, thickets, copses, dry and stony places. The habit is erect. The rootstock is woody, stout, whitish. The stems ...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Scrophulariaceae
Cornish Moneywort (Sibthorpia Europcea, L.) The habitat of this plant is damp, shady places, and banks in the S. and S.W. The habit is trailing, prostrate. The stem is creeping, thread-like, slende...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Labiate
Black Horehound (Ballota Nigra, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedgebanks, roadsides, and waste places. The habit is erect. The plant is coarsely hairy, hoary or woolly-felted, dull-green, foetid...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Polygonaceae
Climbing Bush Knotweed (Polygonum Dume-Lorum, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedges, thickets in the S. The habit is climbing, twining. The stem is wiry, furrowed, round or angled. The leaves are...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Urticaceae
Hop (Huntulus Lupulus, L.) The habitat of this plant is hedges and copses. The habit is twining, climbing, and the plant is rough. The root-stock is stout, branched. The stem is tall, almost prickl...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Salicaceae
Black Poplar (Populus Nigra, L.) The so-called Populus nigra has recently been found to have been generally confounded with the Canadian 31ack Poplar, which is extensively planted in this country (...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Liliaceae
Field Garlic (Allium Oleraceum, L.) The habitat of this plant is borders of fields and waysides. The habit is as in the last. The stem is leafy below. The leaves are almost flat, channelled, keeled...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Araceae
Arum (Arum Ilalicum, L.) The habitat of this plant is banks in the south-east of England. The habit is like that of Cuckoo-pint. It is larger and stouter than the latter. The leaves are yellow, vei...
-Flowers Of The Roadsides And Hedges. Order Graminaceae
Meadow Brome Grass (Bromus Mollis, L.) The habitat of this plant is roadsides, fields, and waste places, etc. The plant has the grass habit. The plant is softly downy (hence mollis). The stems are ...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc
(The plants included in this section are usually montane species, but altitude is not the only factor, and the relative moisture is equally important. The species here included are chiefly those that ...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc. Order Ranunculaceae
Meadow Rue (Thalctrum Minus, L.) The habitat of this plant is dry and rocky places. The plant lias the erect habit, and is inversely pyramidal. The stem is solid, smooth or finely furrowed, sheathe...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc. Order Cruciferae
Wall Cress (Arabis Hirsuta, Br.) The habitat of this plant is dry banks, rocks, walls, dry places generally. The habit is the rosette habit. The stems are hairy (hence hirsuta), with hairs closely ...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc. Order Resedaceae
Wild Mignonette (Reseda Lutea, L.) The habitat of this species is chalky and sandy fields, limestone tracts, waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is smooth, branched, ribbed. The leaves are d...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc. Order Cistaceae
White Rock Rose (Helianthemum Polifoliutn, Mill.) The habitat of this species is stony places, slopes near the base of hills. The habit is trailing, prostrate, shrubby. The stem is branched, prostr...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc. Order Violaceae
Viola Calcarea, Greg The habitat of this violet is calcareous ground. The plant was formerly regarded as a variety of Viola hirta. It is small, glabrous, without stolons. The rootstock is branched,...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places, Etc. Order Polygalaceae
Polygala Oxyptera, Reichb The habitat of this species is limestone and chalky soils, sandy shores. The habit is prostrate. The branches are wavy, the leaves linear, the inner sepals wedge-shaped be...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Caryophyllaceae
(See also p. 99) Deptford Pink (Dianthus Armeria, L.) The habitat of this plant is fields, dry banks, sandy and gravelly places, waste places, clayey pastures, cloverfields, roadsides, woods, he...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Caryophyllaceae. Continued
Five-Stamened Mouse Ear (Cerastium Semi-Decandrum, L.) The habitat of this plant is dry places, sandy, calcareous places, walls and banks. The habit is erect or prostrate. The plant is downy or cla...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Linaceae
Perennial Flax (Linum Perenne, L.) The habitat of this plant is chalky and limestone soils. The habit is grasslike. The stems are erect, numerous, wiry, slender, smooth. The leaves are alternate, n...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Leguminosae
Rest Harrow(Ononis repens, L. = O. arvensis, L.). - The habitat of this plant is dry pastures, barren, sandy places, sandy shores. The habit is shrubb)', prostrate, then ascending (hence repens). The ...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Leguminosae. Part 2
Soft Knotted Clover (Trifoliumstriatum, L.) The habitat of this plant is dry pastures, dry sandy fields. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The stem is softly hairy or silky, spreading. The le...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Leguminosae. Part 3
Purple Vetch (Astragalus Hypoglottis, L. = A. Danicus, Retz.) The habitat of this plant is chalky and gravelly places, dry, sunny pastures. The habit is prostrate, or ascending. The stem is short, ...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Rosacea
Rubus Scheuizii, Lindeb The habitat of this Rubus is open stony places. The habit is that of a bush forming large, low, circular masses. The stem is smooth or nearly so, and shining. The leaflets a...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Saxifragaceae
Kidney-Leaved Saxifrage (Saxifraga Geum, L.) The habit of this Saxifrage is the rosette habit. The plant is hairy. The stem is slender. The leaves are hairy, leathery, round, transversely oval or k...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Umbelliferae
Burnet Saxifrage (Pimpinella Saxifraga, L.) The habitat of this species is dry pastures, bushy waste places, and calcareous soils. The habit is erect. The stem is branched, rounded, slender, furrow...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Rubiaceae
Limestone Bedstraw (Galium Sylvest Re, Poll. = G. Asperum, Schreb. = G. Pusillum, L. = G. Umbel-Latum, Lam.) The habitat of this Galium is dry rocky hills, pastures, limestone hills. The habit is a...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Composite
Least Erect Cudweed (Filago Minima, Fr.) The habitat of this species is dry, sandy, gravelly soil, dry places. The habit is erect, or prostrate, spreading. The stem is slender (the plant greyish), ...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Campanilaceae
Blue Rampion (Phyteuma Orbiculare, L.) The habitat of this plant is chalk downs. The habit is erect or ascending. The stems are numerous, smooth, or slightly hairy. The radical leaves are long-stal...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Gentianaceae
Centanrium (Erylhraea) capitatum, R. and B - - The habitat of this species is downs and the South coast of England. The plant is erect, with the rosette habit. The stem is short, simple. The stem-leav...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Scrophulariaceae
Large-Flowered Mullein (Verbascum Virgatum, Stokes) The habitat of this plant is gravelly banks, waste places. This species has been regarded as a sub-species of V. Blattaria. The habit is erect, p...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Labiate
Wood Calamint (Satureia (Calamintha) sylva-tica, Bromf. = 5. grandiflora, Sch. = C. officinalis, Moench). - The habitat of this plant is bushy places and chalk banks. The habit is somewhat creeping. T...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Santalaceae
Bastard Toadflax (Thesium Humifusum, D.C. = T. Linophyllum, Sm.) The habitat of this plant is dry calcareous pastures, chalk and oolite hills. The plant is a hemi-parasite on the roots of other pla...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Orchidaceae
Lady's Tresses (Spiranthes Autumnalis, Rich. = S. Spiralis, Koch) The habitat of this plant is turfy places, dry calcareous and gravelly places, dry pastures. The plant has the orchid habit, and is...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Liliaceae
Small Round-Headed Garlic (Allium Sphcero-Cephalum, L.) The habitat of this plant is sandy and calcareous places, steep declivities or rocks, and sandy coasts (Jersey). The plant has the lily habit...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Juncaceae
Thin Rush (Juncus Tenuis, Willd.) The habitat of this plant is sandy moist ground and roadsides. G. Don found it by a rivulet in marshy ground among the mountains of Clova, near the summit. The pla...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. Order Graminaceae
Holy Grass (Hierochloe Borealis, R. And S. = Savastana Odorata, L.) The habitat of this plant is damp grassy places, wet banks. The plant has the grass habit. The rootstock is creeping. The stems a...
-Flowers Of The Hills, Dry Places. More on Order Caryophyllaceae
(See also p. 90) Field Mouse Ear (Cerastium arvense, Linn.). No seeds of this plant have been found in preglacial beds. Its distribution is Europe, Arctic, X. Africa, Siberia, W. Asia to the Himala...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Ditches, Wet Places, Etc
(There is a direct connection between purely aquatic vegetation, or those types of plants that live in water, wholly submerged or floating, or partly submerged, through the last, or the reed swamp, wi...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Ranunculaceae
Rigid-Leaved Water Buttercup (Ranunculus Circinatus, Sibth. = R. Faeniculaceus, Gilib.) The habitat of this plant is pools, ditches, streams, ponds, still and slow-flowing- water. The plant is not ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Ranunculaceae. Continued
Water Buttercup (Ranunculus Heterophyllus, Weber) The habitat of this plant is streams and ponds. The plant is of aquatic habit. The stem does not rise out of the water. The submerged leaves are th...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Nymphaeaceae
Nymphcea Pumila, Hoffm The habitat of this water-lily is small Scottish lakes. The plant has the water-lily habit, being aquatic, resembling the Yellow Water-lily, from which it differs in the smal...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Cruciferae
Creeping Yellow Cress (Radicula Sylvestris, Druce = R. Pinnata, Moench) The habitat of this plant is moist waste places, watery places. The habit is creeping, then erect. The rootstock is creeping....
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Caryophyllaceae
Bog Stitchwort (Stellaria Uligifiosa, Murray) This plant is indigenous, and is found in wet places, ditches, by streamlets, and bogs. The habit is prostrate or erect. The whole plant is bluish-gree...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Elatinaceae
Waterwort (Elatine hexar.dra, D.C - The habitat of this plant is margins of ponds, lakes, pools. The plant is of aquatic habit. The stems form a matted mass under water, and are limp, rooting at the n...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Hypericaceae
Hypericum Maculatum, Cr The habitat of this plant is moist places. The plant differs from H. quadrangulum (q.v.) in the leaves, which are narrower, and the sepals, which have small teeth; and the l...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Rosaceae
Rubus Lacustris, Rogers The habitat of this plant is lakes and streams and hedges. The habit is slightly arching. The stem has fine, numerous, long, white hairs, and is somewhat furrowed. The prick...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Saxifragaceae
Alternate - Leaved Saxifrage (Chrysosplenium Alternifolium, L.) The habitat of this plant is banks of streams and wet places. The plant is erect in habit, branched at the top, otherwise simple, tuf...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Haloragaceae
Mare's Tail (Hippuris Vulgaris, L.) The habitat of this plant is margins of lakes, ponds, etc., stagnant water, slow streams, ditches. The habit is erect. The stems are erect, simple, or branched b...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Haloragaceae. Continued
Callitriche Stagnalis, Scop The habitat of this plant is ponds and ditches. The habit is as in the last. The leaves are all similar, narrow at the base, inversely ovate to spoon-shaped, the floatin...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Lythraceae
Hyssop Loosestrife (Ly Thrum Hyssopifolia, L.) The habitat of this plant is moist places, often liable to inundation, just where one might expect to find Water Purslane, but it is very local. The h...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Epilobiaceae
Downy Willow Herb (Epilobium Parviflortim, Schreber) The habitat of this plant is ditches and river-banks, watery places. The plant has the willow-herb habit, or more or less that of a rosette belo...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Umbellifere
Least Marshwort (Apium Inundatum, H. G. Reichb.) The habitat of this plant is wet places, ponds, pools, etc. The habit is prostrate, submerged, or floating. The plant is limp, small, straggly. The ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Valerianaceae
Valerian (Valeriana Sambucifolia, Mikan) The habitat of this plant is wet meadows, banks of streams, river-sides, damp woods. The habit is erect. The plant resembles V. officinalis (V. mikanii), of...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Composite
Pearl Everlasting (Antennaria (Anaphalis) margaritacea, C. B. Clarke). - The habitat of this plant is stream-sides. The plant has more or less the shrub habit. The stem is erect, stout, cottony, branc...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Campanulaceae
Water Lobelia (Lobelia Dortmanni, L.) The habitat of this plant is gravelly mountain lake-bottoms. The plant has the rosette habit. The rootstock is fleshy, short, and bears slender stolons. The fi...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Primulaceae
Brookweed (Samolus Valerandi, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet ground, ditches, often near the sea, damp watery places. The plant has the rosette habit. There is a short rootstock. The stem is ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Gentianaceae
Yellow Water Villarsia (Limnanthemum Pel-Taium, Gmel Nymphoides peltatum = Villarsia nymphaeoides, Vent.). - The habitat of this plant is still waters, and rivers. The plant has the aquatic habit, ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Boraginaceae
Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale, L.) The habitat of this plant is river-banks, watery places. The plant is erect in habit. It is roughly hairy all over. There is a branched rootstock. The roots are f...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Plantaginaceae
Shoreweed (Littorella Lacustris, L. =Z. Uniflora, Asch. - L. Juncea, Berg.) The habitat of this plant is sandy and gravelly edges of lakes and ponds, sometimes below water, when it is barren. The h...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Scrophulariaceae
Mud Wort (Limosella Aquatica, L.) The habitat of this plant is the margins of ponds, muddy places where water has lain. The habit is the rosette habit. The rootstock is slender, creeping, rooting. ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia neglecta, Lehm. ( = U. major, Schmidt). - The habitat of this plant is pools in heathy places. Similar to U. vulgaris, this species was formerly regarded as a sub-species. There is a slend...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Labiatve
Horse Mint (Mentha Hirsuta, Huds. = M. Aqua-Tica, L.) The habitat of this plant is river-sides, marshes, moist places. The habit is erect. The plant is usually softly hairy. The stems are 4-angled....
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Polygonaceae
Water-Pepper (Polygonum Hydropiper, L.) The habitat of this species is watery places. The habit is more or less erect, from a prostrate base. The stem is creeping, rooting below, much branched. The...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Polygonaceae. Continued
Great Water Dock (Rumex Hydrolapathum, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is ditches and river-sides. The habit is erect. The stem is branched. The leaves are very large, sometimes a foot long, heart...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Ceratophyllaceae
Hornwort (Ceratophyllum Demersum, L.) The habitat of this plant is ponds and ditches. The stems are densely leafy. The leaves are in whorls, several times forked, dark-green, with distant coarse te...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Hydrocharidaceae
Water Soldier (Stratiotes Aloidcs, L.) The habitat of this plant is ponds, ditches, fen-ditches, still water. The plant has the aquatic habit. The stems are stolons. The leaves are numerous, sword-...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Juncaceae
Common Hard Rush (Juncus Glaucus, Ehrh. = J. Inflexus, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet, stiff soils, wet places. The plant has the rush habit. The stem is coarsely, deeply furrowed, slender, r...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Eriocaulaceae
Pipe-Wort (Eriocaulon Septangulare, With. =E. Articulatum, Morong.) The habitat of this plant is shallow lakes. The plant is tufted in habit. The rootstock is creeping, with cellular, white roots o...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Typhaceae
Sparganium neglectum, Beeby( = S. erectum, L.). - The habitat of this plant is wet places. It has been regarded as a variety of 5. ramosum. The inflorescence is, however, less branched and spreading. ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Lemnaceae
Ivy-Leaved Duckweed (Lemna Trisulca, L.) The habitat of this plant is ponds, still waters, and stagnant waters. The plant is stemless. The root is single. The frond, is thin, transparent, and ellip...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Alismacae
Alisma Lanceolatum, With As described by Withering this species, regarded as a variety only of the common Water Plantain, has the leaves lance-shaped, narrowed below. The sepals are ovate, and the ...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Naiadaceae
Broad-Leaved Pondweed (Potamogeton Natans, L.) The habitat of this plant is lakes, pools, ponds, ditches, and slow streams. The plant has the pondweed habit. The stem is creeping below, simple, rou...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Naiadaceae. Part 2
Various-Leaved Pondweed (Potatnogeton Hetero-Phyllus, Schreb P.gramineus, L.). - The habitat of this plant is ponds, ditches, pools, and lakes. The stem is much-branched below, slender, round in se...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Naiadaceae. Part 3
Shining Pondweed (Potamogeton Lucens, L.) The habitat of this pondweed is ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams, and the plant is common in deep water. The plant has the pondweed habit. The stem is sto...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Naiadaceae. Part 4
Perfoliate Pondweed (Potamogeton Perfoliatus, L.) The habitat of this species is ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams. The stem is stout, round in section, slightly branched, regularly forked above. T...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Naiadaceae. Part 5
Potamogeton Rutilus, Wolff The habitat of this species is ditches. The stem is slender, flattened. The leaves are linear, the lowest blunt, the upper with long narrow points, with 1 pair of lateral...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Naiadaceae. Part 6
Fennel-Leaved Pondweed (Potamogeton Pecti-Natus, L. = P. Marinus, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is fresh and brackish ditches, streams, and ponds. The stem is slender, branched, densely branched...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Naiadaceae. Part 7
Zannichellia Polycarpa, Nolte The habitat of this species is brackish water. The leaves are opposite, thread-like. The anthers are 2-celled, the anther-stalks very short. The stigma is large and wa...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Cyperaceae
Brown Cyperus (Cyperus Fuscus, L.) The habitat of this plant is ditches and wet meadows, shallow water. The plant has the sedge habit. The stems are numerous, 3-sided, from a fibrous root, which is...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Cyperaceae. Continued
Carex Trinervis, Degl The habitat of this plant is wet sandy places. The plant is stoloniferous. The rootstock is stout. The stem is 3-angled, tufted. The leaves are narrow, smooth, keeled. The she...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers, Wet Places. Order Graminaceae
Ribbon Grass (Phalaris Amndinacea, L.) The habitat of this grass is rivers, lakes, watery places. The plant has the grass habit. The rootstock is creeping. The stems are stout, erect. The leaves ar...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Graminaceae. Part 2
Water Grass Or Whorl Grass (Catabrosa Aqua-Tica, Beauv.) The habitat of this grass is watery places, ponds, ditches. The rootstock is stout, branched, creeping, and rooting. The plant is soft, brig...
-Flowers Of The Lakes, Rivers. Order Graminaceae. Part 3
Greater Fescue Grass Or Meadow Fescue (Fes-Tuca Elatior, L.) The habitat of this plant is meadows, river-banks, and wet places. The root-stock is creeping, stoloniferous. The stems are nodding, smo...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc
(The number of truly native plants is not as great as that of the aliens, casuals, colonists, denizens, etc that have found a place in the British Flora. Natives of other countries have become establi...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Ranunculaceae
Hairy Crowfoot (Ranunculus Hirsutus, Curt.) The habitat of this plant is roadsides in places where water lies stagnant, wet meadows, cultivated fields, waste land, and cornfields. The plant is erec...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cruciferae
Bitter Cress (Cardamine Flexuosa, With.) The habitat of this plant is moist shady places, swamps in woods. The habit is the rosette habit. The root is fibrous, oblique. The stem is wavy (hence the ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cruciferae. Continued
Alyssum Maritimum, Lam The habitat of this plant is waste places near the sea. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The plant is downy, with appressed hairs, 2-partite. The stem is woody below, ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Resedaceae
Wild Mignonette (Reseda Alba, L.) This plant is found in gardens, and as an escape in corners where garden rubbish has been thrown out, near the seashore, and by roadsides, or generally in waste pl...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Caryophyllaceae
Glaucous Stitchwort (Stellaria Palustris, Retz. = S. Glauca, With.) The habitat of this plant is marshy places. The habit is grass-like. The stem is erect, weak, smooth, angular, the whole plant bl...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Portulaceae
Claytonia Perfoliata, Donn This pant has a tufted habit. The stems are ascending, smooth, fleshy, shiny, like the leaves. The radical leaves are spoon-shaped, rhomboidal, the upper stem-leaves unit...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Malvaceae
Lavatera sylvcstris, Brot. ( = Z. cretica,L.). - This plant is found in waste places. The plant has an erect or ascending habit. The stem is herbaceous, hairy, rarely prostrate, and is like the Common...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Linaceae
Common Flax (Linum Usitatissimum, L.) Flax is an escape from flax fields, and found in waste places. The stem is branched above, forming a corymb. The rootstock is 1-stemmed. The leaves are linear,...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Geraniaceae
Geranium striatum, L. (= G. versicolor, L.). - This is a colonist and a garden escape in shrubberies, or found on roadsides, etc, being rare. The stem is hairy, erect. The petals are white wit...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Oxalidaceae
Oxalis Stricta, L This is an alien found at Penzance and Ilsington, in gardens and waste places. The habit is like that of the last, but erect, with numerous runners, and nearly smooth. The leaves ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Leguminosae
Blue Marsh Vetchling (Lathyrus Palustris, L.) The habitat of this plant is boggy meadows and copses, fens and marshes. The habit is climbing or trailing. The rootstock is creeping. The stem has her...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Leguminosae. Continued
Melilot (Melilotus Arvensis, Wallr. =M. Petit-Pierreana, Hayne = M. Officinalis, Desr.) The habitat of this plant is waste places. This Melilot is not native. The plant is erect. The leaflets are i...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Rosacea
Cloudberry (Rubus Chamcemorus, L.) The habitat of this plant is turfy mountain bogs. The stem is subterranean, with a woody rhizome, with no barren stems. The leaves are simple, kidney-shaped, 5-lo...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Umbelliferae
White Rot (Hydrocotyle Vulgaris, L.) The habitat of this plant is marshes and bogs. The habit is prostrate. The stem is creeping or floating, white. The leaves are shield-shaped (hence Hydrocoiyle)...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Umbelliferae. Part 2
Milky Parsley (Peucedanum Palusire, Mcench) The habitat of this species is marshes and fenny places. The habit is erect. The stem is hollow, round in section, grooved. The leaves are tri-pinnate, t...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Umbelliferae. Part 3
Caraway (Carum Carvi, L.) The habitat of this plant is usually waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is branched, slender, finely furrowed, hollow. The root is spindle-shaped. The leaves are n...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Caprifoliaceae
Dwarf Elder Or Danewort (Sambucus Ebulus, L.) The habitat of this species is waste places near villages, roadsides, field borders. It has the shrub habit, but is herbaceous. The rootstock is creepi...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Valerianaceae
Centranthus Calcitrapa, Dufr The habitat of this species is waste places as well as walls. The radical leaves are ovate, entire. The stem-leaves are deeply divided nearly to the base. The flowers a...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Composite
Fen Ragwort (Senecio Paludosus, L.) The habitat of this plant is fen ditches. The habit is the rosette habit more or less. The rootstock is short. The stem is erect, hollow, woolly, slightly cotton...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Composite. Part 2
Marsh Sow Thistle (Sonchus Palustris, L.) The habitat of this plant is marshes.. The habit is erect. The rootstock is branched. The stems are simple, stout, hollow, angled, leafy. The leaves are lo...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Composite. Part 3
Yellow Camomile (Anthemis Tinctoria, L.) The habitat of this plant is railway banks, fields, ballast-heaps, waste places, and cultivated ground. The habit is erect. The stems are much-branched, cot...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Composite. Part 4
Arctium Minus, Bernh The habitat of this plant is waste places and woods. The plant is smaller than A. majus. The central stems are mainly nodding-, and these and the branches have scattered small ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Composite. Part 5
Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca Scariola, L. = Z. Serriola, L.) The habitat of this plant is waste ground. The habit is erect. The juice is very acrid. The plant is rather rough below only. The branches a...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Campanulaceae
Creeping Bellflower (Campanula Rapuncu Hides, L.) The habitat of this plant is woods, waysides, and hedges, and it is a casual escape from gardens in many instances. The habit is erect. The stem is...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Boraginaceae
Madwort (Aspcrugo Procumbens, L.) This species is a weed of rich waste or cultivated ground, and has been largely introduced with grain. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The plant is prickly...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Solanaceae
Black Nightshade (Solarium Nigrum, L.) The habitat of this plant is waste ground, cultivated ground. The plant is herbaceous and erect in habit. The plant is smooth or downy. The stems are angled, ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Scrophuariaceae
Hoary Mullein (Verbascum Pulverulentum, VILL.) In Britain this plant is a weed of waste ground and waysides. The habit is erect. The plant is mealy. The stem is round. The leaves are stellately dow...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Scrophuariaceae. Continued
Yellow Figwort (Scrophularia Vernalis, L.) The habitat of this plant is waste places and plantations, and it is an escape from gardens. The habit is erect. The rootstock is creeping. The plant is g...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Verbenaceae
Vervain (Verbena Officinalis, L.) The habitat of this plant is dry waste ground, waste places. The habit is erect. The plant is downy, with stiff hairs. The rootstock is woody. The stems are rigid,...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Plantaginaceae
Plantain Ribgrass (Plantago Major, L.) The habitat of this plant is pastures, waste places. The plant has the rosette habit. The rootstock is stout, blunt. The plant is smooth or hairy. The leaves ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Amaranthaceae
Amaranth (Amaranthus Retroflexus, L.) The habitat of this plant is waste ground. The habit is erect. The stem is stout, hair)-, downy. The leaves are oval, stalked. The flowers are in terminal, lar...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Chenopodiaceae
Stinking Goosefoot (Chenopodium Vulvaria, L. = C. Olidum, Curt.) The habitat of this plant is roadsides, and dry waste places near houses. It is possibly native on shores and pebbly beaches in the ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Chenopodiaceae. Continued
Thorn-Apple Goosefoot (Chenopodium Hybridum, L.) The habitat of this plant is cultivated ground, fields, and waste places. The habit is erect. The plant has a heavy odour. The stem is stout and bra...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Polygonaceae
Small Persicaria (Polygonum Minus, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is wet, gravelly places, marshy places. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The stem is spreading, much branched, slender. Th...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Euphorbiaceae
Sun Spurge (Euphorbia Helioscopia, L.) The habitat of this spurge is cultivated ground, waste places, fields. It is nowhere native. The habit is erect. The plant is more or less bluish-green. The s...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Urticaceae
Little Nettle (Urtica Urens, L.) The habitat of this plant is cultivated and waste ground and fields. The habit is erect. The stem is branched, with stinging hairs. The leaves are opposite, ellipti...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Graminaceae
Deyeuxia Neglecta, Kunth The habitat of this grass is marshes and bogs. The plant has the grass habit. The stems are erect, slender, smooth, polished. The leaves are broad, short, flat, the lower o...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Graminaceae. Part 2
Cockspur Grass (Panicum Crus-Galli, L.) Cockspur Grass is found in fields and waste places in S. England, on damp and waste cultivated ground. The plant has the grass habit. The stems are stout and...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Graminaceae. Part 3
Phalaris Paradoxa, L The habitat of this species is waste places. The stem is prostrate below, then ascending, branched. The lower part of the spike-like panicle is barren, and there are 6 spikes o...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Graminaceae. Part 4
Bromus Interruptus, Druce The habitat of this species is cultivated ground. The plant is like B. mollis. The panicle is oblong, blunt, erect, rigid. The spikelets are more or less compound, in dens...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Graminaceae. Part 5
Large Ivy-Leaved Crowfoot (Ranunculus Lenor-Mandi, F. Schultz) The habitat of this plant is shallow ponds on mud, marshes and ditches, pools, and muddy places. The habit is prostrate, trailing. The...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Violaceae
Bog Violet (Viola Palustris, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet and boggy places, swamps, and bogs. The habit is the loose rosette habit. The rootstock is stoloniferous, the stolons underground, ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Hypericaceae
St. John's Wort (Hypericum undulatum, Schousb.). - The habitat of this plant is bogs. The habit is erect. The stem is slender, branched, 4-edged. The leaves are oblong, wavy at the edge (hence undulat...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Saxifragaceae
Yellow Musk Saxifrage (Saxifraga Hirculus, L.) The habitat of this plant is bogs and wet moors. The plant has the rosette habit. The stem is more or less simple, erect, stoloniferous, leafy, downy ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Crassulaceae
Hairy Stonecrop (Sedum Villosum, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet mountain pastures, alpine bogs, and marshes. The plant has the cushion or mat habit. The plant is glandular, downy. The root is...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Droseraceae
Sundew (Drosera Intermedia, Hayne = D. Longifolia, L.) The habitat of this plant is bogs and moist heaths. The plant has the rosette habit. The stem is short and leafy. The leaves are oblong, spoon...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Onagraceae
Ludwigia palustris, Ell.(= Isnardia palustris, L. =L. apetala, Walt.).- The habitat of this plant is pools, and peaty streams and pools. The habit is prostrate then ascending, or floating. The stems r...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Rubiaceae
Rough Swamp Bedstraw (Galium Uliginosum, L.) The habitat of this species is marshes and ditches, bogs and wet places. The plant is erect or ascending in habit. The stem is rough, prickly. When dry ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Vacciniacea
Great Whortleberry (Vaccinium Uliginosum, L.) The habitat of this plant is mountain bogs and copses. The plant has the undershrub habit. The stem is rigid, round in section, prostrate, then ascendi...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Primulaceae
Punctate Loosestrife (Lysitnachia Punctata, L. = L. Verticillata, Bieb.) The habitat of this species is damp, shady places, waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is downy. The leaves are downy...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Boraginacea
Creeping Forget - Me - Not (Myosotis Repens, Don) The habitat of this species is boggy places. The habit is prostrate. The stolons are not subterranean. The stem is somewhat angular, with spreading...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Lentibulariaceae
Irish Butterwort (Pinguiciila Grandiflora, Lam.) The habitat of this plant is bogs. The habit is the rosette habit. Regarded formerly as a subspecies of P. vulgaris, it has broader, larger leaves, ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Labiatve
Round - Leaved Mint (Mentha Rotundifolia, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is wet places, waste places. The habit is as in M. hirsuta. The plant is much-branched. There are leafy aerial stolons. Th...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Labiatve. Part 2
Calamint (Calamintha Officinalis, Scheele = C. Menthaefolia, Host = C. Montana, O. Kuntze = Satureia Calamintha, Sch.) The habitat of this species is dry banks, hedge-banks. The habit is erect. The...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Labiatve. Part 3
Stachys Annua, L The habitat of this plant in this country is wheatfields. The habit is erect. The lower leaves are ovate to oblong, smooth, blunt, scalloped, toothed. The flowers are creamy-white,...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Labiatve. Part 4
Henbit Dead-Nettle (Lamium Amplexicaule, L.) The habitat of this plant is waste sandy places. It is a weed of cultivated and waste ground. Dry places, sandy and chalky fields are also the habitat o...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Labiatve. Part 5
Poa Balfouri, Parn This grass is found on hills in the north of England and Scotland. The habit is creeping. The upper sheath is equal to the leaf in length. The ligule is large, blunt. The panicle...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Amentaceae
Alder (Alnus Glutinosa, Gaertn. = A. Rotundi-Folia, Mill.) The habitat of this plant is river-banks, marshes, stream-sides, moist places. The Alder nas the tree habit. The trunk and branches are cr...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Orchidaceae
Bog Orchis (Malaxis Paludosa, Sm.) The habitat of this plant is spongy bogs and Sphagnum swamps. The habit is the orchid habit. The plant is an epiphyte. The stem is 5-angled, swollen, sheathed, wi...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Iridaceae
Iris Spuria, L The habitat of this plant is marshes. The plant has the Iris habit. The stem is round. The leaves are linear. The flowers vary in colour. The lamina is externally yellowish, white-ve...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Liliaceae
Scottish Asphodel (Tofieldia Palustris, Huds.) The habitat of this species is mountain bogs and rills. The Scottish Asphodel has the grass habit. The rootstock is short and creeping. The stem is sl...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Juncaceae
Toad Rush (Juncus Bufonius, L.) The habitat of this species is moist places, marshy places. The habit is the rush habit. The plant is very pale in colour. The stems are erect or ascending, with for...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Juncaceae. Continued
Three-Flowered Rush (Juncus Triglumis, L.) The habitat of this plant is alpine bogs, boggy wet places on mountains. The plant has the rush habit. There are no stolons. The stems are tufted, black, ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Alismaceae
Echinodorus (Alisma) Ranunculoides, Eng The habitat of this plant is lakesides, bogs and ditches, turfy bogs. The plant has the rosette habit. The stems may be erect or creeping, tufted. The leaves...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Naiadaceae
Marsh Arrow-Grass (Triglochin Palusire, L.) The habitat of this plant is marshes. Marsh Arrow-grass has the grass habit. The plant is stoloniferous. The stem is swollen below. The leaves are slende...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae
Many-Stalked Spike Rush (Heleocharis Multi-Caulis, Sm.) The habitat of this plant is marshes, pools, chiefly on moorlands. The plant has the rush habit. The rootstock (slightly creeping) is short, ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 2
Alpine Cotton Grass (Eriophorum Alpinum, L.) The habitat of this plant is marshes and spongy bogs. The plant has the grass habit. The root-stock, which is creeping, gives rise to a number of stems ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 3
White Beak Rush (Rhynchospora Alba, Vahl) The habitat of this plant is spongy bogs, turfy bogs, wet meadows. The habit is the sedge habit. The rootstock is short. The plant is somewhat creeping. Th...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 4
Flea Sedge (Carex Pulicaris, L.) The habitat of this species is bogs. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is tufted, shortly stoloniferous. The stems are smooth, rigid, round in section, g...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 5
Grey Sedge (Carex Canescens, L. = C. Curta, Good.) The habitat of this plant is bogs and marshes. The plant has the sedge habit. The plant is slender. The rootstock is tufted, with no stolons. The ...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 6
Carex Caespitosa, L This species has been reported from Yorkshire, but needs confirmation, according to Mr. G. C. Druce. Common Sedge (Carex Goodenovii, Gay = C. Vulgaris, Fr. - C. Caespitosa, S...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 7
Green-And-Gold Sedge (Carex Liwosa, L.) The habitat of this species is spongy bogs. The plant has the sedge habit. The plant is creeping, with a slender rootstock. The stems are slender, 3-sided. T...
-Flowers Of Waste Places, Etc. Order Cyperaceae. Part 8
Tawny Sedge (Carex Fulva, Host = C. Horn-Schuchiana, Hoppe = C. Horteatia, D.C.) The habitat of this plant is marshes and boggy places. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is often creepin...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Violaceae
Dog Violet (Viola Canifia, L. = V. Encetorum, Schrad.) The habitat of this plant is heathy places, open commons, shady groves, hedgerows, seashores, etc. The habit is ascending. The plant is slend...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Polygalaceae
Heath Milkwort (Polygala Depressa, Wender = P. Serpyllacea, Weihe) The habitat of this plant is dry pastures, heaths, heathy places. The habit is prostrate (hence depressa). The stem is wavy, wiry,...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Caryophyllaceae
Striate Corn Catchfly (Silene Conica, L.) The habitat of this plant is sandy fields, sandy places near the coast, pastures, and sandy heaths. The plant is erect in habit. It is hairy and glandular,...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Caryophyllaceae. Continued
Ciliated Pearlwort (Sagina Ciliata, Fries = 5. Patida, Jord.) The habitat of this species is dry places, sandy heaths. The habit is erect or spreading. The plant is smooth or glandular, downy. The ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Portulaceae
Blinks (Montia Verna, Neck.) The habitat of this plant is brooks, marshes, watery places. The habit is tufted. The plant is pale-green, limp, branched. The stem is short, rigid, erect. The leaves a...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Hypericaceae
Trailing St. John's Wort (Hypericum humi-fusum, L.). - The habitat of this plant is gravelly and heathy places, roadsides, commons. The plant is prostrate in habit (hence humifusum). The stems are num...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Linaceae
Allseed (Radiola Linoides, Roth) The habitat of this plant is damp, sandy, gravelly places, bare spots on heathy places. The habit is erect, inversely pyramidal. The stem is repeatedly forked. The ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Geraniaceae
Dove's Foot (Geranium Molle, L.) Dove's Foot is found in pastures and waste places, dry places, cultivated ground. The habit is the rosette habit, prostrate. The plant is softly downy, glandular ab...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Empetraceae
Crowberry (Empetrum Nigrum, L.) The habitat of this plant is moors and mountain heaths. The plant has the shrub habit. The plant is prostrate, then ascending, smooth, tufted, slender, wiry, spreadi...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Rhamnaceae
Berry-Bearing Alder (Rhamnus Frangula, L.) This plant grows on peaty heaths and in woods. It has the shrub habit. The branches are not spinose, slender, alternate. The leaves are alternate, inverse...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Leguminosae
Dyer's Greenweed (Genista Tinctoria, L.) The habitat of this plant is meadows, fields, heaths, sunny pastures, coarse pastures, and the plant also grows under the shade of trees and in coppices. Th...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Leguminosae. Continued
Small Furze (Ulex Nanus, Forster= U. Minor, Roth) The habitat of this species is heaths and commons in the S. and E. of England. The plant has the shrub habit, resembling U. enropceus, but smaller....
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Rosaceae
Rubus Rogersii, Linton The habitat of this plant is heaths, moors, in sunny places. The habit is shrub-like. The stems are suberect, the leaves rather small, 6-lobed, finely, closely, and evenly to...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Crassulace;E
Mossy Tillaea (Tillaa Muscosa, L.) The habitat of this plant is barren sandy heaths in the south and east. The plant has the cushion habit, and is prostrate, then ascending, growing in tufts, and i...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Lythraceae
Water Purslane (Peplis Portula, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet heathy places, the margin of ponds, damp places. The habit is creeping-. The stem is long, creeping. The plant is devoid of hair...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Cornaceae
Dwarf Cornel (Cornus Suecica, L.) The habitat of this species is moist alpine moors. The plant is prostrate, then erect, herbaceous in habit. The rootstock is prostrate, then ascending or subterran...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Composite
Common Erect Cudweed (Filago Germanica, L.) The habitat of this plant is dry pastures and banks, where the soil is dry, and it is adapted to these conditions, having erect, reduced leaves, and the ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Composite. Continued
Small Fleabane (Pulicaria Vulgaris, L. = P. Prostrata, Aschers) The habitat of this plant is moist sandy places, heaths, and wet places. The habit is erect. The whole plant is downy and glandular. ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Campanulaceae
Acrid Lobelia (Lobelia Urens, L.) This species is found on heaths. The habit is erect. The plant is down)*. The stem is slender, leafy, angular, rough. The radical leaves are inversely ovate or obl...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Vacciniaceae
Cowberry (Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea, L.) The habitat of this plant is mountain heaths and woods. The plant has the shrub habit. The stem is prostrate, then ascending, with downy, trailing or ascending ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Ericaceae
Red Bearberry(4rctostaphylosUva-ursi,Spreng.). - This plant is a native, and found on heathy, rocky mountains, Scottish heaths, dry stony mountain heaths. The plant has the shrub habit. The stem is pr...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Ericaceae. Continued
Blue Heath (Bryanthus Caeruleus, Dip = Phyllodoce Caerulea, Dip = Menziesia Caerulea, Sm. = Bryanthus Taxifolius, A. Gray) The habitat of this plant is heathy moors on Scotch mountains. The plant h...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Primulaceae
Bastard Pimpernel Or Chaffweed (Centunculus Minimus, L.) This is a native species, and local. The habitat is moist, sandy, damp, turfy, gravelly places. The habit is prostrate. The stems are branch...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Gentianaceae
Least Yellow Gentian (Cicendia Pusilla, Griseb.) The habitat of this plant is sandy commons, or waste broken ground, or where the ground has been flooded. The habit is erect. The stems are branched...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Convolvulaceae
Heath Dodder (Cuscuta Epithymum, Murr.) The habitat is heaths. The plant is a parasite on heath, gorse, etc. The flowers are pale rose-colour. The calyx is reddish, shorter than the corolla tube. T...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Scrophulariaceae
Jersey Toadflax (Linaria Pelisseriana, Mill.) The habitat of this plant is heathy places, and the plant is very rare. The habit is erect. The plant has short barren stolons below, with one or more ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Scrophulariaceae. Part 2
Euphrasia Rostkoviana, Hayne The habit of this species is that of a hemi-parasite. The stem is tall, branched below, glandular, the hairs long and scattered. The leaves are plaited, not more than t...
-Flowers Of The Heaths, Moors. Order Scrophulariaceae. Part 3
Euphrasia Gracilis, Fries Mr. Williams considers that this is the most marked species of the genus. Its slender, erect form, small leaves and flowers, and usually dark-coloured stem and leaves ar...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Orobanchaceae
Great Broom-Rape (Orobanche Major, L. = O. Ra-Putn Genistae, Thuill.) This plant is a saprophytic parasite, and the habitat is that of the plants it grows upon, roots of shrubby Papilionaceae as Go...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Labiate
Small Pink Skullcap (Scutellaria Minor, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is boggy places, moist heaths, swamp)' heaths, the sides of ditches. The habit of the plant is erect. The stems are slender,...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Orchidace
Orchis ericeforum, W. R. Linton (= O. prcecox, Webst.). - This is more slender than O. maculata, of which it was regarded at first as a sub-species only (but see below. It is Linnasus's type). The ste...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Liliaceae
Grass-Leaved Simethis (Pubilaria Plamfolta, Druce = Simethis Bicolur, Kunth) This plant was found on Poole Heath, near Bournemouth, which was subsequently planted with firs. The habitat elsewhere i...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Juncaceae
Heath Rush (Juncus Squarrosus, L.) The habitat of this plant is moorlands, heaths, wet heaths. The plant has the typical rush habit, and is somewhat tufted. The stem is rigid, erect, simple, flatte...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Naiadaceae
Potamogeton polygonifolius, Pourr.( = P. oblongus, Viv.). - The habitat of this plant is pools, ditches, or small streams and ponds, lakes and pools on heaths. The plant has the pondweed habit. The st...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Cyperaceae
Few-Flowered Club Rush (Scirpus Pauciflorus, Lightf.) The habitat of this plant is marshes, boggy moors, and heaths. The habit is the usual bulrush habit. There are no leaves. The plant is smaller ...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Cyperaceae. Part 2
Few-Flowered Sedge (Carexpaucijiora, Lightf.) The habitat of this plant is moors or moorland bogs. The plant has the sedge habit. The root-stock is slender, creeping, with stolons. The stems are 3-...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Cyperaceae. Part 3
Pill-Headed Sedge (Carex Pilulifera, L.) The habitat of this plant is heaths, wet heaths, woods, and moors. The plant has the sedge habit. The stems are 3-angled, roughish, long, slender, prostrate...
-Flowers Of The Heaths And Moors. Order Graminaceae
Heath Bentgrass (Agrostis Setacea, Curt.) The habitat of this plant is dry heaths, and downs in the S.W. The plant has the grass habit. The stem is rigid, rough. The leaves are numerous, short, ere...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls, Sandy And Gravelly Places
(Rupestral plants are essentially plants that grow on shallow soils, or in the clefts and crevices of rocks. A large number are found in hilly regions, chiefly in the west of England, or in Scotland a...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls, Sandy And Gravelly Places. Order Ranunculaceae
Thalictrum Kochii, Fr This plant was formerly regarded as a variety of T. minus. It is a local species. The habitat is wet rocks. The plant has spreading- stipules with horizontal auricles. The ste...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Papaveraceae
Yellow Welsh Poppy (Meconopsis Cambrica, Vig.) The habitat of this Poppy is moist glens, damp rocky places, shady spots. The plant has the rosette habit. There are no hairs on the stem or leaves. T...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Cruciferae
Alpine Rock Cress (Arabis Alpina, L.) This plant has the rosette habit. The rootstock is stoloniferous. The barren shoots are prostrate. The stem is smooth or hairy. The hairs on the leaves are 3-4...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Cruciferae. Part 2
Tower Cress (Arabis Turrita, L.) This plant has been found on walls at Oxford, Cambridge, and is naturalized on castle walls, Cleish, Kinross, etc. It was first noticed in the vicinity of botanic g...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Cruciferae. Part 3
Small Whitlow Grass (Draba Muralis, L.) The habitat of this plant is limestone rocks and walls, hills. The habit is the rosette habit. The rootstock is slender. The stems are slender, wavy, leafy, ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Cruciferae. Part 4
Narrow-Leaved Pepper Cress (Lepidium Ruder-Ale, L.) The habitat of this plant is waste places, chiefly near the sea, and it is scarcely wild except along the coast. The habit is erect or prostrate....
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Polygalacea
Polygala Avium, L The habitat of this plant is margins of rills and rocky places. The habit is the rosette habit. The stem is erect. The radical leaves are spoon-shaped, inversely egg-shaped, blunt...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Caryophyllaceae
Wild Carnation Or Clove Pink (Dianthus Caryo-Phyllus, L.) The habitat of this plant is old walls, hedges near gardens, old castle walls. The habit is erect. The plant is smooth, bluish-green, stout...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Caryophyllaceae. Part 2
Viscid Rock Campion (Lychnis Viscaria, L.) The habitat of this species is dry rocks, cliffs, etc. The plant has more or less the rosette habit. The rootstock is woody. The stem is sticky at or belo...
-Flowers Of Rocks, Walls. Order Caryophyllaceae. Part 3
Arctic Mouse-Ear Chickweed (Cerastium Nigre-Scens, Edm.) This plant is very rare, occurring in Unst. The stem is tufted, prostrate, then ascending. The leaves are inversely ovate, densely hairy, da...
-Flowers Of Rocks, Walls. Order Caryophyllaceae. Part 4
Arenaria Gothica, Fr The habitat of this plant is bare calcareous places. The habit is prostrate. The stems are much-branched, spreading, slightly hairy. The leaves are ovate, lance-shaped, narrow-...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Leguminosae
Alpine Mountain Vetch (Astragalus Alpinus, L.) The habitat of this plant is lofty Scottish mountains. The habit is prostrate. The stems are slender, hairy. The leaves are as long as the leaf-stalks...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Rosacea
Alpine Cinquefoil (Potentilia Salisburgensis, Haenke = P. Alpestris, Hall, Fil = P. Crantzii, Beck. = P. Metadata = P. Rubens, VILL. - P. Villosa, Zimm. =P. Aurea, I.K.) The habitat of this plant i...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Rosacea. Continued
Alpine Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla Alpina, L.) The habitat of this species is mountain streams and rocks. The habit is more or less the rosette habit. The plant is clothed with soft silky hairs, exce...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Saxifragaceae
Opposite-Leaved Saxifrage (Saxifraga Oppositi-Folia, L.) The habitat of this Saxifrage is alpine rocks. The plant has the cushion habit. The stems are tufted, creeping, prostrate then ascending. Th...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Saxifragaceae. Part 2
Saxifraga Hirsicta, L From the last species this one differs in being more hairy (hence hirsuia), and in the sharply-toothed leaves, rounded or blunt below. It also resembles S. Genm. The leaves ar...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Saxifragaceae. Part 3
Saxifraga Caespitosa, L The habitat of this very rare plant is mountains. The plant has the rosette habit. The plant forms dense tufts. The short barren shoots are not longer than the flowering. Th...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Crassulaceae
Orpine Stone-Crop Or Roseroot (Sedum Rhodtola, D.C. =5. Roseum, Scop.) The habitat of this plant is moist alpine and subalpine rocks, and sea cliffs. The plant has the rosette habit. The rootstock ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Onagrace
Mountain Or Chickweed Willow-Herb (Epilob-Ium Alsince Folium Y VILL.) The habitat of this species is spongy banks of rills, alpine and sub-alpine districts. The plant is almost devoid of hair. The ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Umbelliferae
Rigid Hare's Ear Or Small Hare's Ear (Bu-Pleurum Opacum, Lange = Bupleurum Arislatum, Bartl.) The habitat of this plant is sandy places and rocks. The habit is rigid, erect, with simple or forked s...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Rubiaceae
English Wall Bedstraw (Galium Anglicum, Huds.) The habitat of this plant is walls and dry sandy places. The habit is prostrate. The stems are spreading, branched, slender, brittle. There are no bar...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Valerianaceae
Spur Valerian (Centranthus Ruber, D.C) The habitat of this plant is old walls, cliffs, chalk-pits. The plant is erect in habit. The rootstock is woody below. The stem is round in section, hollow. T...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite
Goldielocks (Aster Linosyris, Bernh. = Linosyris Vulgaris, Cass.) The habitat of this plant is limestone rocks, maritime cliffs. The habit is erect. The plant is smooth, herbaceous. The stems are w...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 2
Oxford Ragwort (Senecio Squalidus, L.) This plant grows on walls, where it is on the increase, and on railway banks, roadsides, and waste ground. The habit is erect. The plant is smooth. The stems ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 3
Hieracium Peleterianum, Mer The stolons of this Hawkweed are short and thick, with large leaves. The radical leaves are large, inversely lance-shaped, the inner nearly acute. The flower-stalks are ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 4
Hieracium Iricum, Fr The habitat of this species is mountainous districts, the margins of streams, etc. The stem is rigid, stout, and has scattered, stiff, white hairs below, glands and hairs above...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 5
Hieracium Calenduliflorum, Backh The habitat of this plant is lofty mountains, grassy slopes, and rocky ledges. The plant is dark-green, the stem is stout, woolly-felted, shaggy, and glandular. The...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 6
Hieracium Curvatum, Elfstrand The habitat of this plant is Highland mountains, where it occurs on granite, mica schist, and hornblende. The plant is green. The stem is stiffly hairy, woolly-felted,...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 7
Hieracium Senescens, Backh The habitat of this plant is grassy slopes and edges of streams in mountain districts, in crevices, mountain ledges, chiefly on mica schist, rarely on granite. The plant ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 8
Hieracium Nigrescens, Willd The habitat of this plant is lofty mountains. The plant is green, the stem wavy, stiffly hairy, woolly-felted, glandular. The radical leaves are oval, elliptic, blunt, w...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 9
Hieracium Hyparcticum, Almq The habitat of this species is mountainous. The rhizome is long, woody. The stem is branched, woolly-felted, yellowish-green, the outer leaves oval, elliptic, nearly ent...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 10
Hieracium Schmidtii, Tausch The habitat of this plant is rocks and streamsides in mountainous districts. The stem is bluish-green, wavy, nearly smooth below, woolly-felted, stiffly hairy, and gland...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 11
Hieracium Nitidum, Backh The habitat of this plant is mountain streams, rocky margins of alpine streamlets. The plant is dark-green. The stem is nearly hairless, or with few hairs, woolly-felted, g...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 12
Hieracium Hypochoeroides, Gibs The habitat of this species is mountains, limestone talus, dry, exposed rocky ledges. The plant is bluish-green, the leaves forming a rosette, persistent, broad, blot...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 13
Hieracium Pseudonosmoides, Dahlst The habitat of this plant is mountain crags. The stem is bluish-green, stiffly hairy, woolly-felted, glandular above. The earlier radical leaves are small, roundis...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 14
Hieracium Clovense, Linton The habitat of this species is cliffs, highland mountains. The stem is reddish, nearly smooth above, woolly-felted below, the radical leaves are egg-shaped with a long, n...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 15
Golden Lungwort (Hieracium Silvaticum, Gouan) The habitat of this plant is woods and dry places, rarely on walls, basaltic hills and limestone rocks, mountain slopes. The stem is smooth, or stiffly...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 16
Hieracium Pellucidum, Laestad The radical leaves of this plant are green with violet markings, transparent, with pin-holes, the outer rounded, heart-shaped, blunt, the inner heart-shaped, egg-shape...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 17
Hieracium Serratifrons, Almq This species is not found in the typical state, but numerous varieties are met with in this country. The stem is stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted, glandular above. Th...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 18
Hieracium Platyphyllum, Ley The habitat of this plant is mountain rocks. The stem is branched, purple, woolly-felted, stiffly hairy below, hairy above. The radical leaves are thick, tinged with pur...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 19
Hieracium Petrocharis, Linton The habitat of this plant is alpine rocks. The stem is finely furrowed, stiffly hairy above and below, woolly-felted, glandular above. The radical leaves are yellowish...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 20
Hieracium Rotundatum, Kit The habitat of this species is rocky mountain burns. The stem is erect, smooth below, stiffly hairy, woolly-felted, glandular above. The outer radical leaves are rounded t...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 21
Hieracium Ccesiomurorum, Lindeb The habitat of this plant is sub-alpine glens. The stem is wiry, hollow, simple or branched, finely furrowed, reddish, stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted, glandular ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 22
Hieracium Porrigetis, Almq The stem of this plant is stiffly hairy, woolly-felted, glandular above. The radical leaves are dull-green, spotted, bluish-green below, the outer oval to oblong, blunt, ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 23
Hieracium Orarium, Lindeb Fil The habitat of this plant is cliffs and banks of streams. The stem is simple or branched, stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted, stiffly hairy above. The radical leaves a...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 24
Hieracium Sciaphilum, Becker The habitat of this plant is woods, rocks, and banks. The stem is branched, tall, stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted, glandular above. The radical leaves are dullgreen,...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 25
Hieracium Diaphanoides, Lindeb The habitat of this plant is limestone scars, etc. The stem is finely furrowed, stiffly hairy. The radical leaves are bright-green, membranous, the outer elliptic or ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 26
Hieracium Scullyi, Linton The habitat of this plant is rocks. The stem is stout, erect, rigid, hairy below, woolly-felted above. The radical leaves are green, hairless above, pale bluish-green, and...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 27
Hieracium Protractum, Lindeb The habitat of this species is cliffs. The stem is simple or branched, leafy, purplish-red, stiffly hairy below, woolly-felted, hairy below. The radical leaves are broa...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 28
Hieracium Stictophyllum, Dahlst The stem of this plant is stout, purplish, smooth or stiffly hair)-, woolly-felted above. The radical leaves are bluish-green, with purple blotches, the outer narrow...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 29
Hieracium Prenantjioides, VILL The habitat of this plant is rocky places on the margins of streams and woody ravines. The stem is leafy, erect, stiffly hairy below, hairy above. The leaves are nume...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 30
Hieracium Crocatum, Fr The habitat of this plant is mountain districts, banks of streams, and ravines. The stem is rigid, rather rough, stiffly hairy. The leaves are oblong to lance-shaped, the low...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Composite. Part 31
Hieracium Ogiveni, Linton The habitat of this plant is sandy and stony places. It is regarded as synonymous with H. subumbellata, Williams, of H. umbellatum, L., by Mr. F. N. Williams (Prodr., p. 1...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Ericaceae
Black Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Alpina, Spr.) The habitat of this plant is dry, barren Scottish mountains. The plant has the shrub habit, and is prostrate, then ascending, forming woody patches. Th...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Gentianaceae
Spring Gentian (Gentiana Verna, L.) The habitat of this plant is wet subalpine limestone rocks, limestone covered with grass, peaty pastures. The habit is prostrate. The plant is tufted, stolonifer...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Boraginaceae
Mountain Scorpion Grass (Myosotis Alpestris, Schmidt - M. Pyrenaica, Pourret = M. Rupicola, Sm.) The habitat of this plant is moist rocks, mountains. The radical leaves are long-stalked, pointed, o...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Scrophulariaceae
Purple Toadflax (Linaria Purpurea, Mill.) This plant has long been in cultivation in England and established in many places, old walls, waste ground, near towns. The habit is erect. The plant is sm...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Labiate
Crimson Germander (Teucrium Cham&Drys, L.) The habitat of this plant is old walls, etc, near houses, sandy fields in Ireland. The habit is ascending. The plant is hairy. The rootstock is creeping a...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Polygonaceae
Alpine Knotweed (Polygonum Viviparum, L.) The habitat of this plant is mountain alpine pastures, wet alpine rocks. The habit is erect. The stem is simple, slender, with a slender root-stock. The pl...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Aristolochiaceae
Birthwort (Arislolochia Clemalitis, L.) This plant is rare and not indigenous, being found in hedges, on old walls near gardens, former religious houses, ruins, and waste places. The habit is creep...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Salicaceae
Black Willow (Salix Nigricatis, Sm.) The habitat of this plant is rocks, mountains, banks of streams and rivers, osier ground. The plant has the tree or shrub habit, prostrate, then ascending, or e...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Salicaceae. Continued
Whortle-Leaved Willow (Salix Myrsinites, L.) The habitat of this plant is alpine rocks and rivulets, Scottish mountains. The habit is the shrub habit. The plant is dwarf, rigid, somewhat erect, or ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Orchidaceae
Helleborine atrorubens, Roehl. = H. ovalis, Bab. = H. atropurpurea, Druce. - The habitat of this plant is limestone cliffs, etc. The habit is like that of H. latifolia, but the plant is not so large. ...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Liliaceae
Wild Leek (Allium Ampeloprasum, L. = A. Holmense, Mill.) This plant is naturalized, and grows on rocky banks, waste places. The plant has the lily habit. The stem is leafy below. The bulb is large,...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Juncaceae
Highland Rush (Jucncus Trifidus, L.) The habitat of this rush is alpine rocks, damp, rocky mountainous places. The plant has the rush habit. It forms dense, tufted masses of root-stocks and sheaths...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Cvperaceae
Rock Sedge (Carex Rupestris, Bell) The habitat of this sedge is cliffs, ledges of alpine rocks, lofty mountains. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock, which is tufted, is creeping, and bear...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Cvperaceae. Continued
Mountain Sedge (Carex Rigida, Good. = C. Saxatilis, L.) The habitat of this species is wet stony places on mountains. The plant has the sedge habit. The plant is stout, with a creeping rootstock, w...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Graminaceae
Alpine Foxtail (Alopecurus Alpinus, Sm.) The habitat of this grass is springs and edges of alpine streams, damp grassy places, on high mountains. The plant has the grass habit. The stem is creeping...
-Flowers Of The Rocks And Walls. Order Graminaceae. Continued
Poa Balfouri, Parn This grass is found on hills in the north of England and Scotland. The habit is creeping. The upper sheath is equal to the leaf in length. The ligule is large, blunt. The panicle...
-Appendix - Addenda
The following- plants should have been included in the text of Vol. VI under the divisions in which they are here placed. Some have but recently been found to be British; a few have only lately been r...
-Cornfields, Etc
Order Raninculaceae Pheasant's Eye (Adonis Annua, L.) Erect. Stem branched, very leafy. Leaves 3- (or more) pinnatifid. Segments linear. Flowers scarlet, with black eye. Petals 5-10, broad, cup-...
-Sea-Coasts
Order Cruciferae English Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia Anglica, L.) Differs from Common Scurvy Grass as follows: -Much larger. Radical leaves not cordate. Stem-leaves half-clasping. Pod oblong, obovo...
-Sea-Coasts. Continued
Order Rosacea Cherry Laurel Primus Laurocerasus. L. I - Leaves almond-scented when bruised, evergreen, shiny above. Flowers white. 4-9 ft. May. Evergreen shrub. Plantations. Fragrant Agrimony (A...
-Roadsides And Hedges
Order Caryophyllace.e Chickweed 'Stellaria umbrosa, Opitz. = 5. Elizabethar. SchultzL - Differs from 5. media. L., as follows: - Stem erect or ascending. L'himate flower-stalks twice as long as cal...
-Mountains, Hills, And Dry Places
Order Composite Taraxacum Spectabile, Dahlst) Differs from T. paludosum in the large, coarsely cut, 4-7-lobed leaves. Grass-green, shining, blotched with dark-crimson. North England, Wales, Scot...
-Appendix
Order Graminaceae Milium Vernale, Bieb Differs from M. effusum, L., as follows: - Panicle close. Palea blunt. Stem rough. Leaves short, linear-lanceolate. 1-4 in. April. Herbaceous annual. Guern...
-Lakes, Rivers, Etc
Order Ranunculaceje Water Buttercup (Ranunculus Peltatus, Schrank) Floating leaves divided half-way into 3 wedge-shaped segments. Submerged leaves thread-like, generally stiff. Flowers large. Ma...
-Lakes, Rivers, Etc. Part 2
Potamogeton Varians, Fryer ( - P. Spathiformis, Tuck.) Leaves inversely ovate, lower spoon-shaped, mostly sessile. June-August. Herbaceous perennial. Streams. Very rare. Order Papaveraceae Op...
-Lakes, Rivers, Etc. Part 3
London Rocket (Sisymbrium Irio, L.) Erect. Stem branched, smooth. Lower leaves runcinate-pinnatifid; lobes toothed oblong, terminal, angular. Upper lanceolate with hastate terminal lobe. Flowers ye...
-Lakes, Rivers, Etc. Part 4
Smith's Cress (Lepidium Smithii, Hook. = Z. Heterophyllum, Benth.) Stems several, branched below, central one erect, rest spreading. Leaves hairy, toothed; lower obcordate, stalked; upper lanceolat...
-Lakes, Rivers, Etc. Part 5
Xanthium Spinosum, L Stem spinose. Leaves lanceolate, deeply lobed, pale below. Fruit with straight beak. 6-12 in. July. Herbaceous annual. Crepis Nicceensis, Ralb Erect. Stem nearly leafless...
-Lakes, Rivers, Etc. Part 6
Chenopodium Leptophylhim, Nutt Differs from C. album, L., in smaller size and very narrow-linear leaves. Garden Orache (Atriplex Hortensis, L.) Erect. Leaves triangular-cordate, toothed, gree...
-Marshes, Bogs, Etc
Order Violace Large Bog Violet (Viola Monlana, L.) Root-stock creeping. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long, narrowed gradually from below. Flowers nearly circular, bluish-white or pale-blue. Spur gr...









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