Pius, the name of nine popes, of whom the following are the most important.
Saint Pins I., born in Aquileia about the year 90, died in Rome in 157. His father's name was Rufinus, and his own surname of Pius was bestowed on him by the Christians of Rome, to whom he ministered from 117 till April 9, 142, when he was chosen to succeed St. Hyginus. During his pontificate, with the aid of Justin Martyr, he combated the errors of Valentinu9 and Marcion. Some authors attribute to him the first ordinance prescribing that the feast of the resurrection should be held on Sunday. The title of martyr, given him by the Latin church, is considered by some to have been bestowed on account of his unceasing struggles for the faith, while others contend that he suffered death for it. His feast is celebrated on July 11.
Pins II. (AENeas Sylvius Pio-Colomini), born at Corsignano near Siena, Oct. 18, 1405, died in Ancona, Aug. 14, 1464. He was destined for the legal profession, but devoted himself to the ancient classics, many of whose works he transcribed himself. In 1431 he accompanied Cardinal Capranica as secretary to the council of Basel, where he as well as the cardinal sided at first with the opponents of Eugenius IV., being allowed, together with other laymen, the right of speaking and voting in the deliberations. He was at this time an earnest advocate of the supremacy of the council, maintaining that the pope " ought rather to be considered as the vicar of the church than as the vicar of Christ." He became secretary to the antipope Felix V., and was sent by him as ambassador to the emperor Frederick III. The latter was much pleased with Sylvius, offered him the post of imperial secretary, and sent him on many missions. He wrote several works in support of his master's prerogative. He was subsequently sent on a mission to Pope Eugenius; the pope forgave him and appointed him apostolic secretary. He then gave up the German employment, and was henceforth an ardent ultramontane.
Nicholas V. made him bishop of Trieste in 1447, and afterward of Siena, and sent him as papal nuncio into Germany and Bohemia, where he had conferences with the Hussites, which he relates in his epistles. He recommended mild measures to reclaim the stray sheep of Bohemia, and wrote a work on the history of that country and" the Hussites, in which the doctrines of the latter are set down without exaggeration. He relates the burning of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, and speaks of their fortitude as exceeding that of any of the philosophers of antiquity. In 1452 he delivered an oration in the presence of the pope, the emperor, and other German and Italian princes, and the ambassadors of other European courts, exhorting them to new efforts against the Turks, to which object, though Constantinople fell in the following year, he devoted the rest of his life. Ca-lixtus III. made him a cardinal, and at the death of that pontiff in August, 1458, he became pope. The main efforts of his pontificate were directed toward forming a confederacy among the Christian princes for the common defence of Christendom. The Italian states were willing to join him, but France and Germany kept aloof.
By a bull addressed to the universities of Paris and Cologne, Pius condemned his own writings in defence of the council of Basel, concluding with these memorable words: " Believe what I, an old man, now say to you, and not what I wrote when I was young; believe the pontiff rather than the private individual; reject AEneas Sylvius, and accept Pius 11." In 1464 an armament against the Turks was directed to assemble at Ancona. Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, and Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, had pledged themselves to join it. The Venetians had promised a large fleet. Pius II. set out from Rome to give the expedition his blessing, but found it utterly unprepared, only a few galleys having made their appearance. This lapse from duty on the part of the European princes and republics broke his heart. An incomplete edition of his works was published at Basel (fol., 1551 and 1571); his historical and geographical works were published at Helm-stedt in 1699 and 1707. - See Helwing, Be Pii II. Rebus Gestis (4to, Berlin, 1825), and Voigt, jffneaa Piccolomini (Berlin, 1859).
Pins IV. (Gianangelo De' Medici), born in Milan, March 31, 1499, died in Rome, Dec. 9, 1565. He was held in high favor by several popes, and employed by Paul III. and Julius III. in the most important functions. He was created cardinal in 1549, and succeeded Paul IV., Dec. 26, 1559. He immediately caused the arrest of Cardinals Alfonso and Carlo Caraffa, nephews of his predecessor, and had them tried by a commission. Carlo was found guilty and executed, March 3, 1561; Alfonso, convicted of minor misdemeanors, was released on payment of a heavy fine. Their brother Giovanni, duke of Pagliano, and several nobles, were convicted of other crimes and beheaded. These sentences were reversed under Pius V. Pius IV. reassembled the council of Trent in 1560, and confirmed its acts, Jan. 26, 1564. He bestowed new privileges on the knights of Malta, restored the military order of St. Lazarus, and founded with Cosmo de' Medici that of St. Stephen. On Nov. 13, 1564, he published the a Confession of Faith " called by his name; and on Nov. 27, in a consistorial allocution, he censured the extravagance of the cardinals, forbade their using coaches, and withdrew from their residences the right of asylum. In 1565 he defeated a conspiracy against his person.
He died hated by the Romans on account of his severity and exactions; but he enriched Rome with many religious and literary establishments.
Saint Michele Ghislieri (Pins V.), born at Bosco, near Allessandria, Jan. 17, 1504, died in Rome, May 1,1572. He became a novice in the Dominican order at 14, graduated in theology and canon law at Bologna, received priest's orders at Genoa, and taught theology at Pavia from 1527 to 1543. In the latter year he was chosen prior of the convent of Vigevano; he governed afterward the convents of Soncino and Alba, was sent to Como, Bergamo, and the Valtellina as inquisitor in 1550, to oppose the spread of the reformed doctrines, and in 1551 was called to Rome and appointed commissary general of the holy office. He was made bishop of Sutri and Nepi in 1556, cardinal in 1557, and supreme inquisitor soon afterward. During this period he is mentioned in history as Cardinal Alessandrino. In 1560 he was appointed bishop of Mondo-vi, and on Jan. 7, 1566, became pope mainly through the influence of St. Charles Borromeo. Early in that year he sent to Malta 3,000 men with a subsidy of 15,000 gold crowns, and appealed to France for more effective aid.
He displayed untiring zeal and inflexible rigor in preventing the spread of heterodox opinions, and in enforcing the canons of reformation promulgated at Trent. He condemned the opinions of Baius of Louvain in 1567; republished the bull In carta Domini in 1568; expelled the Jews from all the papal territory except Rome and Ancona in 1569; and despatched legates to every country in Europe to counteract the influence of the reformation. He enforced the rules and sentences of the inquisition throughout Italy; suppressed bull fights in Rome; compelled courtesans to leave the city; stopped the sale of indulgences; confined bishops and priests to strict residence; and allowed the cardinals to be sued for debt in the ordinary courts. The order of Umi-liati, having become utterly degenerate, was suppressed. He sent the cardinal de Santa Croce and St. Francis Borgia to the courts of Spain and France to urge the formation of a league against the Turks, succeeded in uniting for this purpose the governments of Venice and Madrid, and with their fleets and his own contingent gained the victory of Lepanto, Oct. 7,1571. He excommunicated Queen Elizabeth in 1570, and advised Philip II. to unite with the Roman Catholic party in England for her overthrow and the enthronement of Mary Stuart; and he has been charged with having commissioned an assassin to take her life. (See Ridolfi, Roberto.) Pius V., who was as severe toward himself as toward others, was beatified by Clement X., May 1, 1672, and canonized by Clement XI., May 24, 1712. His feast is celebrated on May 5.' His letters were published at Antwerp in 1640. See also Aga-tio di Somma, Vita di Pio Quinto (French translation, Paris, 1672); J. B. Feuillet, Vie du bienheureiix pape Pie V. (1674); and Falloux, Histoire de Saint Pie V. (2 vols., 1844; 3d ed., 1859).
Pins VI. (Gianangelo Braschi), born in Cesena, Dec. 27,1717, died in Valence, in Dauphiny, Aug. 29, 1799. He studied under the Jesuits at Cesena, obtained his degree of doctor of civil and canon law in 1735, became secretary of Cardinal Ruffo, governor of Ferrara, in 1739, and was ecclesiastical judge of the united dioceses of Ostia and Velletri from 1740 to 1753. Having saved the archives of the chancery of Velletri during an incursion of Austrian troops in 1744, he gained the favor of King Charles of Naples, soon afterward settled some serious difficulty between that prince and the court of Rome, and was made a canon of St. Peter's and chaplain to the pope. He occupied various important offices till he was created cardinal in 1773, and elected pope, Feb. 15, 1775. He applied himself at once to the work of reform in both church and state, but met with great opposition, especially from Leopold I., grand duke of Tuscany, with whom he had a serious dispute in 1777. In 1782 he went to Vienna to oppose the measures of Joseph II. against ecclesiastical authority in Austria, but failed of his object.
The Jan-senist synod of Pistoja, convened by Bishop Ricci in 1786, revived the disputes with Leopold; but on the accession of the grand duke to the imperial crown after the death of his brother Joseph II. (1790) a complete reconciliation was effected, both with Tuscany and Austria. Pius had effected many reforms in the financial administration of the Papal States, and published laws favorable to the progress of agriculture and home industry. He approved a plan submitted to him by Bo-lognini for draining the Pontine marshes, and, though thwarted in his designs, reclaimed upward of 12,000 acres. He also opened the Ap-pian way as far as Terracina, founded several charitable institutions, opened asylums for destitute young women, and organized a system of elementary free schools. But all his plans for the good of his people and the reform of church discipline were upset by the French revolution. The property of the church in France was confiscated, and priests who refused to subscribe to the " civil constitution of the clergy " were banished or put to death.
While condemning these violent proceedings, Pius VI. refused to join the coalition of European states against France; but the assassination in Rome, Jan. 13, 1793, of Basseville, a French emissary, ultimately led to the invasion of the papal territories by Bonaparte in 1796. By the treaty of Tolentino, Feb. 19, 1797, Pius was forced to surrender Avignon and the Venaissin, and the legations of Ferrara, Bologna, and the Ro-magna, to pay an indemnity of 31,000,000 francs, and to give up to the French some of the finest works of art in Rome. The fulfilment of these conditions brought the pope to the verge of ruin. The French stirred up revolutionary movements in Rome, and in an attempt to suppress them Gen. Duphot, an attache of the French embassy, was killed by the papal troops, Dec. 28. On Feb. 10, 1798, Gen. Berthier entered Rome without opposition, and on the 15th -declared a republic. On the 20th, having been allowed two days for preparation, the pope was escorted by a strong detachment of cavalry along the road to Florence. In the following year the French, having taken possession of Tuscany, ordered him to be removed to Grenoble, where he was kept for 25 days in close confinement.
The victories of Suvaroff alarming the directory for the security of their captive, he was then removed to Valence and imprisoned in the citadel; and the order had been given to send him to Dijon when he died. Pius VI. was graceful in person, affable, accomplished, fond of learning and the arts, and by no means ignorant how to govern well. He enlarged the Vatican museum, caused the publication of the splendid series of engravings known as the museo Pio Clementino, adorned Rome with fountains and fine buildings, and attracted to his capital a number of learned men and artists from other parts of Europe. - See Ferrari, Vita Pii VI. (Rome, 1802); Ta-vanti, Fasti del papa Pio VI. (3 vols., Rome, 1804); Artaud de Montor, Histoire de Pie VI. (Paris, 1847); and Cretineau-Joly, Vltglise romaine en face de la revolution (2 vols., Paris, 1859; 2d ed., 1863).
Pins VII. (Baenaba Luigi Chiaramonti), born in Oesena, Aug. 14, 1742, died in Rome, Aug. 20,1823. At the age of 16 he became a Benedictine, and was afterward lecturer on philosophy and theology at Parma and Rome and abbot of Sant' Anselmo. In 1782 he was appointed bishop of Tivoli by his cousin Pius VI., and in 1785 was created cardinal and archbishop of Imola. In 1796, when Imola was incorporated with the Cisalpine republic, Cardinal Chiaramonti published an address in which he declared it to be the doctrine of the gospel that all should obey established governments, and that Christianity was compatible with every form of government. His conciliatory spirit, active charity, and saintly life helped to maintain peace among his people and won him the respect of the French. On Dec. 1, 1799, the cardinals assembled in conclave at Venice, and Chiaramonti, impoverished by his many charities, travelled thither at the expense of a friend, and was elected pope, March 14,1800. In the following July he entered Rome, which had been evacuated by the French, and immediately after concluded a concordat with the first consul whereby Catholic worship was reestablished in France as the state religion.
In 1804 he went to Paris to crown Napoleon, passing several months there, and returning to Rome in May, 1805. The amicable relations thus apparently established were soon interrupted by the seizure by the French of the papal port of Ancona, and a demand from the emperor that his holiness should expel all Russians, Swedes, Sardinians, and Englishmen from his dominions. This the pope peremptorily declared he could not do. A long and acrimonious correspondence followed, the French meanwhile taking possession of Civita Vecchia and of all the ports on the Adriatic. The refusal of the pope to grant a divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and Miss Patterson, and a dispute concerning appointments to certain vacant sees in the kingdom of Italy, hastened a rupture. In February, 1808, a French force under Gen. Miollis took possession of Rome; in April the emperor declared diplomatic intercourse at aD end, and annexed the provinces of Ancona, Macerata, Fermo, and Urbino to the kingdom of Italy; and in May, 1809, the remainder of the Roman states were incorporated with the French empire, Napoleon declaring that he " deemed it proper for the security of his empire and of his people to take back the grant of Charlemagne." The pope replied by a bull of excommunication (June, 1809). At dawn on July 6 Gen. Radet forced an entrance into the Quirinal, and conveyed the pontiff, with his friend Cardinal Pacca, to Grenoble, whence he was removed in 1811 to Savona. In June, 1812, he was taken to Fontainebleau. Here he was treated alternately with great respect and great harshness, and on Jan. 25, 1813, was persuaded, chiefly by the representations of several cardinals who were permitted to visit him, to sign a new concordat which tacitly gave up to the emperor the whole ecclesiastical states, and decided in favor of the civil power the long disputed question as to the papal veto on the appointment of bishops by the temporal authority.
All the restrictions upon the freedom of his holiness were at once seemingly removed; but a little reflection showed Pius that he had been overreached, and on March 24, in a letter to the emperor, he retracted his concessions, expressing the humblest penitence for his weakness, and imploring the divine forgiveness. Napoleon took no notice of the letter, but after the disastrous campaign of Germany (1813) proposed to restore the provinces south of the Apennines if the pope would agree to a new concordat. Refusing to listen to any proposals until he had been restored to Rome, he was escorted to Italy in January, 1814; but the disturbed condition of affairs induced him to remain at Cesena until after the abdication of the emperor, when he made his entrance into Rome, May 24, in the midst of the liveliest demonstrations of popular satisfaction. For a short time during the hundred days he was again a fugitive, when his territories were invaded by Murat; but by the congress of Vienna all the states of the church, including the legations, were restored to him. The rest of his life was principally devoted to the domestic affairs of his dominions. He made great improvements in the police and courts of law, and through his minister Cardinal Con-sal vi did much toward the extirpation of banditti.
He abolished every kind of torture, modified the powers of the inquisition, and confirmed the suppression of all feudal imposts, privileges, monopolies, and jurisdictions. He made new concordats with France and other states, reestablished the society of Jesus (Aug. 7, 1814), and condemned the carbonari. He was modest, disinterested, and virtuous. - See Artaud de Montor, Histoire de la me et du pon-tificat du pape Pie VII. (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1836); Cardinal Pacca's " Historical Memoirs," translated into English by Sir George Head (2 vols, post 8vo, London, 1850); and Memoires du cardinal Oonsalvi (2 vols., Paris, T864).
Pins IX. (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Fer-Eetti), born in Sinigaglia, May 13, 1792. His father was Count Girolamo Mastai-Ferretti, gonfaloniere of Sinigaglia, and his mother was Countess Catarina Saluzzi. In 1803 he began his classical studies in the college of Volterra, suspended them in 1808 in consequence of frequent epileptic attacks, and in 1809, the malady decreasing in intensity, he received the clerical tonsure, and went to Rome to study theology. In 1810 he returned to Sinigaglia and continued his course under the direction of his maternal uncle. The French authorities in 1812 placed his name on the lists of the Italian guard which they were organizing in Milan, but his known infirmity caused him to be excused from military service. In the autumn of 1814 he attended as a layman the lectures of the Roman academy. After a short time he was encouraged to resume his clerical dress, and, the epileptic attacks recurring less frequently, he was allowed to receive minor orders. In 1818 he was chosen as companion by Monsignore (afterward Cardinal) Carlo Odescalchi, in a missionary excursion in the neighborhood of Sinigaglia. The zeal and talent he displayed in instructing the country people induced Odescalchi to recommend him to be ordained subdeacon.
Being however still subject to occasional epilepsy, he applied in person to Pius VII., obtained permission to receive priest's orders in 1819, and was appointed director of the institution for the education of poor boys called Tata Giovanni. In June, 1823, he was chosen secretary to Monsignore Muzi, apostolic delegate to Chili, where he chiefly busied himself with ministering to the Indian populations of the interior. On his return to Rome in June, 1825, he was made domestic prelate to Leo XII., and in December became superintendent of the hospital of San Michele & Ripa. He was nominated archbishop of Spoleto in 1827, and created at his own expense charitable and industrial establishments like those he had governed in Rome. In 1831 he induced a body of 4,000 insurgents to give up their arms to him, obtained their pardon from the authorities, and governed for a time the provinces of Spoleto and Perugia. In 1832 he did much to alleviate the distress which followed a severe earthquake, and was made archbishop of Imola. He was created cardinal Dec. 23, 1839, and proclaimed Dec. 14, 1840. On the death of Gregory XVI., June. 1, 1846, he was immediately designated by the representative men of the moderate national party as the fittest person to succeed him.
Strenuous efforts were made by the French ambassador, Count Rossi, to influence in his favor the opinion of the electors before they met in conclave; and on June 16, while the Austrian cardinals, known to be unfavorable to his nomination, were still on their way to Rome, he was-elected pope. One of his first acts was to consult with Count Rossi on the reforms most likely to reconcile the papal sovereignty with the claims of Italian patriotism. Immediate steps were decided upon toward a constitutional form of government, in the administration of which laymen should have a large part. Instead of nominating, as usual, a new secretary of state, he appointed a commission of six cardinals to carry on the government. On July 1 the pope submitted to them the questions of dismissing the foreign troops in his service, of granting an amnesty to all political offenders, of adopting effectual means to restore the public credit, and of reforming the entire civil and criminal codes, together with the administration and the judiciary. The majority of the council were opposed to these changes, but Pius dismissed the Swiss troops, and on July 16 granted a general amnesty.
Austria, besides being offended at the haste with which the new pope had been elected, was irritated by measures which she conceived as tending to overthrow her own rule in Italy, and imperilling the liberties and existence of the church. This feeling, shared by the court of Naples and some of the minor courts of central and northern Italy, as well as by many among the pope's advisers, was intensified by the zeal with which Pius pushed forward his innovations. He appointed commissions composed of eminent Italian jurists to inquire into needed reforms; he reduced his own household expenses, abolished all pensions not granted for great public services, imposed a three years' tax on all benefices and wealthy church corporatians, reduced the taxes, chartered railroad and telegraph companies, declared Sinigaglia and Ancona free ports of entry, stimulated home manufactures, and encouraged the formation of agricultural societies. He commanded that all the waste lands between Ostia and Porto d'Anzio should be prepared to grow rice, and that the crop should be put in and gathered at the expense of the treasury, one half of the harvest being destined for the poor; and the waters of Lake Nemi were diverted for the purpose of irrigating the rice fields.
He also authorized the opening of reading rooms and mechanics' clubs, founded a central normal school for the education of tradesmen, patronized scientific congresses, and provided free lodging houses for the homeless. He showed like zeal for the reform of ecclesiastical institutions, visited in disguise or at unexpected moments the monasteries, schools, hospitals, and prisons of Rome, and went about the streets on foot and without the usual guards and attendants. His avowed aim at this period was to realize by successive steps the Giobertian ideal of a confederated Italy; but as he declared from the beginning that he could yield no part of his prerogative as temporal sovereign if it would trammel his independent action in governing the church, he found himself involved in making promises or concessions the full extent of which he did not perceive. Possessed of fair abilities, and actuated by the best intentions, but untrained and inexperienced in public matters, he was suddenly called upon to solve the most complicated political problems, in the face of revolution and amid conflicting councils. On Aug. 8 he superseded the commission of six cardinals by appointing as secretary of state Cardinal Giz-zi, favorably known for his liberal opinions.
Meanwhile the scientific congress which met in Genoa proved to be a convention of revolutionists, who returned to their homes pledged to resist all reforms that did not favor the speedy overthrow of monarchy and ecclesias-ticism. In October Mazzini published at Paris a manifesto containing the detailed programme of the vehement and systematic agitation kept up thenceforward in all the cities of Italy, aiming at nothing short of a national constituent assembly and a united Italian republic without pope or state religion. Just then riots occurred in the Papal States in consequence of a scarce harvest, and republican risings and demonstrations on the Mazzinian plan took place. In December there was a calamitous inundation of the Tiber and great suffering in Rome, especially among the Jewish population. These misfortunes were attributed by the clubs to the oppression or improvidence of priestly rule; and Massimo d'Azeglio, representing the Piedmontese party, argued in the same way. The pope continued his reforms through 1847. On March 12 he published a law relaxing the censorship of the press and granting the right of assembling in public.
At the same time he encouraged the establishment of the Contem-poraneo, a journal in the moderate liberal interest; but with this sprang up a number of extreme and violent radical papers. Meanwhile also the noisy demonstrations in favor of the pope became more frequent and formidable. The genuine enthusiasm of the Romans, following the publication of the amnesty, was now a mighty force held in control by the revolutionists. Pius IX. was heard to say that he resembled a child who, by repeating a magic formula learned from a necromancer, had evoked an evil spirit, but, having never learned the spell to lay the fiend, could no longer be rid of him. On April 19 he officially announced that he granted a consulta or high council composed of deputies from each province, whose functions were to be simply advisory. "With the obsequies performed at Rome in May in honor of O'Connell, and the public festivities proposed to be held in June and July to commemorate the pope's election and the amnesty, came turbulent demands for administrative and political changes.
There were assassinations in the Romagna, and republican risings at Faenza and Oesena. Petitions also came pouring in for the organization of a civic guard, in consequence of the threatening attitude openly assumed toward the pope by Austria. On July 6 Pius decreed the formation of a civic guard in Rome, despite the remonstrances of Cardinal Gizzi, who resigned and flatly accused him of irresolution and weakness. On the 10th he was succeeded by Cardinal Ferretti, a man of liberal temper, very moderate ability, and no experience. A rumor suddenly arose that a conspiracy, favored by Austria, had been formed to carry off the pope and establish a reign of military repression in the Papal States. For two days and nights all Rome was filled by an armed mob, in whose presence the government was utterly paralyzed. On the 17th an Austrian force occupied Ferra-ra; and while the entire population was arming, the pontifical government protested, and was supported by France and England. The pope, deeming this emergency a fit occasion for making the first step toward a confederation of the Italian states, sent Monsignore Corboli-Bussi to the courts of Italy to propose a customs union as a preliminary to a political league.
This negotiation, favorably received in the courts of Naples and Florence, and much encouraged by Gioberti and other Piedmontese statesmen, found no favor with the king of Sardinia. It kept alive the hopes entertained by Pius IX. till the opening of the consulta, Nov. 15. His first regular ministry, composed exclusively of ecclesiastics, had been appointed in June. The consulta immediately demanded a secularized administration, the freedom of the press, the emancipation of the Jews, and the suppression of the Jesuits; and these demands were backed both by the liberal and the radical press, as well as by excited popular demonstrations. The popularity of the pope, in foreign countries at least, had suffered no decrease till then; New York in December voted him an address of grateful sympathy and encouragement. But his government was drifting, amid extreme and powerful adverse currents, toward a fatal gulf. Risings took place in the north and south of Italy toward the end of the year. Rome and the Papal States were all ablaze, and after the revolution in France in February, 1848, the ascendancy of the republican party became irresistible. No concession that the pope could possibly make would satisfy the clubs.
Cardinal Ferretti had resigned on Feb. 7, and a responsible ministry was formed, partly composed of laymen, while the consulta demanded the exclusion from office of all but laymen. On March 6 the Roman municipality waited on the pope and obtained the promise of a liberal constitution, with elective chambers vested with ordinary parliamentary powers. The 'promise scarcely allayed the excitement of the masses led by Sterbini and Galletti, for it was known that the commission appointed to draw up the constitution contained not one lay member. When it was promulgated, March 14, this charter or "fundamental statute" was seen by all acquainted with parliamentary institutions to contain irreconcilable elements. First in order of dignity was the college of cardinals, which was irresponsible and deliberated in secret consistory; next was a council of state appointed by the pope, whose province it was to frame laws and advise the sovereign on all weighty political questions. Then came the parliament proper, formed of two chambers: the upper chamber composed of members nominated for life by the sovereign, and the chamber of deputies composed of members elected on the basis of one deputy for every constituency of 30,000 souls.
In legislation the initiative belonged to the ministers, but a bill might be introduced by any deputy on the demand of ten of his colleagues. The legislative powers of the lower chamber were restricted to purely secular affairs. Ecclesiastical or mixed matters were reserved to the consistory. A few days after the promulgation of this "fundamental statute" at Rome the republic was proclaimed in Venice, and Lombardy was in full insurrection. Piedmont had declared against the Austrians, and the pope was urged by his ministers also to espouse the cause of his country and declare war. It is impossible, from the contradictory statements of the conduct of Pius IX. at this juncture, to determine exactly how far his conduct is blameworthy, if at all. Among his ministers were laymen imposed upon him by necessity, but whose counsels, especially in what concerned his relations with foreign powers or in the management of ecclesiastical affairs, he either openly rejected or secretly thwarted. He refused to declare war against Austria, but blessed his troops ere they departed for the frontier, and gave the most explicit instructions to their commander, Gen. Durando, that his action was to be purely defensive.
In spite of this the Roman minister of war, Aldobrandini, wrote to Durando, March 28, to act in concert with Charles Albert. At the same time the pope urged Monsignore Corboli-Bussi to obtain from the Piedmontese government a speedy assent to.the meeting in Rome of an Italian diet for the establishment of the customs union and a national confederation. Thereby the pope hoped to be able to act as mediator toward Austria, and to offer peace on the part of united Italy, on condition that Italy should be left free to govern herself. But while the Piedmontese cabinet were procrastinating, Aldobrandini instructed Corboli-Bussi to follow the headquarters of Charles Albert and negotiate a loan for defraying the expenses of the Roman contingent as a condition toward their joining his forces. At the same time permission was given to the king of Naples to march an army through the Papal States on their way to join the Lombards and Piedmontese. It is certain that in the north of Italy, in Austria, and elsewhere, these acts of the pontifical government were considered as acts of belligerency.
At this juncture Count Rossi, residing in Rome in a private capacity, wrote: "The national sentiment and its ardor for war are a sword, a weapon, a mighty force; either Pius IX. must take it resolutely in hand, or the factions hostile to him will seize it, and turn it against him and against the papacy." Just then, too, the moderate editors of the Contemporaneo joined Gen. Durando's camp, and this journal fell into the hands of Sterbini, and became thenceforward a potent engine of the revolution. Volunteers had increased the number of the papal troops to 25,000 before the end of March. On April 25 the ministers united in beseeching the pope to speak his will about the war, affirming that to declare against it "would most seriously compromise the temporal dominion of the holy see." On April 29 the declaration was made in consistory, and was decidedly opposed to war on Austria. The ministry resigned, and the city was once more filled with arms and tumult, the civic guard siding with the mob. It was suggested to the pope, whom no threat could terrify into yielding to the popular clamor, that he should himself go to Milan, and mediate a peace founded on the liberation of Italy. He consented; but the Austrian envoy scouted the idea, and it was abandoned.
Pius was now virtually a prisoner in the Quirinal, while the dwellings of the cardinals were guarded by sentries. The press and the clubs began to discuss the necessity of an immediate alliance with the Piedmontese, and the urgency of abolishing the papal rule. The allocution of April 29 had a powerful effect both in demoralizing the pope's troops and in stirring up against him the worst passions. The king of Naples seized it as a pretext to recall his army and navy. In Austria the allocution was derided as a new act of weakness; and when the pope early in May addressed a letter to the emperor of Austria beseeching him to withdraw from Italy, the letter was left unheeded at Vienna and laughed at in Rome. The pope was forced to accept a ministry in which Mamiani was premier and secretary of state for secular foreign affairs, Galletti being minister of police. Farini, who replaced Corboli-Bussi at the Piedmontese headquarters, completed the treaty conferring on the king the command of the papal troops beyond the Po. The dissension which existed between the pope and the Mamiani ministry broke out on June 4, on the opening of the new parliament.
Gioberti was then vainly but earnestly laboring to secure a union of all the states of upper Italy under Charles Albert, and to promote harmony between liberals and radicals, for the purpose of inspiring both with confidence in Pius IX. On June 11 the troops of Durando surrendered Vicenza to an Austrian army of four times their number, after 36 hours of heroic fighting; and the next day the Austrian government declared to the British ambassador its resolution to conclude an armistice on the basis of the independence of the Milanese. At the first rumors of peace the Maz-zinians in Rome and elsewhere raised the cry: "War for all! liberty for all, or for none!" The news of Durando's capitulation created a perfect frenzy, but the pope still maintained his pacific attitude. The ministry resigned, and Count Rossi was invited to form another, but declined. On July 16 the populace assembled at Mamiani's dwelling and gave him an ovation, amid frantic cries of "Down with the priests." On the 17th came the intelligence that an Austrian corps had again violated the papal territory at Ferrara. The pope immediately sent a note to the European courts protesting against the act.
On the 19th a petition was presented to both chambers demanding the instant arming of the people; and without waiting for an answer, the multitude, joined by the civic guard, rushed for arms to the castle of Sant' Angelo. The chamber of deputies waited upon the pope on Aug. 1 with an address containing all the demands of the mob. On the 3d the Austrians, having vanquished Charles Albert at Custozza, reentered the legations, but were driven out of Bologna by the armed citizens. The pope sent the authorities the order to "do all that is requisite to save the country and keep inviolate its sacred borders." Every effort of the pontiff to form a regular government failed till Sept. 16, when a new ministry was announced under the leadership of Eossi. At Bologna and in the provinces the name of the new premier was nailed with favor; but in Eome nothing could reconcile the clubs to a representative of constitutional monarchy and the advocate of a confederated Italy. Nevertheless, trusting to his own conscientious determination to promote rational-liberty and all true progress, Eossi, who enjoyed the pope's entire confidence, set about establishing telegraph lines and railroads.
He also encouraged Gioberti to make one final effort for the realization of a confederated Italy, and Antonio Rosmini was sent from Turin to Rome for this purpose. This negotiation, though broken up by the Piedmontese cabinet, caused the death of Rossi. The Roman parliament was to be reopened on Nov. 15; but the day before an assassin was chosen in the clubs to deal him his deathblow at the very door of the assembly room. On the 14th also Sterbini wrote in the Gontempo-raneo: " Rossi is commissioned to make the experiment in Rome of the Metternichs and the Guizots. . . . Amid the laughter and contempt of the people he will fall." On the 15th Eossi was assassinated at the door of the council chamber; the next day the populace, the civic guard, the gendarmerie, the troops of the line, and the Roman legion besieged the Quirinal and forced the pope, whose secretary Monsignore Palma was shot down by his side, to accept a radical ministry; and on the 24th, having meanwhile remained a prisoner in his own palace, with no control over the civil administration and little or none over ecclesiastical affairs, he escaped, disguised as a simple priest, in the carriage of the Bavarian minister, Count Spaur, to Gaeta. Here he was received with great honor.
King Ferdinand and his queen immediately sailed from Naples to meet him, and persuaded him to abandon his original purpose of accepting the hospitality of Spain. Declarations of attachment and sympathy, and presents of money, were poured upon him from all quarters of the world. He immediately issued a protest against the acts of the revolutionary government, and in February, 1849, called upon the Catholic powers, particularly France, Spain, Austria, and Naples, for armed assistance. On Feb. 19 the Roman constituent assembly declared the inauguration of a republic and the deposition of the pope from his temporal authority. On April 25 a French force landed at Civita Yecchia and marched upon Rome, while the Austrians invaded the northern and the Spaniards the southern provinces. Rome capitulated July 1, and the government was intrusted to a papal commission, a consulate of state, a consulta for finances, and provincial councils. The pope reentered Rome April 12, 1850. He declared a partial amnesty, but his progressive tendencies had been thoroughly checked, and the reactionary policy of Cardinal Antonelli, his secretary for foreign affairs, became dominant in his council.
On Sept. 24 he published a brief restoring the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England, which provoked a violent outburst of popular feeling, and led to an act of parliament forbidding the Catholic bishops to assume their titles. In 1854 he invited the bishops from all parts of Christendom to meet at Rome, and with their consent formally defined the doctrine of the immaculate conception to be a dogma of the Catholic faith. The ceremony took place in St. Peter's, Dec. 8. Other important acts of his pontificate have been the conclusion of concordats with Spain (1851), Baden (1854), and Austria (1855), all of which have since been revoked or annulled, and the foundation at Rome of English and American colleges for students of theology. The pope's cherished project of an Italian confederation was revived in 1859 by the emperor Napoleon III., but Pius IX. refused to entertain it, unless the rights of the exiled Italian princes were acknowledged. In the mean time a revolution had commenced in the papal territories (see Papal States), and on July 12 and Dec. 7, 1859, Pius addressed notes to the diplomatic body, complaining of the part taken by Sardinia in these movements, and asking the assistance of foreign powers in behalf of his temporal authority.
On Oct. 9 the Sardinian charge d'affaires at Rome received his passport. On Dec. 2 the pope addressed a letter to Napoleon refusing to take part in the proposed European congress unless the emperor recognized the integrity of the Papal States as defined by the treaties of 1815. Napoleon replied by advising the surrender of the Romagna as the only possible solution of the Italian question, and the pope published, Jan. 19, 1860, an encyclical letter explaining his reasons for rejecting the emperor's advice. This was followed on March 26 by a bull of excommunication against all persons concerned in the invasion and dismemberment of his dominions, which was published with the usual formalities on the 29th. The events which have gradually deprived Pius IX. of all his territory are mentioned in the articles Italy and Papal States. - Among the ecclesiastical acts and events which distinguish the reign of Pius IX., besides those already mentioned, are, in chronological order: his reform of the great religious bodies, begun by the encyclical letter of June 17, 1847, carried on by the appointment of a commission to inquire into laxity of discipline in religious communities, and consummated by modifying the constitutions of several, so as to make the period of probation more protracted and to raise among all the standard of discipline and intellectual training; the publication, Dec. 8, 1864, of the encyclical Quanta cur a, and the accompanying syllabus or catalogue of propositions condemned by him at various times (see Syllabus); the celebration in 1869-70 of the first session of the council of the Vatican (see Infallibility, and Vatican, Council of); the creation in the United States of a vast Roman Catholic hierarchy, crowned in March, 1875, by elevating to the cardinalate the archbishop of New York; the conflict with the Russian government after 1863 in defence of the Polish Catholics, and those which took place with the German empire and the republic of Switzerland after the council of the Vatican. Pius IX. has bestowed the honors of canonization on more persons than any of his predecessors.
In June, 1871, he completed the 25th year of his pontificate, and, by having reigned longer than any of his predecessors, contradicts the traditional words uttered at his coronation, Non mdebis annos Petri, "Thoushalt not seethe years of Peter," while by the loss of his temporal power verifying the words uttered on the same occasion as a piece of flax is burned before the enthroned pontiff, Sic transit gloria mundi, "Thus passeth the glory of the world." - See Baileydier, Histoire de la revolution de Rome (2 vols., Lyons, 1851); J. F. Maguire, " Rome, its Ruler and its Institutions" (London, 1859); Saint-Albin, Pie IX. (Paris, 1860); Legge, " Growth of the Temporal Power of the Papacy " (London, 1870), and "Pius IX., the Story of his Life" (2 vols., 1875).