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Massage, Its Principles And Practice | by James B. Mennell



The value of massage as an aid to the orthopaedic treatment of our wounded is now too well established to require defence. It cannot, however, be denied that many of the ideas prevalent as to the methods of its use are often very vague, and surgeons who have made a close enough study of the subject to give definite directions to the masseuse are still fewer than they should be. In these pages we have an exposition of his own observations and practice by a physician, an acknowledged master, whose enthusiasm for his subject is tempered by a wide clinical experience of success and of failure

TitleMassage. Its Principles And Practice
AuthorJames B. Mennell
PublisherP. Blakiston's Son & Co
Year1920
Copyright1920, James B. Mennell
AmazonMassage; It's Principles and Practice

Massage Its Principles And Practice

By James B. Mennell

M.A., M.D.. B.C. (Cantab.), Etc. Medical Officer, Physico-Therapeutic Department, St. Thomas' Hospital; Medical Officer in Charge of the Massage Department, Special Surgical Hospital, Shepherd's Bush.

Author of "The Treatment of Fractures by Mobilisation and Massage."

With An Introduction By Sir Robert Jones, K.B.E., C.B., F.R.C.S., Maj.-Gen. A.M.S., Inspector of Special Military Surgery.

Second Edition.

With 167 Illustrations and two Appendices.

Philadelphia P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1012 Walnut Street 1920

Printed in Great Britain.

-Preface To The Second Edition
The kind reception of the first edition to this work has obliged me to decide whether to be content with a reprint, or whether rather to undertake a complete revision. It was with reluctance that I ch...
-Introduction To The First Edition
By Sir Robert Jones, K.B.E., C.B., Maj.-Gen. A.M.S. Director of Special Military Surgery. The value of massage as an aid to the orthopaedic treatment of our wounded is now too well established to r...
-Chapter I. A Personal Note
I have said in my preface that many of the views expressed in these pages will be unorthodox, and my first attempt is to place on record the reasons for the faith that is in me. This record is based...
-Chapter II. General Principles Of Massage Treatment. I. The Reflex Effect of Massage
To use massage aright we must consider it entirely as a means to an end, the end being restoration of function. Every movement performed should have this end in view; and the masseur should be able to...
-The Reflex Effect of Massage. Continued
A medical man practising massage in the United States wrote to tell me that he even made use of the reflex action of massage as a means of confirming diagnosis. Thus, if a patient were the subject of ...
-Chapter III. General Principles Of Massage Treatment (Continued). 2. The Mechanical Action of Massage
To obtain a mechanical action, a heavier pressure is called for than that which we use if pure reflex action is desired. It would seem that there are four possible ways in which our massage movements ...
-(i.) The Mechanical Effect of Massage on the Circulation
There are only two ways in which massage can produce a mechanical effect on the circulation. It may assist the venous return, or it may so act on the walls of the arterioles as to maintain or restore ...
-(ii.) The Effect of Massage on the Lymphatics
All that has been said of massage as an agent to assist the vascular system applies no less strongly when we consider its application for the benefit of the lymphatic circulation. Any toning up of the...
-(iii.) Mechanical Effect of Massage in Stretching Tissue
Putting aside for the moment the question of mechanical obstruction, there are two kinds of tissue, the result of pathological processes, which impede the restoration of function. These are white fibr...
-(iv.) The Mechanical Effect of Massage on the Abdominal Viscera
The reflex effect of correct massage in stimulating the activity of unstriped muscle has already been considered, but it is also possible to secure a definite mechanical effect in the treatment of the...
-Chapter IV. The Movements Of Massage. I. Stroking Movements
Despite the nomenclature that has been applied to the various movements of massage - effrayante Lucas-Champion-niere calls it - there are only three main varieties. These are:- Stroking Movements. Co...
-(A) Superficial Stroking Massage
Though it is possible to trace a reflex response to most of the movements of massage, this is the only movement which aims at securing no other effect. The essentials to remember in using this treatm...
-(B) Deep Stroking Massage
This is usually referred to as effleurage. Unfortunately some writers regard effleurage as essentially a superficial movement. If the movement is performed over muscles which are held contracted, doub...
-Chapter V. The Movements Of Massage. 2. - Compression Movements
This is used if we wish to exert local pressure at any definite point, and is usually applied to a series of points. The movements fall under three heads: - (a) Kneading. (b) Friction. (c) Petrissa...
-(B) Friction
In using friction the object in view is to press deeply on the part under treatment and then to move the hand in a more or less circular direction. Any part of the hand may be used, but that generally...
-(C) Petrissage
Petrissage and kneading are so similar in effect that distinction between the two is uncalled for. The term is usually applied to a movement that consists of picking up, as it were, the tissues and ...
-Chapter VI. The Movements Of Massage. 3. - Percussion Movements
Percussion consists of administering a series of blows to the part under treatment, the two hands working alternately. It is commonly known as tapotement. The movements usually described are: - ...
-(A) Hacking
This may be performed with the ulnar border of the little finger, either alone or supplemented in turn by the other fingers - the result being a series of soft blows, the first from the little finger ...
-(B) Clapping
The hands are held so that the fingers and palm form a concave arch, and in this position they are brought sharply into contact with the body. The result is a rather deep-toned clapping sound. Applied...
-(C) Beating
This is the most vigorous form of percussion massage. The fist is half closed, and either the ulnar or the palmar surface is used for beating the surface of the body. If no force is put into the movem...
-(C) Beating. Part 2
Percussion should be prohibited over any muscle that is abnormally contracted, over any sensitive area, over any paralysed muscle until its contractility has been restored, or in neurasthenia during a...
-(C) Beating. Part 3
Passing to fatigue of the sensory nerves, we find that a moment of over-stimulation of the second cranial nerve - say by glancing at the sun - is adequate to produce prolonged fatigue. If the stimulus...
-(C) Beating. Part 4
The second source of disappointment in the effect observed after massage treatment is to be found in misuse rather than in abuse; and, as a general rule, this is to be observed when massage has been c...
-Chapter VII. Mobilisation As A Sequel To Massage. I. Relaxed Movement (Passive Movement)
As stated in an earlier chapter, massage is merely a means to an end - the end being restoration of function. There are a few cases in which massage treatment alone suffices to attain it, and as a rul...
-I. Passive Movement
Many masseurs seem to think that when passive movement is ordered it is their duty to move the part through the widest range that anatomical considerations will allow. Nothing could be a greater delus...
-I. Passive Movement. Part 2
Fig. 23. - To show how the forearm should be carried across the front of the chest (as if it were resting on an adjustable sling) when changing from supination to pronation. Flexion of the forearm is...
-I. Passive Movement. Part 3
Fig. 30. - To show flexion of the toes with dorsi-flexion of the ankle. Note the knee is bent. Fig. 31. - To show extension of the toes with relative plantar flexion of the ankle. Note the knee i...
-I. Passive Movement. Part 4
In dealing with the toes the same routine should be followed; but here we find that, as a rule, it is the interphalangeal joints which the patient fails to exercise for himself and which tend to get f...
-I. Passive Movement. Part 5
1. Joints are kept supple. 2. The formation of pathological bands and adhesions is prevented. 3. Repair of all normal structures, even of bone, is hastened. Any attempt at movement which is inimica...
-Chapter VIII. Mobilisation As A Sequel To Massage. 2. Active Movement
There is one manoeuvre which can often find a place in our treatment, but which cannot be classed under the heading of movement. It consists of teaching the patient to contract certain muscles, or g...
-Mobilisation with Active Movement. Part 2
Fig. 46. - To show a simple method of reducing the action of gravity on the upper extremity while performing abduction. The hand should be supported by a sling round the neck, omitted in the photogr...
-Mobilisation with Active Movement. Part 3
The object in administering a dose of assistive movement is to enable the patient to accomplish more than he could do unassisted. Thus it may serve its purpose in either of two ways: first, by enablin...
-Mobilisation with Active Movement. Part 4
If the impediment to movement is due to causes other than pure muscular disability the administration of movement becomes a more difficult process, owing to the fact that, almost inevitably, the muscl...
-Mobilisation with Active Movement. Part 5
The conclusion, then, is obvious, and is drawn, not from this case alone, but from many similar experiences. When a movement is impeded by adaptive shortening and attempted increase in movement is pai...
-Chapter IX. The Use Of Apparatus For Exercise
As we have already seen, almost every form of exercise may be classed, more or less, as an assistive or resistive exercise, and the description of mobilisation as a sequel to massage is, therefore, no...
-The Use Of Apparatus For Exercise. Part 2
Few of those who are interested in massage work will fail to know the fame of Wharton Hood. His reputation for being able to restore function to limbs which seemed doomed to permanent weakness was ver...
-The Use Of Apparatus For Exercise. Part 3
Fig. 59. - The converse of Fig. 58. Here the muscle is doing a considerable amount of work. In performing all exercises care should be taken that the patient stands strictly to attention throug...
-The Use Of Apparatus For Exercise. Part 4
But to restore function volitional effort on the part of the patient is the one and only final curative agent, and herein lies the chief disadvantage of all Zander apparatus. It is liable to convey to...
-Chapter X. General Rules For Medical Gymnasts
The masseur is born, not made. As the pocket-knife is unsuitable for surgery, so some hands are unsuitable for massage, and no training or teaching can make them otherwise. Given the hands, the traini...
-Chapter XI. The Treatment Of Recent Injury By Mobilisation And Massage
Just Lucas-Championniere was, during his lifetime, the most eminent champion of the use of massage in the treatment of recent injury, and his work and writings have left behind him an impression which...
-Recent Injury Treatment By Mobilisation And Massage. Part 2
Various explanations have been advanced as to the pathology of oedema after injury in the absence of sepsis. Local effusion may add to the general swelling: it does not cause it. The venous return is ...
-Recent Injury Treatment By Mobilisation And Massage. Part 3
In no circumstances must extension of the wrist exceed the position in which the hand is normally held, say in the action of writing, as, if it is increased beyond this, there may be danger of tilting...
-Recent Injury Treatment By Mobilisation And Massage. Part 4
During this second week, and perhaps even earlier, exercises on the roller and rotator are commenced, at first with no resistance, then with a daily increase of range in the elevation of gradually inc...
-Chapter XII. Fractures of the Upper Extremity Treatment
Having now considered in detail the treatment of a concrete example of recent injury, and having examined into the rationale of the treatment, it only remains to amplify it in its application to other...
-Fractures of the Upper Extremity Treatment. Part 2
Fracture of the outer or of the inner third rarely leads to deformity, and treatment can therefore be advanced more rapidly. It is often possible to allow full underhand use from the outset. It is a...
-Fractures of the Upper Extremity Treatment. Part 3
The great danger of fractures round the elbow-joint, with the exception of olecranon fractures, is the subsequent formation of an excess of callus. In children this particularly applies, and all these...
-Fractures of the Upper Extremity Treatment. Part 4
It is plain, then, that the task of the masseur when asked to treat a fracture near the elbow-joint is one of great difficulty. The main laws are go slow and never multiply movements till the end of...
-Fractures of the Upper Extremity Treatment. Part 5
Fractures of one bone of the forearm present, as a rule, little difficulty. Union of the lower end of the radius or of the upper third of the ulna is usually firm enough to allow great freedom of rela...
-Chapter XIII. Fractures of the Lower Extremity. Fractures Of The Neck Of The Femur
When speaking of elderly patients who have sustained an impacted fracture of the neck of the femur, Lucas-Championniere was always emphatic that more people die as the result of treatment by immobilis...
-Fractures Of The Neck Of The Femur. Part 2
If there is no impaction, splintage with extension is required. Treatment by mobilisation and massage may still be carried out with benefit, provided that the extension is applied on any system other ...
-Fractures Of The Neck Of The Femur. Part 3
The same remarks apply to all fractures of the femur below the neck. Any movement is prescribed by the surgeon, though it were well if, in recent fractures, he would always try the effect of mobilisat...
-Fractures Of The Neck Of The Femur. Part 4
If the fragments are freely mobile splintage is arranged on somewhat different lines. The patient is anaesthetised, and the gutter splint is moulded as before, and is then fixed in situ by a circular ...
-Chapter XIV. Sprains and Dislocations Treatment
A dislocation, once it has been reduced, is only a severe form of sprain. The historical treatment of these injuries is prolonged rest with absolute fixation. This treatment ignores two facts. First, ...
-Sprains and Dislocations Treatment. Part 2
If the patient is seen within a few hours after dislocation of the shoulder, to attempt to secure reduction under the influence of massage is the correct course to adopt. If it succeeds, there is less...
-Sprains and Dislocations Treatment. Part 3
Dislocation of the wrist or of any individual bone of the carpus is always a severe injury. If the wrist has suffered, all that has been said on the subject of fracture through the lowest inch of the ...
-Sprains and Dislocations Treatment. Part 4
2. Tenderness indicates injury to anterior portion of the internal semilunar cartilage. 3. Usual point of tenderness after strain of the internal lateral ligament. Lig. indicates the position of the ...
-Chapter XV. Torn Muscles; Bruises; Post-operation Treatment
The treatment of torn muscles by mobilisation and massage resembles very largely that applicable to torn ligaments. The position of these accidents is usually at or near the bony origin or attachment ...
-Torn Muscles; Bruises; Post-operation Treatment. Continued
Perhaps the most troublesome form of muscle injury is that which befalls the erector spinae or one of the small muscles in the back. The trouble is not that the injury is necessarily severe; but becau...
-Chapter XVI. The Treatment Of The After-Effects Of Injury
When some little time has passed since the receipt of injury the condition depends entirely on the previous treatment. The points that will now require attention are circulatory troubles, scars, stiff...
-The Treatment Of The After-Effects Of Injury. Part 2
A recently healed scar must, as was stated in the previous chapter, be treated with respect. For three weeks no movement may be performed which tends to separate the healing surfaces, and then only if...
-The Treatment Of The After-Effects Of Injury. Part 3
Sir Robert Jones has devised a scheme for encouraging what he calls gymnastics of the arterioles, which consists of contrast bathing, the limb being plunged alternately into hot and cold baths. It i...
-The Treatment Of The After-Effects Of Injury. Part 4
If a joint is stiff, massage may be used as an agent in restoring mobility. The limb is supported in a position which corresponds to that adopted during the administration of relaxed movement, but wit...
-The Treatment Of The After-Effects Of Injury. Part 5
The treatment of adhesions has already been dealt with under different headings. Here all that is necessary is shortly to recapitulate. Adhesions are composed of connective tissue, either the white fi...
-Chapter XVII. Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting"
Although the manipulation of joints under anaesthesia does not in any sense come under the heading of massage, yet I have been tempted to include the present chapter here. It is an article which I w...
-Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting". Part 2
The answer to the second criticism is that it is better to break down any second adhesion under a second anaesthetic and inflict no further injury, than to break down both at once and inflict an injur...
-Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting". Part 3
The patient is allowed to come round and, as soon as possible, is called upon voluntarily to perform the movement which has hitherto been limited. If the movement is performed more freely or with less...
-Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting". Part 4
1 The range of movement possible in every direction at the shoulder-joint varies greatly. It is most important, therefore, to compare the mobility of the two shoulders before the manipulation. 2 It i...
-Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting". Part 5
The manipulation of the hip should always begin with rotation. This is performed with the limb lying in full extension on the couch. The knee and hip are then flexed simultaneously until the sole of t...
-Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting". Part 6
Little need be added on the subject of breaking down adhesions that are due to trauma of muscles or of tendon sheaths. The chief thing to remember is that no harm is done by doing too little; severe i...
-Forced Movement - "Bone-Setting". Part 7
The laws which govern the direction in which manipulation is to be given are, of course, identical in the two cases. Only one word is necessary. When applying tension the greatest care should be taken...
-Chapter XVIII. The Re-Education Of Muscle
Ordinary physical fitness in a muscle is maintained by numerous small contractions and not by violent effort. The latter, if scientifically utilised, can further develop a particular muscle, and can a...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Continued
By this time the contraction will be productive of movement, and the limb can now be held in various positions during the counting, and then the way is open for the prescription of a more advanced for...
-Chapter XIX. The Re-Education Of Muscle
In the previous chapter a general account has been given of the nature of re-education of muscle and also a rough sketch of the course to be adopted when undertaking it. Much still remains to be said,...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 2
The fourth principle is to graduate activity so that, when one feat has been successfully accomplished, a second shall be devised which, in its performance, will entail an almost imperceptible, but no...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 3
1 When fixing the wrist in dorsi-flexion to assist flexion of the fingers, the dorsi-flexors of the wrist are regarded by Wood-Jones as fixation muscles. The seventh principle that we have to recog...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 4
When we come to consider the muscle training of each particular muscle or muscle group, much space will be saved if we realise at once that the training of one muscle is merely the reverse of the proc...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 5
The brachialis anticus and triceps should be considered as pure flexor and extensor of the elbow respectively, though the supinator longus acts powerfully as a synergist flexor when the elbow is sligh...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 6
The extensors communis, indicis and minimi digiti are trained while the inter-phalangeal joints are kept flexed; the interossei are trained as extensors while the metacarpophalangeal joints are kept f...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 7
The adductors and abductors of the hip also rarely require individual muscle training, though they frequently call for strengthening by exercises. The first step in muscle training, namely, teaching w...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 8
The rest position for the quadriceps is secured by keeping the leg in full extension; that for the flexors by placing the knee in flexion at a right angle or less. For the sake of brevity, training o...
-The Re-Education Of Muscle. Part 9
In the treatment of all cases of weakened muscle or of paralysis the final restoration is not in our hands. It rests with the patient whether recovery is as complete or as rapid as the nature of his i...
-Chapter XX. Re-Education In Walking
Re-education in walking is a special art which calls for the exercise of great skill, but the reward is directly proportionate to the amount displayed. Muscle re-education should begin before any joi...
-Re-Education In Walking. Part 2
Two exercises can then be added. The patient stands on the sound leg between two chairs placed back to back and swings the injured leg to and fro. At first this will be done with a stiff knee and ankl...
-Re-Education In Walking. Part 3
By this time more particular attention can be given to the strengthening of special groups of muscles by use of the weight and pulley. The most important exercise, and perhaps the most frequently over...
-Re-Education In Walking. Part 4
All the ordinary leg and foot exercises may now be undertaken, but a word is necessary as to their performance. The patient stands with the weight of the body on the outer borders of his feet; the in...
-Re-Education In Walking. Part 5
Thus is performed the re-education in walking. Once allow a patient to limp for any length of time, and he may acquire a life-long habit, which may, in turn, lead to grave disability out of all propor...
-Chapter XXI. Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia
It has been said that only those who have been victims of neurasthenia are competent to treat it. However valuable may be the experience, it cannot be regarded as essential, though only those who are ...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 2
When the attack is established there are three main features - fatigue, depression, and irritability. The fatigue of the neurasthenic is genuine; there is a real muscular asthenia due to deficient in...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 3
An acute case of short duration dating from a serious crisis (such as an operation or accident), which is now over, will get well quickly; a chronic case of long standing, with, it may be, the main ca...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 4
1 Stroking is the only movement in which perfection of rhythm can be attained. So far I have spoken with the confidence bred of experience. When the question is raised as to the manner in which the ...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 5
If the patient can remain prone for a sufficient length of time, it is well to perform the massage of the legs on their posterior surfaces. A pillow must be placed under the ankles so that the feet ma...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 6
The treatment may be given sitting up or lying down. In either case the stroking should extend from the level of the hair to the point where the treatment of the back ceased, and should resemble it in...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 7
The total seance may last up to seventy-five minutes. This is comparatively rare, and so long a time should never be devoted to treatment in the early stages. At first twenty minutes should often suff...
-Massage Treatment In Neurasthenia. Part 8
One method of dealing with hysterical spasm is worthy of notice. It, too, is an intensive treatment, and consists simply and solely of tiring out the contracted muscles. The contracture is gradually o...
-Chapter XXII. The Treatment Of Functional Disorders And Of Other Conditions Of Uncertain Origin
It is beyond doubt that neurasthenic symptoms may develop as a local condition. Treatment must then be carried out on the lines laid down in the previous chapter. But many cases exhibiting similar sym...
-Treatment Of Functional Disorders And Other Conditions. Part 2
Almost every conceivable variety of treatment has been advocated for this condition. It is impossible to compare results, as, apparently, whatever the treatment adopted, in some cases it will succeed ...
-Treatment Of Functional Disorders And Conditions. Part 3
A common type of irritative spasm is provided by the patient who develops a spasmodic torticollis as the result of pediculi in the hair. The spasm is of a clonic type, and is much more amenable to tre...
-Chapter XXIII. The Treatment Of Diseases Of The Central Nervous System
Hemiplegia is one of the most disheartening conditions that the masseur is called upon to treat. There is, however, this much of comfort for us, that, without our aid, the patient's condition would pa...
-The Treatment Of Diseases Of The Central Nervous System. Part 2
It should be borne in mind that the fact that a muscle is in a condition of flaccid paralysis may be an indication of deficiency (not of course complete) in the nerve supply to the unstriped muscle of...
-Treatment Of Diseases Of The Central Nervous System. Part 3
Nothing need be added to what has been said as to the technique employed in treating flaccid paralysis, save to emphasise once more that no paralysed muscle should be allowed to stretch. From the ver...
-Treatment Of Diseases Of The Central Nervous System. Part 4
Indeed, massage can help the patient, even though it cannot cure, or even check, the progress of the disease. The general vitality is low, digestion often impaired, the bowels often act with difficult...
-Chapter XXIV. The Treatment Of Neuralgia And Neuritis
It is seldom that neuralgia occurs as a separate entity; it is usually a symptom of some co-existent malady. General debility is the most common, and, owing perhaps to their devitalising powers, cold ...
-The Treatment Of Neuralgia And Neuritis. Part 2
Bell's palsy furnishes the most frequent example of neuritis due to cold. The paralysis is sudden and complete, and the wasting of the facial muscles is very rapid. Massage treatment is usually postpo...
-The Treatment Of Neuralgia And Neuritis. Part 3
Little or nothing can be done by massage to relieve neuritis due to organic disease, such as malignant tumours, aneurism, or caries. When paralysis follows pressure on the cord due to caries, massage ...
-The Treatment Of Neuralgia And Neuritis. Part 4
In cases of long standing nothing can compare with massage as a remedial agent. After operation, or sudden stretching, adhesions will almost inevitably re-form, whereas slow, gradual stretching by man...
-Chapter XXV. Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis"
In September, 1919, I had the good fortune to visit, by invitation, the United States of America. Unfortunately, I was only able to spend slightly less than two months in the country. During this time...
-Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis". Part 2
1 It is interesting to note that, in osteopathy, a subluxation is defined as an immobilization of a joint in a position of normal motion, usually at the extremity of a given movement. (See Osteopa...
-Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis". Part 3
Passing on to the consideration of the therapeutic measures employed for the relief of symptoms, it would not seem improbable that these tend to confirm the view here suggested tentatively. The relief...
-Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis". Part 4
Far otherwise, however, are the references I have heard to the manipulations of certain cheiropractors. Torture is by no means an uncommon expression to hear used. I never actually saw cheiropraxis ...
-Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis". Part 5
Trouble arises sometimes in cases when X-ray examination reveals that one side of the last lumbar vertebra has become fused to the sacrum. Support would then be indicated in preference to manipulation...
-Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis". Part 6
But, equally, neither is it possible to ignore the effect of posture. Dr. Joel E. Goldthwait has expended endless trouble in his attempt to prove to his professional brethren the value of insisting on...
-Sacroiliac "Strain" And "Sub-Deltoid Bursitis". Part 7
This appears to me to be certain. There are three definite conditions all grouped together under this name. There is partial rupture of the tendon of the supraspinatus, there is injury (probably parti...
-Chapter XXVI. The Treatment Of Constitutional Disorders
The symptoms which massage treatment is called upon to relieve, when dealing with general constitutional disorders, are those arising from toxicity, whether this be due to sepsis, rheumatism, or to th...
-The Treatment Of Constitutional Disorders. Part 2
I would lay stress on the importance of massage being properly applied. The ordinary so-called massage does not, as a rule, have the slightest effect on these deposits. Quite a large number of our pa...
-The Treatment Of Constitutional Disorders. Part 3
The toxic (or gouty) form, in which the vital functions have not suffered, may be remedied by massage, and the main objective in treatment should be to assist the vascular system, particular attention...
-The Treatment Of Constitutional Disorders. Part 4
At the present time osteo-arthritis is usually an incurable disease. The cause is unknown, but doubtless it owes its origin to chronic poisoning. This may be from some local focus, such as pyorrhoea a...
-The Treatment Of Constitutional Disorders. Part 5
It is almost impossible that manipulations should be painless, but the pain should be limited to what many patients refer to as a pleasant ache or a nice pain. Should severe pain be caused inadver...
-The Treatment Of Constitutional Disorders. Part 6
When applying massage to cases of rickets the treatment should be general. Even if there is no apparent deformity of the limbs, these call for treatment so as to ensure their fullest possible nutritio...
-Chapter XXVII. Massage Treatment For Disorders Of The Digestive System
Many patients are told to massage their gums; few are instructed how to do it. The suggestion is usually made when pyorrhoea alveolaris is either present or suspected. There is a dual objective, namel...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 2
1 To most of my readers I hope that these remarks will appear to be unnecessary. Unfortunately this is not invariably so. I have cause to remember a medical man expressing to me his distrust of masseu...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 3
Throughout treatment, whether aiming for reflex or mechanical effect, the patient should be in a position to allow the fluid contents of the stomach to impinge upon the pylorus whenever this happens t...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 4
It is not unusual to teach that general kneading and vibration over the small intestine stimulates glandular secretion. I was always sceptical as to the truth of this assertion, and I was delighted to...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 5
Now that the value of massage as a remedial agent is becoming more widely recognised, it is possible that some day English surgeons may be induced, far more generally than at present, to enlist its se...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 6
All too infrequently the aid of massage is invoked for the treatment of constipation, as it affords one of the few chances of curing this very distressing complaint. As a rule constipation is an acqui...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 7
Treatment must be administered only after due consideration of the cause. We find that there are four main groups of cases, and treatment must be designed to suit the special needs of each group. The ...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 8
In children colon stroking is usually all-sufficient if the dietary is correct. Sacral beating and gluteal hacking should be absolutely prohibited, especially in boys. When poisoning is the cause of ...
-Massage Treatment For Digestive System Disorders. Part 9
It is possible that we may be able to influence the liver, in some way unknown, by reflex as a result of surface stimulation, just as we can excite the stomach to activity. But, putting this possibili...
-Chapter XXVIII. Massage In Obstetrics And Gynaecology
If massage is of value as a remedial agent after abdominal operations, it is not less so in obstetrical work. Anything more grotesque than the treatment many women receive after childbirth is difficul...
-Massage In Obstetrics And Gynaecology. Part 2
Towards the end of pregnancy some patients suffer from a varying amount of discomfort, due to tension of the skin of the abdomen. Occasionally the irritation is intense. Complete relief can be afforde...
-Massage In Obstetrics And Gynaecology. Part 3
On the third day short, gentle massage may be administered to all four limbs. It should be sedative. No fear of causing any complication need enter our minds, as, unless the course of the puerperium a...
-Massage In Obstetrics And Gynaecology. Part 4
Many of the operations of gynaecology are performed for the removal of massive fibroid growths. This leaves the patient with a very considerably decreased abdominal content, and it stands to reason th...
-Chapter XXIX. Massage Treatment For Disorders Of The Circulatory System
Graham in his text-book on Massage states: In almost every conceivable form of weak and diseased heart I have been called upon to do massage, and usually with marked relief and comfort, before Schott...
-Massage Treatment For Disorders Of The Circulatory System. Continued
Abdominal massage may be administered to help remedy any constipation which may be present, but its main objective should be to assist the portal circulation. This has been shown to increase the perce...
-Chapter XXX. Massage Treatment For Disorders Of The Respiratory System
In nearly every book on massage much space is devoted to the treatment of scoliosis and similar deformities. Not so here, however, as massage for these cases is of small service. The remedy consists o...
-Chapter XXXI. The Treatment Of Deformities
It is usual in text-books on massage to devote a separate chapter to the treatment of deformities, and I have chosen to follow the usual practice in the hope that I may be able to emphasise the fact t...
-The Treatment Of Deformities. Part 2
I have learnt from Capt. James Patterson, C.A.M.S., of Vancouver, a large part of my present knowledge of boots, and it was he who first showed me the foot-drill described when dealing with claw-foo...
-The Treatment Of Deformities. Part 3
If metatarsalgia is present, the anterior arch has given way. In Morton's disease the patient usually complains of a live nerve in the sole of the foot, which causes intense pain on pressure. This i...
-The Treatment Of Deformities. Part 4
Fig. 151. - To show position for administering resistive exercises in metatarsalgia. The patient claws with the toes while the hand supports the sole behind the metatarsal heads, thus helping to r...
-The Treatment Of Deformities. Part 5
The treatment of torticollis and of Bell's palsy (facial paralysis) have each been considered (see pp. 337 and 317). Paralytic deformities of the upper extremity call for treatment designed to suit t...
-Chapter XXXII. The Combination Of Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery
The massage treatment of the greater number of orthopaedic cases has already been considered under various headings. There remains, however, one large group of cases which calls for special considerat...
-Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery. Part 2
Then let us consider for a moment the final stages of treatment. The scientific manner in which the use of a walking calliper should be terminated is a matter of close co-operation. To maintain its us...
-Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery. Part 3
Fig. 159. - To show how a forearm may be slung in supination without the use of a splint. Adhesive strapping may be applied for this purpose over a thin layer of wool or a bandage (to prevent it st...
-Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery. Part 4
Similar principles underlie the application of splints to control the movements of other joints. Take as antithesis to the last instance a jointed leather splint, worn to prevent lateralisation of a f...
-Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery. Part 5
Whenever a splint is used to rest a weakened muscle the principles which underlie its application must be respected during treatment. Thus, if a patient is wearing an abduction splint to rest a weaken...
-Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery. Part 6
When, however, deformity is present, and we wish by splintage to exert a constant tension, which shall stretch the offending structures responsible for the deformity or for any impediment in movement,...
-Massage And Splintage In Orthopaedic Surgery. Part 7
Relapse is sometimes not entirely the fault of the patient; it is sometimes due, once more, to disregard of an important principle in treatment. This is that the use of the splint must not be abandone...
-Chapter XXXIII. Massage As A Remedy In The Treatment Of The Wounded
It is often said that we have much to learn from war injuries from the purely massage point of view. As a matter of fact, not very many new discoveries have been made in the massage world during the l...
-Massage As A Remedy In The Treatment Of The Wounded. Continued
Volumes could be written on the subject - Tommy: A psychical study. The outlook on life varies between the two following examples. ' Eart-breaking work for you, sister, ain't it, trying to get us ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Re-Education Of Amputation Cases
When St. Thomas's Hospital ceased to be also the 5th London General War Hospital, it was decided that our clinic for the treatment of the wounded should be replaced by a fitting hospital for those who...
-Appendix I. Gymnastic Apparatus
The apparatus here described is not identical with that illustrated in the text. It represents an improved design (see photograph). When Sir Robert Jones did me the honour of asking me to take charge...
-Appendix I. Gymnastic Apparatus. Continued
The sliding-seat apparatus consists of a seat provided with four wheels, two on either side, which rest upon two parallel rails. These are joined together by crossbars and the path for the wheels is s...
-Appendix II. Exercises To Increase Mobility And Power
Some Exercises Suitable For Class Work To Increase Mobility And Power In: - Neck and Spine. Shoulder. Elbow. Wrist and Fingers. Hip. Knee. Ankle and Toes. N.B. - Weight and Pulley Exercises. -...
-Appendix II. Exercises To Increase Mobility And Power. Continued
Standing: - Wrist flexion and extension, abduction and adduction. Arm bending and stretching in all directions with hand closing and opening. Arm bending and stretching with finger abduction and adduc...







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