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Furniture | by Esther Singleton



Various furniture styles are presented in this book.

TitleFurniture
AuthorEsther Singleton
PublisherDuffield & Company
Year1911
Copyright1911, Duffield & Company
AmazonFurniture

By Esther Singleton, Author of "French and English Furniture" "Dutch and Flemish Furniture" etc., etc.

-I. Styles And Schools
The Egyptian Style; the Greek Style; the Roman Style; the Byzantine Style; the Romanesque Style; the Gothic Style; Louis Xll. style; Henri II. Style; the English Renaissance: the Flemish Renaissance; ...
-The Egyptian Style
The Egyptian style had a great deal of influence on Greek and Etruscan Art. Though the household furniture of the Egyptians was somewhat limited, the cabinet-makers produced beautiful inlaid work at a...
-The Greek Style
The Greek Style was of Asiatic origin, but soon freed itself from the early, stiff hieratic forms. The richness of Oriental color remained in the textiles and furniture; and Greek form and ornament fo...
-The Roman Style
Roman furniture was exceedingly costly and decorative. Marble, gold, silver and bronze were used as well as woods. Furniture was enriched by damascened work and inlaid with ivory, metal and sometimes ...
-The Byzantine Style
The style known as Byzantine is a development of the early classic Greek mixed with Roman and Oriental influences. It developed in Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Empire. Rich furniture ado...
-The Romanesque Style
The Romanesque (style Roman), which prevailed in Europe during the Dark Ages, stands between the Byzantine and the Gothic Style. Beginning in the Fifth Century, it dominated architecture and the Decor...
-The Gothic Style
The furniture of the Middle Ages was constructed of solid oak, consisting of massive planks and wide panels left bare to be decorated with painting, stamped leather, or lightly cut ornaments. Graduall...
-The Gothic Style. Part 2
In the Fifteenth Century, the bedchamber is thus represented: the curtained bedstead, with corniced tester, displayed its costly coverlets; on one side was the master's chair, then the devotional pic...
-The Gothic Style. Part 3
Taken in its literal sense, certosino describes work made by the disciples of St. Bruno - the Carthusians - mosaic work of the most delicate description in bone, ivory, mother-of-pearl, metal, or woo...
-Louis XII. Style
The dawn of the Renaissance in France is known as the Louis XII. Style. It was the transitional period following the Italian expedition of Charles VIII. in 1497. The furniture becomes Classic in form,...
-Henri II. Style
The Style Henri II. is more severe and geometrical than that of Francois I. The ornamentation of the projections shows more restraint, and the general shape of the object is more rectangular. The ver...
-The Jesuit Style
At this period, too, what is familiarly known as the Jesuit Style makes its appearance. In 1603, the Jesuits, who had been expelled from France in 1595, were recalled, and on their return began to b...
-The Spanish Renaissance
The great wave of the Renaissance flowed into Spain, but it was carried thither not by Italian artists but across the Pyrenees by the French and Flemish painters, carvers and weavers. The political re...
-The English Renaissance Or Elizabethan
The characteristics of the English Renaissance furniture, known as Elizabethan, are carved human figures or medallions, masks, fruits, floral and chimerical animal forms, strap-work, bulbs, arabesqu...
-Louis XIII. Style
In the Seventeenth Century, the sculptured furniture of the time of Henri IV. was superseded by the simpler styles of Louis XIII. which we see in the engravings by Abraham Bosse. The carver and sculpt...
-The Rubens Style
At this period, the Rubens Style dominated everything in France. Rubens had spent eight years in Mantua and we see in his designs a fusion of Flemish and Italian influences. Two years after Rubens's d...
-The Genre Auriculaire
One of the most curious motives of ornamentation in this period was the human ear. The lines of the outer rim and the lobe, as well as those of the whole ear, were carried to excess and distorted and ...
-The Jacobean Period
The style of furniture in the Jacobean period differed but little from the Elizabethan, though it showed less originality and became more formal. Designs grew flatter and the treatment of floral orn...
-Oriental Influences
Here we may perhaps pause to review the effect produced by early contact with the East. During the Sixteenth Century, while the Portuguese had a monopoly of the trade of the Far East, a great deal of...
-Oriental Influences. Continued
The Dutch East India Company imported enormous quantities of porcelain: the fleets of 1664-5 alone brought in more than sixty thousand pieces. Before this, however, the Dutch had begun to imitate the ...
-Louis XIV. Style
In 1667, the manufactory of the Gobelins was established with the painter Le Brun as director. The beautiful work of all kinds that was sent from there was greatly responsible for changing the styles ...
-Louis XIV. Style. Part 2
Jean Lepautre (born in Paris, died in 1682), and his brother, Antoine (1621-1691), had also great influence, particularly Jean. More than two thousand plates came from his hand. Lepautre's style by re...
-Louis XIV. Style. Part 3
We have seen that the French were slower than the Dutch to adopt Oriental design. Huygens, a Dutchman, was fairly successful in his efforts to imitate the real lacquer and exploited his discoveries in...
-The Style Refugie
In 1685, the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes induced fifty thousand families of the best French blood, intellect and craftsmanship to seek voluntary exile. The Huguenots took refuge from the Dragonn...
-Louis XV. Style
The long reign of Louis XV. is broken into two periods, - the Regency and the Louis Quinze proper. In the first, grace, fancy and caprice are charmingly united. The scroll-and-shell, the monkey and mo...
-Louis XV. Style. Continued
M. de Champeaux has discovered that there were two ebenistes of the name of OEben - Jean Francois and Simon - that both were probably ebenistes du roi; that the OEbens were from Flanders or Germany; a...
-The Chippendale Style
Recent research has shown that there were three Thomas Chippendales. The first was a carver and picture-frame maker of Worcester at the end of the Seventeenth Century. His son, Thomas, the great Chipp...
-Louis XVI. Style
Towards the end of the Louis XV. period, the general outlines of furniture become less carved and the straight line gradually asserts itself. Indeed, as early as 1760 some very straight, severe and he...
-Louis XVI. Style. Continued
Charles Saunier (made a master in 1752), was a contemporary of Riesener, and worked until the Revolution. He followed the styles of Riesener and Leleu. The most fashionable ebeniste in the reign of L...
-The Adam Style
Turning back to England, we may note that the taste was changing in the days of Chippendale's great fame; and it is not unlikely that furniture was even sent from his shop in the Adam taste. In Harewo...
-The Heppelwhite Style
The next style of importance is Heppelwhite that lasted from about 1785 to 1795. It seems that A. Heppelwhite and Co. stands for Alice Heppelwhite, the widow of George Heppelwhite, who soon after his ...
-Thomas Shearer
Thomas Shearer's plates are contained in the first two editions of the Cabinet-Maker's London Book of Prices and Designs (1778 and 1793), intended principally for the use of the trade. Shearer, howe...
-The Sheraton Style
Thomas Sheraton covers two periods - that of Louis XVI. and the Empire, and consequently all the characteristics of each are found in his work. He seems to have followed the French taste very closely;...
-The Empire Style
Very little of the furniture of the Old Regime would have survived the French Revolution had not the National Convention appointed a Commission of leaders in art to determine what objects should be pr...
-The Empire Style. Part 2
In 1806 we read in a fashion paper that there has been a change in interior decoration, a style of furniture drawn from the florid Ionic being substituted for the Egyptian. Movables of domestic use...
-The Empire Style. Part 3
The style of furniture exhibited prevailed in the mansions of the first rank in Germany in the Fifteenth Century; and although a purer taste has succeeded from the high cultivation of art in that cou...
-The Empire Style. Part 4
From 1830 to 1850, fine arts were a passion in France, as well as a fashion. The wealthy collected paintings, and those in moderate circumstances followed suit; then, from 1840 to 1860 music reigned s...
-The Chest
The treasure chest, or area, was an important piece of furniture with the Romans and usually stood in the atrium, or hall, of the Roman house. It was often fixed to the floor, or against the wall, and...
-The Chest. Part 2
Many ancient chests are still to be found in the chapterhouses and vestries of ancient churches, where they were receptacles for vestments, hangings for festival decorations and the preservation of a...
-The Chest. Part 3
A fine example of Venetian work of the Sixteenth Century is the marriage-chest from the Cluny Museum, on Plate XLVI. The front and sides are beautifully carved with mythological and Biblical subjects ...
-The Armoire
At first the armoire was a series of shelves built into the wall and closed by wooden shutters or wings. At a later period when the piece became separate and movable it was merely a chest-upon-chest, ...
-The Dressoir
The dressoir, chest and bed were the three indispensable pieces of furniture in the Middle Ages; they are found alike in princely homes and in the dwellings of the middle-class people. The dressoir is...
-The Court-Cupboard
In England this piece of furniture was known as the court-cupboard and was used for the display and keeping of plate and other table-furniture. It was always in evidence at great entertainments; and, ...
-The Buffet
The dressoir, which was sufficient for the needs of the life of the Middle Ages, did not suffice for the luxuries that developed in the Seventeenth Century, and the great buffet took its place. At the...
-The Sideboard
Thus the cupboard, or dresser with drawers, - the buffet-sideboard - disappeared for a time and the sideboard, instead of being a storing place for linen, wine, silver, dishes, etc., became merely a s...
-The Empire Sideboard
In the Eighteenth Century the buffet disappeared for a time from fashionable houses in Paris. In his book on Architecture, Sobry writes: Buffets are pieces of refectory furniture on which rich vases ...
-The Cabinet
Generally speaking, the cabinet is a chest placed on a stand; and, like the buffet, its upper part, or chest, is closed by two doors. The interior is composed of a series of drawers usually concealed ...
-The Cabinet. Part 2
Du Cerceau also designed cabinets of very elegant form. The cabinet was the most fashionable piece of furniture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Not only was it made of wood or damaskeened...
-The Cabinet. Part 3
Among the famous examples of German cabinets is one by Hans Schieferstein dated 1568, ornamented with carved ivory; and one by Kellerthaler of Nuremberg, in ebony, dated 1585 - both in the Museum of D...
-The Cabinet. Part 4
The following examples sold recently in London are all Sheraton pieces: Satin-wood cabinet (2 ft. 3 in. wide) with glazed folding-doors carved with foliage, drawers beneath, fluted legs, 56 guineas; s...
-The Commode
The commode, the last transformation of the cabinet, was a very important piece of furniture in the Seventeenth and, more particularly, Eighteenth Century. Its place was in the drawing-room or bedroom...
-The Bureau
The word bureau seems to have been used before the Seventeenth Century to describe a table or a counter covered with a rough kind of cloth called drap de bure. About 1650, upon it was placed a little ...
-III. The Bed
There Still exists in the selamlik of a Turkish mansion, the wooden house of a Syriac Christian, and in the tent of a rich sheik, the same bed, - a long cushion laid sometimes on a wooden divan, and s...
-The Bed. Part 2
Arras was so celebrated early in the Fourteenth Century that the name soon became generic; the Italians called all woven tapestries Arazzi; the Spaniards, Panos de raz; and the English, Arras. Hamlet ...
-The Bed. Part 3
Notwithstanding their massiveness, these beds were sometimes carried from place to place. For example, a bed belonging to Richard III. was taken by him to the Blue Boar, Leicester, the night before th...
-The Bed. Part 4
Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands and wife of Philibert of Savoy, owned in 1523 a camp, or folding-bed, with hangings of cloth of gold embroidered with gold thread and silk; also a canopy...
-The Bed. Part 5
The lit en housse continued into the reign of Louis XIV.; but the typical bed in this period was devoid of columns, and was known as the lit d'ange. The curtains were looped back, and the canopy, whic...
-The Bed. Part 6
Some of Chippendale's sofas can be turned into beds when desired. He describes one as follows: A Chinese Canopy, with Curtains and Valances tied up in Drapery, and may be converted into a Bed by maki...
-The Bed. Part 7
The niche with its draped sofa-bed still continued popular; but the form of the bed changed. The grooved legs and posts were visible between the folds of the damask or velvet curtains; the canopy was ...
-The Bed. Part 8
In 1803, Sheraton notes that within the past few years cane has been introduced into the ends of mahogany beds for the purpose of keeping in the bed clothes. Sometimes the bottom of beds are caned. ...
-IV. Seats
The climatic conditions of the valley of the Euphrates were not so favorable for the preservation of objects fashioned out of wood as were the tombs of the Nile valley, and, therefore, we have only ca...
-Seats. Part 2
The diphros was a low stool without a back. It had four legs, either upright or crossed. The cross-legged diphros had a webbed seat, and could be folded. The legs often were carved and gracefully curv...
-Seats. Part 3
The illuminated manuscripts show that chests were largely used as seats during the early Middle Ages. Of the rare pieces of furniture of earlier date than 1300, the majority belong to the service of t...
-Seats. Part 4
The escabeau was a stool for sitting at the table only, and always accompanies the table in the inventories. It differed from the tabouret, which had four legs, by having board supports at each end; t...
-Seats. Part 5
Trevoux describes it as a low chair with a very high back, and without arms, on which people gossip at their ease beside the fire. It came in about the middle of the Sixteenth Century. One authorit...
-Seats. Part 6
The two-chair back, or three-chair back, became popular in the reign of Queen Anne. This form does not consist solely in placing two or three chairs together, and adding arms, but is subject to certai...
-Seats. Part 7
The arm-chair, or fauteuil, with upholstered instead of open sides, makes its appearance in the set of drawing-room furniture. It was called chaise bergere. This chair was sometimes called marquise, a...
-Seats. Part 8
Occasionally the cushions are tufted. Cushions are also round, half round, or much flattened. Small arm-chairs are still called cabriolets. The tapestries of the Gobelins, Beau-vais and Aubusson manuf...
-Seats. Part 9
A handsome ribbon-back chair appears on Plate XCV. Entwined ribbons and reversed scrolls form the splat; and in the centre of the top rail there is a large quatrefoil ribbon, from which hangs a cord a...
-Seats. Part 10
Heppelwhite furniture is valued by collectors for its beautiful workmanship, durability and general lightness of effect; and, if the proportions are not always satisfactory, it must be remembered that...
-Seats. Part 11
The bar-back was a novelty. It appeared as if four open-back chairs were placed side by side, the end ones, of course, supplied with an arm. Though we are told that this sofa was a recent invention,...
-Seats. Part 12
A set of drawing-room furniture consisted of two sofas, always placed on either side of the chimney-piece, six armchairs, six chairs, two bergeres and two tabourets. The draped sofa disappeared, and ...
-Seats. Part 13
From 1800 to 1825, we read of Fancy and Windsor chairs; chairs with rattan bottoms; rosewood and Fancy painted chairs; chairs with cane and rush seats; bamboo; Grecian back; elegant mahogany chairs, ...
-Seats. Part 14
The S or Siamoise was long popular. It was also an upholstered sofa with two or three seats joined together like the Siamese twins. It stood in the centre or corners of the drawing-room. From the fact...
-V. Tables
EGYPTIAN tables were quite simple in form and their ornamentation consisted of painting and inlay. In the ordinary home they were scarce, because people who use the floor for a seat have little use fo...
-Tables. Part 2
The other tables were evidently the usual board and trestles; if they had been of heavy, solid oak, they would have been pushed aside by pressure instead of being upset. Froissart, who was present at ...
-Tables. Part 3
In the Seventeenth Century, lightness was carried farther, and the table was simply supported by four turned legs with heavy bulb feet, connected with straining-rails close to the floor. These legs sw...
-Tables. Part 4
In the middle of the Eighteenth Century, tables were made with movable tops; tops that could be raised or lowered; writing tables, at which one stood up to write; and tables en croissant. In 1754 Ma...
-Tables. Part 5
The round tea-table, supported on a tripod stand, was made of various sizes, from one that could support a tea-tray to one destined to hold merely the tea-kettle. In the latter, case the stand had a l...
-Tables. Part 6
Heppelwhite described Rudd's Dressing-table as the most complete dressing-table ever made, possessing every convenience which can be wanted. It derives its name from a once popular character from w...
-Tables. Part 7
Of the Kidney library table Sheraton says: This piece is termed a kidney-table on account of its resemblance to that intestine part of animal so called. The drawers are strong and cross-banded with m...
-The Mirror
Until the Thirteenth Century, mirrors were made of burnished metal. The first looking-glasses with silvered backs were merely small mirrors destined to hang on a lady's chatelaine. In the Sixteenth Ce...
-The Mirror. Part 2
The great carver, Grinling Gibbons, made a number of exquisite mirror-frames with beautifully executed flowers and fruits; but the richly carved frame of his style soon changed for that of Louis XIV. ...
-The Mirror. Part 3
Among the items advertised by various merchants we see gilt and plain looking-glasses of sundry sizes, in 1745; japanned dressing-glasses, in 1748; new fashion sconces and looking-glasses, in 1749; lo...
-The Screen
Screens are of three kinds: the folding-screen composed of two, three, or more leaves; the screen on a horse frame; and the pole-screen supported on a rod. The folding-screen is found in every country...
-The Clock
In the history of modern furniture the clock is of little interest until the pendulum clock, constructed by Huygens and described by him in 1658, was introduced. Then the long pendulum was enclosed in...







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