books

previous page: Woodwork Course For Boys | by William Nelson
  
page up: Woodworking Books
  
next page: Carpentry For Beginners - Things To Make | by John D. Adams

Woodworking For Beginners: A Manual for Amateurs | by Charles G. Wheeler



The aim of this book is to suggest to amateurs of all ages many things which they can profitably make of wood, and to start them in the way to work successfully. It is hoped that, in the case of boys, it may show them pleasant and useful ways to work off some of their surplus energy, and at the same time contribute toward their harmonious all-round development...

TitleWoodworking For Beginners: A Manual for Amateurs
AuthorCharles G. Wheeler
PublisherG. P. Putnam's Sons
Year1899
Copyright1899, Charles G. Wheeler
AmazonWoodworking For Beginners
Woodworking For Beginners 1

"Know what thou canst work at and work at it like a Hercules."

Carlyle.

With Over 700 Illustrations

To The Youthful Founders Of "Toilet Town" Without Whose Inspiration This Book Would Not Have Been Undertaken

-Preface
The aim of this book is to suggest to amateurs of all ages many things which they can profitably make of wood, and to start them in the way to work successfully. It is hoped that, in the case of boys,...
-Part I. A Workshop For Amateurs. Chapter I. Introductory
When one has made up his mind to make something, he usually wants to begin work at once; so, as I wish you to read this chapter, I will make it quite short. There is a great deal in getting started ri...
-A Workshop For Amateurs. Continued
For that matter much of the same life can be found today in the remoter regions, and I have known young men brought up to this kind of life, who (within my recollection) have, as a matter of course, d...
-Chapter II. Tools
You can do a great deal with very few tools. The bearing of this observation lies in the application on it, as Jack Bunsby would say. Look at the complicated and ingenious curiosities whittled with...
-Suggestions About Buying Tools
Do not start in by buying a chest of tools, certainly not one of the small cheap sets. They are not necessarily poor, but are very apt to be. Get a few tools at a time as you need them. In that way yo...
-Suggestions About Buying Tools. Continued
The following list makes a fair outfit for nearly and sometimes all the work the average amateur is likely to do, excepting the bench appliances and such contrivances as you will make yourselves and t...
-Care Of Tools
Keep your tools in good order. You cannot do nice, fine, clean work with a dull tool. A sharp tool will make a clean cut, but a dull edge will tear or crush the fibres and not leave a clean-cut surfac...
-Use Of Tools
It is very important to get started right in using tools. If your first idea of what the tool is for and how it should be used is correct you will get along nicely afterwards, but if you start with a ...
-Edge-Tools
Bear in mind that all cutting tools work more or less on the principle of the wedge. So far as the mere cutting is concerned a keen edge is all that is required and your knife or other cutting tool mi...
-Chapter III. Wood
Before you can make anything successfully, you must have not merely wood, but the right kind of wood for the purpose. There are, also, choice cuts in lumber, as the butcher says of meat, and judicio...
-Wood. Part 2
If you wish the beautiful figure formed when the medullary rays show on the surface of the board, as in quartered oak, the log should be cut in the direction of the radii, that is, along the lines o...
-Wood. Part 3
The kiln-drying takes the life out of the wood, as workmen express it, but just why this is so is not easy to explain, for the structure and properties of wood are very complex. I have seen too many...
-Wood. Part 4
Reject stock badly checked at the ends, or cracked. There is apt to be more or less of this in most lumber. In seasoning, the pieces dry faster on the outside than in the middle, which causes checks o...
-Wood. Part 5
Lumber As the term is used in the United States, lumber consists, according to Webster, of timber sawed or split for use, as beams, joists, boards, planks, staves, hoops, and the like. Lumber may ...
-Wood. Part 6
Joists These are the same as narrow planks, but of some fixed width, as 2 by 3 , which is the same as a 3 strip sawed from the edge of a 2 plank. Fig. 32. Fig. 33. Most of the lumber yo...
-Working Drawings
A simple drawing will often give you a better idea of an object than you can get from any description in words, for drawing is not only a very ancient form of language but one readily understood by pe...
-Laying Out The Work
Try to get the measurements and lines exact, and do not be satisfied with coming within an eighth of an inch. You cannot do good work unless it is laid out right, and cutting exactly to a line will do...
-Estimating
You must, of course, learn to make your estimates yourself, often a very important preliminary. Fig. 36. Prices vary, and you cannot always rely on other people's estimates for your own work. It i...
-Chapter V. The Workshop
IF you have a place where you can build a workshop you will find one described in Part III. If not, try to find a well-lighted shop, both on account of your eyes and your work; one that is dry, or you...
-The Work-Bench
A very simple one (Fig. 37) will answer your purpose for a long time. When you become a pretty good workman and feel the need of something better (for a first-class bench with the best attachments is ...
-The Work-Bench. Continued
Next, put on the top. Cut two lengths of 5' 10 from the 12 board. Lay them in position, square lines across as guides for the nails (as before), and nail them down to the legs and cross-boards. Also...
-Bench-Vise
The kinds shown in Figs. 50, 56, 57, though not as good as some more improved forms, are in common use by carpenters, and will answer your purpose very well for ordinary work - until you get to the po...
-Bench-Stop
You must have something on the forward end of the bench-top to push your work against for planing and other operations. A simple and good way is to use one or two stout screws (Fig. 68). These can be ...
-Filing-Bench
Yon cannot do much of such varied woodwork as you will undertake without having to do a good deal of metal work. It is a poor plan to do such work at the vise you use for your woodwork, or even at the...
-Finishing-Bench
Have also a finishing-bench (Fig. 91) if possible, - if nothing more than a shelf or box, - to keep the regular work-bench neat and clean for its proper uses, for even a skilful workman can hardly avo...
-Finishing-Bench. Continued
Hang saws against the wall on pegs, or nails, or at the end of the bench. Hang all tools which you put on the wall well above the bench, to be out of the way. 'Lay planes on their sides or ends, for ...
-Bench-Hook
The bench-hook (Fig. 101) is very useful to hold work firmly for sawing, planing, etc., and also saves some marring of the bench-top. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, a...
-Horses Or Trestles
These are to lay stock on for marking and sawing, to put large work together on, and are convenient for various uses (Fig. 105). Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, and Saw, i...
-Mitre-Box
Great care is necessary to make an accurate wooden mitre-box (Fig. 116), although the process is simple. Do not make it of spruce or any wood liable to warp or twist. Pine or mahogany is good. Use sto...
-Form For Rounding Sticks
You will be continually wanting to make sticks eight-sided or round. A form to hold the pieces for planing is a great convenience. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Gauge, Plane, and Nail...
-Level And Plumb
Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Gauge, Saw, and Plane, in Part V. To make a plumb like Fig. 130, take a piece of straight wood from 3 to 5 wide and 4' or 5' long with the...
-First-Class Bench
You can do all the work you will be equal to for a long time on such a bench as has been shown, but some day you will want a first-class bench, such as Fig. 143. Do not attempt anything of the sort at...
-A Few Essentials To Successful Work
Do one thing at a time. Finish one job before you start two or three others. First learn to work well, then ability to work quickly will come of itself. Plan your work to the end before beginning to...
-Part II. Chapter VI. Articles To Be Made In The Workshop
Even if you are able to use tools quite well, you may still not know how to go to work to make some particular thing, so it is quite important to know how to lay out, put together, and finish differen...
-Chapter VII. A Few Toys. Wooden Swords, Knives, And Daggers
Before be-ginning work, read Marking, Knife, Whittling, Paring, Rounding Sticks, Rasp, File, and Sandpaper, and look up any other references. The construction of those shown in Fig. 144 is too obvious...
-Wooden Snake
This imitation reptile (Fig. 146) if well made will (when grasped at the middle) by a slight movement of the hand undulate and writhe in a very lifelike manner, as you may know, so do not be eager to ...
-Windmills
These are made in a great variety of forms. A few patterns which can be readily constructed of wood are given below. Bear in mind to make them strong, as they are under very great strain in a violent ...
-Water-Wheels
An undershot wheel, turned by the water passing beneath (Fig. 165), can be easily made. It can be of any desired size, and of any wood readily worked. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Ru...
-Play Village
It is capital fun for several young people to design and build a miniature village, and it is certainly an instructive and quite inexpensive pastime. Such a village, planned and made recently by a fam...
-Dolls' House
The house shown in Fig. 172 is quite easily made, and a shallow affair like this has the advantage of being more convenient than a deep one about arranging the contents. Before beginning work read ca...
-Chapter VIII. Houses For Animals
The sizes and shapes of these houses and cages will depend upon the animals for which they are built and the places you have to put them. Frequently they can be built to advantage against the side of ...
-Rabbit Hutch
A simple rabbit-house, or hutch, can be made by putting together a good-sized box, partitioning off one end, to be closed by a door, and leaving the rest open, except for he necessary wire sides (Fig....
-Kennel
There are many kinds of dog-houses, and the style and size must, of course, depend upon the dog and the situation. A good kennel (Fig. 187) for a small dog can be made very much as you would make a b...
-Squirrel House
The small squirrel house, or cage, shown in Fig. 190, is made like a box (see Box-making, page 219), with the exception of the roof. The construction is similar to that of the houses already described...
-Travelling Cage
A small box (Fig. 194) in which to carry a kitten, a squirrel, a bird, or any small animal, when travelling, is often very useful and much better than the bags and baskets so often used for the purpos...
-Chapter IX. Implements For Outdoor Sports And Athletics. Stilts
There is very little to say about the manufacture of stilts. The construction is obvious (Figs. 195 and 196), the size and arrangement depending on your own size and skill. The handles can either be l...
-Tilt Or See-Saw
One of small size is shown in Fig. 197. The exact proportions given are not necessary, provided you make it strong and so that it will not tip over. Fig. 197. Fig. 198. Before beginning work re...
-Skis
To make as perfect skis as possible they should be of rift stock, that is, split out instead of sawed; but this may seldom be practicable for you and is not really necessary. Good straight-grained saw...
-Toboggan
This is now commonly made of narrow strips, in principle much like several skis placed side by side - an easier form to make than the older pattern, formed of one or two wide pieces, as originally mad...
-Wooden Guns And Pistols
A gun on the principle of that shown in Fig. 228, the projectile power being furnished by elastic (rubber) cord, is easily made. Fig. 228. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Squar...
-Wooden Guns And Pistols. Part 2
The seat may be thinner than the runners, and is to be fitted between them and to be screwed to the cross-pieces (see Screws). The thickness of the stock for the seat must be borne in mind when laying...
-Wooden Guns And Pistols. Part 3
In case of a high double-runner, running foot-boards along each side can be added. A simple way to fasten these is by means of pieces of strap-iron bent as shown in Fig. 252 and screwed to the under s...
-Gymnastic Apparatus
It will, in most cases, be out of the question for you to attempt to put up any building roomy enough for a gym, but sometimes a number of you can club together and get the use of some vacant room ...
-Parallel Bars
A useful form (and not beyond the skill of an amateur) is shown in Fig. 261. The height must, of course, depend upon the gymnast, and can range from 3' 6 to 5' 6, the width inside (between the bars)...
-Horizontal Bar
A design suitable for the amateur wood-worker is shown in Fig. 265. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, in Part V., and look up any other references. First make t...
-Vaulting Apparatus
You can buy iron standards or bases, and of course the whole apparatus, for high jumping and pole vaulting, but it is a simple matter to make a pair of uprights that will answer the purpose satisfacto...
-Spring-Board
A form not difficult to make is shown in Fig. 272. The framework can be made of any strong wood, but the spring-board itself should be of the best quality of clear, straight-grained white ash. Before...
-Giant Swing
This piece of apparatus is excellent for outdoors, and affords considerable sport (Fig. 276). You must have a pole or mast from 15' to 25' long and from 6 to 10 in diameter at the lower end. At the...
-Other Apparatus
There are, of course, other useful forms of apparatus involving more or less woodwork, such as hanging poles, fixed upright and slanting poles or bars, and various contrivances which you can readily a...
-Chapter X. Furniture
Some article of furniture is frequently one of the first objects upon which the beginner (particularly the amateur of mature years) tries his hand; and boys, as well as their elders, sometimes confide...
-Furniture. Continued
White pine is often considered rather cheap and common in appearance, but it is suitable for many things in the way of furniture. It is one of the best woods to stand, or hold its shape, and if not ...
-Book-Rack
A simple rack for books (Fig. 280) can be of any length desired, about six inches wide, and of half-inch stock (or slightly thinner), but the dimensions can be varied according to circumstances. Befo...
-Desk-Rack
An easily made arrangement to put on the back of a table or desk is shown in Fig. 281, and can be made of stock of from 1/2 to 7/8 thickness, according to the size of the rack. Fig. 281. Before ...
-Hanging Book-Shelf
A wall-shelf (Fig. 283) is useful and good practice for the amateur. It should not be made too deep (from front to back). Half-inch stock is heavy enough, if the shelf is not more than two feet long. ...
-Wall-Cabinet
An open cabinet or hanging case for books, magazines, or other small articles (Fig. 285) can be of any desired proportions, but should not be very large. Half-inch stock is sufficiently thick. Before...
-Hanging Bookcase
A simple and useful case for the wall (Fig. 286) can be made on much the same principle as the small case just shown. It is well not to make such cases very large, and, unless quite small, stock from ...
-Wall-Shelves
An easily made arrangement is suggested in Fig. 288. The design can easily be varied if you wish. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, in Part V., and look up any o...
-Pipe-Rack
A modification of the shelf arrangement just described makes a good rack for pipes and other articles for smoking (Fig. 289). Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square^ Saw, Plane, i...
-Corner-Shelves Or Cabinets
A simple form of hanging corner-shelves is shown in Fig. 293. This can be of any size, of course, but such articles look clumsy if made very large. Half-inch stock is heavy enough unless the case is q...
-Medicine-Cabinet
Any small cabinet can be used for medicines by simply arranging the shelves in any convenient manner. A simple way is to have a series of horizontal grooves on the inside of each side, into which the ...
-Bookcases
A plain case (Fig. 299) can be made of any desired size. If quite small 3/4 stock can be used, but ordinarily 7/8 thickness will be best. The method of construction is practically the same as in the...
-Desk And Bookcase
Various combinations of bookshelves with a desk can be arranged. A useful form for a small one is shown in Fig. 306. The height is of course regulated by the necessary position of the desk-lid when dr...
-Music-Case
The construction of the form shown in Fig. 307 is like that of the examples already shown. The sides, top, and bottom should be of 3/4 or 7/8 stock, but the shelves can be thinner. Before beginning...
-Plant-Stands
The form shown in Fig. 308 is of quite simple construction and is useful to hold a large flower-pot. It should be made of 7/8 stock. The top can be from 8 to 12 square. Before beginning work read...
-Tables
A plain table, which although not especially ornamental is serviceable for many purposes, is shown in Fig. 311. It can be made of any size and proportions and the details can easily be varied. Before...
-Small Stand
A simple arrangement shown in Fig. 318 involves more difficulties than many of the other articles shown, but is not beyond the skill of the careful amateur. A good size is about 13 or 14 across the ...
-Small Table
Fig. 321 shows a good form for a small stand suitable for various purposes, which, although not as easy to make as it looks, is not too hard for the amateur who has acquired some familiarity with his ...
-Footstool Or Cricket
A common low seat or cricket (Fig. 325) can be made of 5/8 or 7/8 stock and of any desired size. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, in Part V., and look up any...
-Out-Door Seat
The construction of the plain chair shown in Fig. 326 is too obvious to require special description. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, in Part V., and look up an...
-Bookcase And Lounge
Combination articles of furniture are, as a rule, frequently undesirable on the ground of taste, and often are not as convenient as to have the parts made separately. But the amateur may sometimes f...
-Table And Settle, Or Chair-Table
This is an excellent form of table for the amateur to make and is useful for many purposes (Figs. 329 and 330). If of moderate size, it can be made of 7/8 stock, but if large, and to be subjected to ...
-Cabinet For Guns, Fishing-Rods, Etc
A convenient form is shown in Fig. 332. The construction is similar to that of the bookcases and cabinets already shown. The stock for the case itself can be 7/8 in thickness, for the larger division...
-Picture Frames
These are often undertaken by the amateur, but making them well is much more difficult than it seems to the beginner. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, in Part V...
-Chapter XI. A Few Miscellaneous Operations. Wooden Chain
White pine or any other easily whittled, straight-grained wood can be used. Take a stick of any length and from 1 to 2 square. If very small the whittling is more difficult. Fig. 335. Fig. 336...
-Ball And Block
White pine or any other easily whittled, straight-grained wood will do for this whittling exercise (Fig- 339) Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Knife, in Part V. First get out a cu...
-Box-Making
In laying out common boxes, bear in mind that the sides, top, and bottom usually lap over the ends, - the sides over the ends, and the top and bottom over the sides and ends (Fig. 340). Sometimes, how...
-Toy Boats
A few suggestions about the woodwork of the hulls of toy boats may be useful to the beginner. The details of rigging and discussion of the merits of the various types and designs are matters which do ...
-Toy Boats. Continued
In your first attempts at making small boats it may be well to omit the deck sheer, leaving the top flat (Fig. 354), as this simplifies matters in the beginning. Also, saw off the superfluous wood sho...
-Part III. House-Building For Beginners. Chapter XII. House-Building
In its simple forms, and on a small scale, is very suitable work for the beginner in woodworking. One of the most important things to bear in mind is not to be too ambitious in your early attempts. C...
-A Play-House Or Play-Store
You know that an ordinary wooden building has a framework of timbers, - a kind of skeleton upon which the boarding is nailed. This will be shown in the following chapters, but a very small house or ca...
-Play-Store Or Booth
A good form for a simple play-store or booth (Fig. 369) can, if small, be constructed on the same box-like principle as the little building just shown, and the details of construction are so similar t...
-Frame For Larger Building With Lean-To Roof
While the simple box-like arrangement described above is suitable for a very small structure, it must be discarded for a frame of some sort when you undertake a larger and more permanent building. Be...
-Play-House Or Cabin
The house shown in Fig. 372 can be put together in the way already shown. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Satv, Plane, Nailing, Screws, Painting, in Part V., and look up a...
-Play-House, Store, Or Cabin
The design shown in Fig. 376 can be carried out in the manner already described. Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, Nailing, Screws, Painting, in Part V., and lo...
-A Workshop
A small building, like that shown in Fig. 386, from 8' to 12' wide by 12' to 18' long, will be suitable for a workshop or for various other purposes. Fig. 386. While it will do for a little play-h...
-A Workshop. Part 2
Set another post in the same way at the next corner, fixing it accurately in position by means of the strings, as in the case of the first post, and seeing that the distance from the outside of this p...
-A Workshop. Part 3
It will be a convenience in working to lay the floor next. For this you will require a number of floor-joists. If the building is only 8' or 10' wide, 2 x 4 studding will do; but if the width is as ...
-Chapter XIII. Simple Summer Cottages
Cottage Row. - The little houses shown in the accompanying illustrations 1 afford excellent examples of what can be done by the beginner. These were built by boys, and form, with others, a most inte...
-Simple Summer Cottages. Part 2
In addition to points already spoken of in the preceding pages, bear in mind, in making your plans, to use only simple forms for your first efforts. Avoid dormer windows and complicated roofs (especia...
-Simple Summer Cottages. Part 3
As to the position in which to place the house itself after the spot has been chosen much will depend on circumstances. Consider the sun, the prevailing winds, and the views in relation to the rooms, ...
-Simple Summer Cottages. Part 4
An excellent form for a small structure is that shown in Fig. 393. This has a hip-roof, which is the only essential difference between it and the types already shown. Fig. 393. Before beginning wo...
-Chapter XIV. A Few Simple Structures. Summer-Houses
A form which is quite easy to build, and which is attractive when overrun with vines, is shown in front elevation (Fig. 401) and in side elevation (Fig. 402). Before beginning work read carefully Mar...
-Bath-House
A plain bath-house (Fig. 404) can well be made with a lean-to roof and put together on the same simple principles already shown; so that additional instructions for this design are unnecessary. A good...
-Boat-Houses
By using the same simple system of framework shown in Fig. 389 you can make an inexpensive boat-house (Fig. 405). Before beginning work read carefully Marking, Rule, Square, Saw, Plane, Nailing, Scr...
-Part IV. Boat-Building For Beginners. Chapter XV. Boat-Building
Like many other kinds of work, can be done (even in its simplest stages) more quickly, more easily, and, of course, more cheaply, by two persons than by one, so it will be economy of money, time, and ...
-Scows And Punts
A flat-bottomed boat, if made with care, may be not merely good-looking, but light, strong, and useful, and sometimes superior for some purposes to a round-bottomed boat. Boats of this class are easi...
-Scows And Punts. Continued
Instead of laying the bottom boards tightly together, as directed above, they can be laid slightly apart, so that the cracks between them will be about 1/8 wide. These can then be caulked with oakum,...
-Small Rowboat
A simple form of skiff, or common flat-bottomed rowboat (Fig. 419), called by various names, is similar to the punt at the stern, and the mode of construction is similar. The boards for the sides are ...
-Skiff Or Flat-Bottomed Canoe
A double-ended skiff, batteau, or flat-bottomed canoe (Fig. 426), known by various names, can be easily made by simply carrying the process already described a little further, and drawing the sides to...
-Canvas-Covered Canoes
To make a really good canoe wholly of wood requires a degree of skill much greater than can be expected of the beginner, or than is attained by the average amateur. Any boy or amateur can, however, wi...
-Canvas-Covered Canoes. Part 2
Great care must be taken with all this adjusting of the framework, measuring, sighting, and testing in every way you can think of, to see that all the curves are fair, without sharp or irregular tu...
-Canvas-Covered Canoes. Part 3
Particular care must be taken that the keel be got out straight and that it be fitted exactly on the centre line. In this case the canvas may be put on in two parts, being nailed to the keelson on eac...
-Small Sail-Boat
The boat shown in Fig. 444 is a good form for the amateur to attempt, and makes a serviceable craft for sheltered waters. From twelve to sixteen feet is a good length, and the beam should be wide, as ...
-Small Ice-Boat
The main framework of even the most elaborate ice-boat consists merely of a lengthways centre timber or backbone and a cross-piece or runner-board (Fig. 450), the whole resting on three runners, ...
-House-Boat
A house-boat consists of two parts, one of which (the boat) is essentially like the scow or flat boat already described, and the other (the house) is usually much the same as some of the little struct...
-Part V. Common Tools And Their Use, With Some Every-Da Y Opera Tions. Chapter XVI
Anvil An anvil is often useful and is sometimes combined with a vise. It should have a flat steel surface and also a tapering, rounded (conical) point. An old flat-iron does quite well. Axe This is...
-Awl
The Bradawl is the simplest boring tool you will use. Unlike gimlets and bits, it does not take out any wood, but merely presses it aside out of the way, which is good for nail and screw holes, becaus...
-Beading
A tool for scraping beading, reeds, and the like, can be made by filing the reverse of the shape required on the edge of a piece of saw-blade steel, taken from a broken saw or scraper, and inserting t...
-Bending Wood
To bend a piece (without steaming or boiling) which is to be fastened so that but one side will show, make running a gauge line along the edge (see Gauge), that the cuts may be of equal depth. This wi...
-Bevel
This is similar to the square, but with a movable blade which can be set at any angle. When permanently fixed at an angle of 450, it is called a mitre-square. The bevel is useful, not merely to mark a...
-Bevelling
To bevel the edge of a piece with the chisel, draw-knife, spoke-shave, plane, or even knife, first mark parallel lines to work to with a pencil-gauge (see Gauge) rather than a spur-gauge, so as not to...
-Bit-Brace Or Bit-Stock
This tool requires no description. The ratchet brace is useful for boring in awkward places where it is difficult to use a common bit-stock. There is also a contrivance for extending the bit-brace to ...
-Bits
The auger-bit (the sizes of which are arranged by sixteenths of an inch) so commonly used with the bit-brace, consists, at the cutting end, of a spur, two scoring-nibs, and two cutting-lips. You will ...
-Boring
In boring with the bitbrace, after the bit has gone a short distance into the wood, stop and, keeping the brace in position, test carefully from in front and from one side to see whether the bit is at...
-How To Take Out Bruises
Small bruises in wood can be taken out by wetting the place with warm water, or even with cold water, and rubbing down the grain with sandpaper if necessary. If that is not sufficient, a hot iron, as ...
-Brushes
It is well to have a brush of some sort for cleaning off work, the bench, etc. A sash brush is good. For most of your painting, shellacing, etc., you will usually get along better with small flat bru...
-Carving Tools
A few carving tools are often very useful for general woodwork. It is convenient to have these carving tools fitted in handles of a different pattern from your other tools. An octagonal shape is good....
-Chamfering
A chamfer is the surface formed by cutting away the angle made by two faces of a piece of wood. In cutting the ends of a stop-chamfer (Fig. 485), take care not to cut quite down to the line at first,...
-Chisel
The firmer-chisel is meant for light hand-work, for paring off wood and trimming to shape, and can be used for light mortising, though the mortise-chisel is intended for that purpose. It is often an ...
-Clamps
Long clamps (cabinet-clamps), shown in the accompanying illustrations, are extremely useful in making glued joints and in various clamping operations. Many, of different lengths, are to be found in wo...
-Cleating
A simple way to join two or more pieces of board or plank to make a wider piece is to cleat them. If short, they can be cleated across the ends. This can also be done to keep a single board from warpi...
-Compasses
Wing compasses, or those with arc and set-screw, are easy to adjust accurately and will not slip, but, whatever kind you get, be sure that the points stay where you put them and do not spring away or ...
-Corner-Blocks
These are merely small pieces of pine, or other wood which holds glue well, with two adjacent surfaces at right angles. Hot glue is applied to them and they are rubbed into interior angles of cabinet-...
-Countersink
This tool, to be used with the bit-brace, for enlarging the outer part of a hole, thus forming a cavity or depression for receiving the head of a screw (Fig. 497), is quite important, as being much mo...
-Doors And Panels
It is important to have some understanding of the theory of framing panels, doors, and the like. The simplest form of door is, of course, a piece of board. This will do for some cases, but it is liabl...
-Dovetailing
This is an operation requiring considerable skill to do well and, with the exception of an occasional single dovetail, is not frequently required in the work of the beginner. It is, however, a valuabl...
-Dowelling
Dowels are merely round sticks of different diameters and usually of hard wood. They can be bought ready made and can be used instead of nails or screws, or instead of mortising, dovetailing, etc. The...
-Drawers
The making of well-fitting and smoothly running drawers is an operation requiring much skill - more skill than can be expected of the beginner, or, in fact, than is attained by the average workman. Th...
-Draw-Knife Or Draw-Shave
The draw-knife or draw-shave is very useful for slicing off large pieces and for trimming wood into odd shapes. It can be obtained with folding handles, adjustable at different angles, for use in plac...
-File
The file is a piece of hard steel with rows of ridges or teeth cut obliquely on the surface. When cut in one direction only it is called single-cut, but when there are two oblique rows of teeth crossi...
-Finishing
To acquire a high degree of proficiency in finishing indoor woodwork requires long training and practice, but the simpler processes can be undertaken to good advantage by the beginner. There are a nu...
-Gauge
There are many kinds of gauges in the market, but they all depend on the same principle, having a block, head, stock, or fence, to slide along against the edge of the wood, and a bar, beam, or stem, w...
-Gimlet
The gimlet is useful, cheap, and good for boring where the hole does not come near the edge, but near the edge or in thin wood great care must be taken to prevent splitting. If necessary to use it in ...
-Glazing
An old chisel can be used to clean off old putty before setting glass. On new work, see that the rabbet or shoulder where the putty is to go is primed with lead paint before putting on the putty (see ...
-Gluing
Glue is made from refuse animal matter, and also from parts of fishes, the latter being known as fish glue. It comes in sheets or cakes or flakes, to be dissolved and used hot, or already prepared in ...
-Glue-Pot
This can be bought of copper, iron, or tin. A medium-sized one is more useful than a very small one. Have a cover to keep out dust and loose particles. If obliged to make shift without a proper glue-...
-Gouge
This tool is similar to the chisel, except for the curvature across the blade. The common gouge has the bevel on the convex or outer side and is known as an outside gouge. This is the more useful fo...
-Grindstone
When you get to the point of having a grindstone, get one which is somewhat soft and fine, for if too coarse it will produce a rougher edge than is desirable for your tools. Do not allow your grindst...
-Grooving
Grooves of different dimensions are often required for various purposes in wood-working. By far the best way, as a practical matter, is to take the work to a mill and have the grooving done by machine...
-Halving
This joint shown in Fig. 537 is a common, simple, and good way of joining two sticks when they cross at right angles or obliquely. Place the sticks in position and mark the width of each upon the surf...
-Hammer
The hammer is made in many forms, but the common kind used by carpenters will usually answer your purpose, and is too familiar to require description. For general use select one of medium size and wei...
-Hand-Screws
Hand-screws are of great use in clamping work that has been glued and for holding pieces in any required position. Wooden hand-screws are probably the most generally useful, but a couple (or more) of ...
-Hatchet
The hatchet is too familiar to need description. A common, medium-sized hatchet, that can easily be swung with one hand, is all that the beginner will ordinarily require, although there is quite a var...
-Hinges
There are many varieties of hinges for various purposes. The common kind, like that shown in Fig. 135, had best, for neatness' sake, on moderately heavy work, be narrower than the thickness of the sto...
-How To Fill Holes And Cracks
The simplest way to stop holes, cracks, checks, and the like, in painted work,is with putty, always applying it after the first coat of paint and never before (see fainting), but this method should no...
-Jointing
This term is applied to the act of straightening and making true the edges of two boards or planks which are to be joined to make a tight joint, with glue or otherwise. It is, also, popularly applied ...
-Joints And Splices
There are many kinds of splices and joints used in the different branches of woodwork, a few of which are here given. The common square butt-joint (Fig. 554) is the simplest way to join two pieces at...
-Knife
An excellent knife for shop work is a sloyd knife. A good shoe-knife will do very well. This is better for shop work than a jack-knife. It will not close on your fingers for one thing. For general pur...
-Level
A spirit-level is important for some work, but not often necessary for the beginner, as a substitute can easily be made. A horizontal or level line being at right angles with a vertical line, a home-m...
-Locks
Use locks of good quality or none at all. Never put very cheap locks on good work. There are many varieties of locks, some to be screwed on the outside of the wood, others to be sunk in recesses cut i...
-Mallet
The mallet, which is merely a hammer with a wooden head, is made in various forms and sizes, from the big beetle of the wood-chopper to the ladies' carving mallet. It is used to strike the wooden tool...
-Marking
For all rough work the ordinary carpenter's pencil, sharpened flatways, like a screw-driver, is the most convenient and durable instrument. For nicer work, where you need more accurate lines, the comm...
-Mitring
A common joint is the mitre (Fig. 568). Its only advantage is that it shows nothing but a line at the angle and the end wood is entirely concealed. It is a weak joint at best, even when made by a ...
-Mortising (Mortise And Tenon)
If you can get out two pieces and fit them together accurately with a mortise-and-tenon joint, and do the work well, you will be competent to handle a great many of the difficulties of ordinary woodwo...
-Mortising (Mortise And Tenon). Continued
In all the use of the chisel, take pains to hold it vertically as regards the sides of the mortise - that is, do not tip it over sideways, or the mortise will be slanting or too wide at the bottom. T...
-Nailing
To drive nails, hold the hammer near the end of the handle. Do not, as is often done by boys and amateurs, grasp it close to the head. The nearer the end of the handle you take hold, the harder blow y...
-"Toe" Nailing
If you wish nails to hold as much as possible, toe them - that is, slant them (Fig. 606). You can see at a glance that the board will be held much tighter than if the nails were driven straight up and...
-Clinching Nails
The way to clinch nails is simply to drive them through against a heavy hammer,or any solid metal object, held on the other side. As the point comes through it is gradually turned over or hooked aroun...
-Nails
There are many kinds of nails, many more than is worth while to specify here, as you will probably use those of wire for most of your work. When another kind would be preferable (as is the case for so...
-Nail-Set, Or Punch
The nail-set, for sinking nail-heads below the surface, is quite important, and it is well to have a 28 large one and a fine one. The end of the set or punch must not be allowed to become rounding or ...
-Oil-Stone
It is very essential to have a good oil-stone. They can be found of many degrees of fineness. Those of very fine and hard grain, which give a keen edge but cut very slowly, will not be found so well a...
-Painting
You can paint your work very satisfactorily - perhaps not quite as well or quickly as a skilled painter by trade, but well enough for all practical purposes if you observe carefully a few simple princ...
-Painting. Continued
Be sure that your work is thoroughly dry before beginning to paint, else the wood will be liable to decay, or the paint to peel, or both. Do not paint wood before it is thoroughly seasoned. Look the w...
-Paring
In paring or trimming a piece of wood to a line, if there is much surplus wood to be removed, you can sometimes chop pretty boldly with the hatchet until you get near the line, provided you watch the ...
-Plane
A plane is in principle (roughly speaking), as you will readily see, nothing but a chisel stuck through a block of wood or iron. Small or narrow surfaces may be smoothed to a certain degree by the chi...
-Plane. Part 2
A plane with a short stock, as the smoothing-plane, will make your work smooth, but it is hard to make it straight and level or true with such a tool, because, being short, it will follow the larger i...
-Plane. Part 3
The cutting edge is said to have lead in proportion to the distance it is in advance of the cap-iron. The cap can be set some little distance from the edge for the jack-plane, as far as an eighth o...
-Plumb
You can make a plumb-line by merely hanging any weight at the end of a cord, when the cord will of course be vertical as soon as it stops swinging (Fig. 644). For convenience in using hang the cord on...
-Putty
Common putty is (or should be) a mixture of linseed oil and whiting of about the consistency of dough. A mixture of white lead worked in with the whiting is, however, superior for some purposes, and i...
-Rabbet
A rabbet is a recess or rectangular groove cut lengthways in the edge of a piece of board, plank, or other timber (Fig. 284). It is usually better for the amateur to get such work done at a mill, when...
-Repairing Furniture
To repair thoroughly - to make things as strong as when new and to leave no sign of the mending- often requires more skill and ingenuity and more general knowledge of wood-working than to make new art...
-Rounding Sticks
It is often required to round sticks for poles, masts, spars, arrows, and a great many other purposes. First plane the piece until it is as nearly square, in section, as you can make it. Then use the...
-Rule
A rule with which to lay out your work and measure your stock is one of the first tools of which you can make use. A two-foot rule, folding once, is the most convenient for shop-work, but the more com...
-Sandpaper
The fineness of sandpaper is indicated by numbers-00 (the finest), o, 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 21/2, and 3 (the coarsest). You will use the fine and medium numbers more than the very coarse ones, and will se...
-Saw
Saws are used for cutting across the grain and with the grain and there are various kinds for special purposes. The cross-cutting saw is used, as the name indicates, for cutting across the grain of w...
-Scraper
The scraper is made of saw-blade steel (frequently from an old saw) and may be of any shape or size to suit the work required of it. A common form for scraping flat surfaces is rectangular like a post...
-Screw-Driver
The screw-driver is too familiar to need description, but in buying one see that the end is shaped like either of those shown in Fig. 663 and not as shown in Fig. 664. Cheap screw-drivers are often ma...
-Scribing
Compasses are often used for scribing a line parallel to another line or surface, whether regular or irregular, in places where the gauge cannot be used. Suppose, for instance, you wish to cut the edg...
-Sharpening
Before attempting to sharpen your tools yourself it would be well to read the advice given on page 22 under Care of Tools. The general process of sharpening edged tools is first to grind them to as k...
-Sharpening. Part 2
The tool must be moved back and forth very steadily or instead of a second bevel the whole edge will be rounded (Fig. 672) and will not have the requisite keenness. The angle of this second bevel is u...
-Sharpening. Part 3
When you get to the point of filing and setting your saws you are advised to take a lesson from a good saw-filer. There are few persons so situated that they cannot do this, or at least watch someone ...
-Shelves
Examples of shelves fitted permanently into place are given in Chapter X (Furniture). (on Furniture). Removable shelves can most easily be fitted to rest on cleats screwed to the sides of the space, b...
-Shooting-Board
The shooting-board is very useful for jointing edges, particularly for short, thin stock. The carpenter or cabinet-maker will make you one for a moderate price, or you can make one yourself as soon as...
-Splitting Wood
We have seen how a log in drying cracks along the radial lines (page 31), thus showing the natural lines of cleavage or separation in the direction of the medullary rays, that is, radiating from the c...
-Spokeshave
The spokeshave is very useful for smoothing small curved and irregular surfaces. Metal spokeshaves of various patterns can be bought with various adjustments for different curves, etc. Also a univer...
-Square
This tool is one of the most useful in the list, for the importance of having your work square can hardly be over-estimated. The try-square should have a metal strip on the inside edge of the wood...
-Staining
When you stain wood, do it for the sake of the colour, preserving the beauty of the grain, and not to try to imitate a more expensive wood. It is better, as a rule, to use good wood of a handsome colo...
-Straight-Edge
There are no definite dimensions for a straight-edge. Any piece of wood that is straight and convenient to use can be so called; the size and the length depending on the work for which it is to be use...
-Tacks
Tacks are sold as one-ounce, two-ounce, and so on according to size. Do not use tacks for fastening wood to wood, but only for fastening leather or cloth or the like to wood. The pointed wedge-shape ...
-Truing Surfaces
To true a curved or warped surface, as of a board, lay it on the bench with the rounded side down and wedge it firmly underneath to make it as nearly level as possible. Fig. 685. Fig. 686. Then...
-How To Remove Warping
Of course the simplest way to straighten a warped board is to put a weight on it, but the difficulty here is that it usually will stay straight only while the weight is on it, unless you leave it long...
-Wedges
Wedges are in constant use for lifting or separating heavy bodies, as doubtless you know, and the principle of the wedge comes in in using the axe, hatchet, chisel, knife, and the other edge-tools (se...
-Winding-Sticks
Two straight-edges, each of equal width throughout, can be laid on edge, one across each end of the surface to be tested. Stand back a little and look across the top edge of one to the top edge of the...
-Withdrawing Nails
When withdrawing nails place a block under the hammer-head as shown (Fig. 692), using more blocks, if necessary, as the nail is withdrawn. To draw the nails from boxes, pry up a board, together with ...
-Preservation Of Forests
Forests are of great value from their effect upon the climate, making it more equable. They tend to cause abundant and needed rainfall and to preserve the moisture when fallen, releasing it to the riv...
-Different Kinds Of Wood
The following list makes no claim to completeness, but may be of some use to the beginner Apple This wood is used for turning, such as handles, etc., and for other small work. It is handsome, fine-g...
-Different Kinds Of Wood. Part 2
Boxwood This wood is distinguished for its extremely compact and even grain. It is hard and heavy, is used in turning, wood-engraving, and the like, but is not likely to be required by the amateur. ...
-Different Kinds Of Wood. Part 3
Deal See Pine and Spruce. Ebony The excessive hardness of ebony renders it unsuited for amateur work. It is also expensive. It is very hard and solid, with black heartwood and white sapwood, and is...
-Different Kinds Of Wood. Part 4
Pear The wood of the pear tree is somewhat like that of the apple tree. It can be readily carved. Plum This is a fine-grained, hard wood, used for turning, engraving, etc. Redwood The two varieti...
-Mahogany
This highly valuable wood, which did not come into general use until the eighteenth century, is found in the West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and some other regions. It is very durable. The colou...
-Oak
Of all the broad-leaved trees the oak is probably the most valuable, and has for ages stood as a type of strength. It is widely scattered in various parts of the world, and nearly three hundred variet...
-Pine
First and foremost among the needle-leaved trees comes the pine, of which about seventy species are known. The white pine, known in England as yellow pine and also as Weymouth pine, is widely distribu...
-Timber Felling and Seasoning
A tree should usually be cut for timber at or near its maturity, as a young tree has too much sap-wood and will not be as strong and dense or durable, while an old one is likely to get brittle and ine...
-Timber Decay and Preservation
Timber decays fastest when alternately wet and dry, as in the piles of a wharf, fence-posts, and the like, or when subjected to a hot, moist, close atmosphere, as the sills and floor-timbers situated ...
-Effects of Expansion and Contraction of Timber
Cracks, curling, warping, winding, or twisting are due to nothing but irregular and uneven swelling and shrinking. Some kinds of wood shrink much in drying, others but little. Some, after seasoning, s...
-Effects of Expansion and Contraction of Timber. Part 2
In addition, the knots caused by branches, the twisting of the stems screw-fashion (as is seen in cedar), wounds, and other causes, often produce very crooked and tangled grain, and the wood of many b...
-Effects of Expansion and Contraction of Timber. Part 3
Elevations, whether one or several, must always be taken at right angles to the plan. Although commonly, in simple work, confined to representations of each side or end, they can be taken from any poi...
-A First-Class Bench
The construction of the bench shown on page 101 is not difficult to understand, but considerable skill is required to make a really good one. The arrangement of the vise is shown in Fig. 705, which is...
-Books by G. P. Putnam's Sons
The Adventures of Harry Rochester A Tale of the Days of Marlborough and Eugene By Herbert Strang Author of Kobo, Light Brigade in Spain, etc. Illustrated by William, Mainey, R. I. 12mo - - $1.5...







TOP
previous page: Woodwork Course For Boys | by William Nelson
  
page up: Woodworking Books
  
next page: Carpentry For Beginners - Things To Make | by John D. Adams