Maine, one of the New England states, the most easterly of the American Union, and the tenth admitted under the constitution, between lat. 42° 57' and 47° 32' N., and Ion. 66° 52' and 71° 6' W.; extreme length N. and S. 303 m., extreme width 212 m.; area, 35,000 sq. m. It is bounded N. W. and N. by Quebec, E. by New Brunswick, S. E. and S. by the Atlantic ocean, and "W. by New Hampshire. As established by the treaty of 1842, the boundary on the east is the St. Croix river and a line running due N. from a monument at its source to St. John river; on the north the line follows the St. John and St. Francis rivers to a monument at the outlet of Lake Pohena-gamook; and on the northwest it follows the highlands from this lake in a S. W. direction to the N. E. corner of New Hampshire. Maine is divided into 16 counties, viz.: Androscoggin, Aroostook, Cumberland, Franklin, Hancock, Kennebec, Knox, Lincoln, Oxford, Penobscot, Piscataquis, Sagadahoc, Somerset, Waldo, Washington, and York. The cities are Augusta, the capital (pop. in 1870, 7,808), Auburn (6,169), Bangor (18,289), Bath (7,371), Belfast (5,278), Biddeford (10,282), Calais (5,944), Ellsworth (5,257), Gardiner (4,497), Hallowell (3,007), Lewiston (13,600), Portland (31,413), Rockland (7,074), and Saco (5,755). Portland is the leading commercial city.
The largest towns are Brewer (3,214), Brunswick (4,687), Bucksport (3,433), Camden (4,512), Cape Elizabeth (5,106), Deer Isle (3,414), East-port (3,736), Ellsworth (5,257), Farmington (3,251), Gorham (3,351), Hampden (3,068), Kittery (3,333), Saco (5,755), Skowhegan (3,893), Thomaston (3,092), Waldoborough (4,174), Waterville (4,852), and Westbrook (6,583). - The population of Maine and its rank in the Union, according to the federal enumerations, have been as follows:
State Seal of Maine.
DATE OF CENSUS.
Of the total population in 1870, 313,103 were males and 313,812 were females; 578,034 were native and 48,881 foreign born; and there were 499 Indians and 1 Chinaman enumerated. Of those of native birth, 550,629 were born in Maine, 11,139 in Massachusetts, and 9,753 in New Hampshire. Of the foreigners, 26,788 were born in British America, 15,745 in Ireland, and 3,650 in England. The density of population was 17*91 to a square mile. There were 131,017 families, with an average of 4.78 to each, and 121,953 dwellings, with an average of 5.14 to each. Between 1860 and 1870 there was a decrease of 1,364 or 0.22 per cent, in the total population, this being the only state except New Hampshire in which there was a loss. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 153,160. There were 175,588 persons from 5 to 18 years of age; the total number attending school was 155,140. Of persons 10 years of age and over, 13,486 were unable to read, and 19,052 could not write, of whom 9,646 were males and 9,406 females, making the percentage of illiterates 10 years old and over, to the total population (493,847) of the same age, 3.86, which is less than in any other state except Nevada, where the percentage was 2.38, and New Hampshire, where it was 3.81. In the total number (169,-823) of male adults, 6,585, or 3.88 per cent., were illiterates; and of 174,068 adult females, 6,834, or 3.91 per cent.
The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 4,619, at a cost of $367,000. Of the total number (3,631) receiving support, June 1, 1870, 3,188 were natives and 443 foreigners. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 431. Of the total number (371) in prison June 1, 1870, 261 were of native and 110 of foreign birth. There were 324 blind, 299 deaf and dumb, 792 insane, and 628 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (493,847), there were engaged in all occupations 208,225, of whom 179,784 were males and 28,441 females; in agriculture, 82,011, of whom 24,738 were agricultural laborers, and 56,941 farmers and plant in professional and personal services, 36,092 including 890 clergymen, 11,321 domestic ser-vants, 13,833 laborers not specified, 55b lawyers, 818 physicians and surgeons, and 4,183 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 28,115, of whom 11,670 were sailors; in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 62,007, including 2,697 blacksmiths, 3,757 boot and shoe makers, 6,474 carpenters and joiners, 3,896 fishermen and oystermen, 1,765 lumbermen and raftsmen, 4,187 saw-mill operatives, 2,256 ship carpenters, 2,432 woollen-mill operatives, 8,774 cotton-mill operatives, and 1,131 mill and factory operatives not specified.
The total number of deaths from all causes was 7,728; from consumption, 1,991, there being 3"9 deaths from all causes to 1 from consumption; from pneumonia, 495, or 15.6 deaths from all causes to 1 from pneumonia; from diphtheria and scarlet fever, 602: from intermittent and remittent fever, 39; from cerebro-spinal, enteric, and typhus fevers, 641; from diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis, 269. According to the census of 1870, there was a greater number of deaths from consumption in Maine, in proportion to the total mortality, than in any other state, the ratio being 25,598 deaths from consumption in 100,000 deaths from all causes; while in New Hampshire, the state ranking next in this respect, the ratio was 22,209 in 100,000. - The coast of Maine extends in an E. N. E. direction, from Kittery point on the west to Quoddy head on the east, about 218 m. in a straight line; but following its exact outline, and including the islands, the length of shore line is 2,486 m. It is studded with numerous islands, and indented by many bays and inlets, forming excellent harbors. The largest island is Mount Desert, having an area of 60,000 acres, and lying W. of Frenchman's bay. Its formation is very peculiar, and its scenery picturesque and striking.
Thirteen peaks, the highest of which has an elevation of about 1,800 ft., rise from its surface from W. to X. Besides this, the principal islands are Isle au Haut, off the entrance of Penobscot bay, in which are Deer, Long, and Fox islands, and the Isles of Shoals, a group of eight belonging partly to New Hampshire. Among the largest bays are I as- Bamaquoddv, Machias, Pleasant, Frenchman s, Penobscot, Muscongus, Casco, and Saco. Maine is abundantly supplied with watercourses. The Walloostook, flowing into the St. John in the north, and the Aroostook in the east, each with numerous tributaries, drain the X. portion of the state. The St. Croix, which flows S. into Passamaquoddy bay, forms a portion of the E. boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. The Penobscot, flowing into Penobscot hay, is the largest river, draining with it- branches and connecting lakes the centre of the state, and navigable for large sels to Bangor, 55 m. from its mouth. The Kennebec, W. of the Penobscot, affords great and valuable water power, and is navigable for ships to Hath. 12 m., and for smaller boats to Augusta. 50 m. from its mouth. Further W. are the Androscoggin and Saco. On the southwest the Piscataqua separates Maine from Now Hampshire. Several of the rivers have falls of considerable note.
Scattered over the surface of the state is a great number of lakes the largest of which is Moosehead, 35 m. long and from 4 to 12 m. wide; among others are Sebago, Cinbagog, Chesuncook, Bas-kahegan, Long, Portage, Eagle, Madawaska, Pamedumcook, Millinoket, Sebec, and Schoodic. - The surface is generally hilly, mostly level toward the coast, but rising in the interior. A broken chain of eminences, apparently an ex-tension of the White mountains of New Hampshire, crosses the state from S. W. to N. E., terminating in Mars hill on the borders of New Brunswick. The highest elevation in the range is Mt. Katahdin, 5,385 ft. above the sea. Saddleback, Bigelow, Abraham, North and South Russell, and Haystack are among the others best known. - Maine is almost exclusively a region of the azoic rocks. The W. portion of the state is granitic. The metamorphic rocks abound in a great variety of interesting minerals, and Paris. Oxford CO., is noted for its beautiful colored tourmalines; Parsonsfield, York en., and Phippsburg, on the coast of Lincoln co., for varieties of garnet and various other minerals; Brunswick and Topsham for feldspar, etc.; and Bowdoinham for beryls. Over the surface of the country the drift formation is everywhere spread in the form of bowlders and sand and gravel.
Even upon the highest summits are found scattered rounded fragments of formations situated in places further N. Along the S. portion of the state deposits of tertiary clays are found in many localities beneath the drift. They are characterized by beds of shells of the common clam and mussel, and consequently belong to the newer pliocene. They extend into the interior as far as Augusta and Hallowell, and are penetrated by wells sunk 50 ft. or more below the surface. Limestone quarries are worked in many places among the metamorphic rocks. Along the shore of Passamaquoddy bay are beds of red Bandstone, probably of the age of the Connecticut river sandstone. It is penetrated by dikes of trap, and at the contact of the two rocks are developed many interesting minerals. On Campbell's island and on the shores of Cobscook bay veins of galena are found of some promise at the contact of trap dikes and argillaceous limestone. Trap abounds in this portion of the state, and in the interior it forms hills of considerable extent. The sources of the rivers are in a wild mountainous territory spreading over the central portion of the state. The mountains are in scattered groups, with no appearance of regular ranges.
Their structure is of the metamorphic rocks; and so far as explored they present little of economical importance. On the Aroostook are numerous beds of limestone and one large body 6f red hematite. Argillaceous slates and limestones prevail over the N. portion of the state. - Maine is said to be rich in minerals, especially in Aroostook, Piscataquis, and Washington cos. Besides marble, slate, granite, and limestone, which are sources of wealth, iron, lead, tin, copper, zinc, and manganese exist. There is also abundance of material for the profitable manufacture of alum, copperas, and sulphur. Granite is obtained in blocks of immense size, some weighing more than 100 tons each. It is of fine grain, beautiful in color, and very durable. The marble is better adapted for building than for ornamental purposes. The principal belt of roofing slate, which is found in immense quantities, extends from the Kennebec to the Penobscot river, a distance of about 80 m. The principal quarries are in Piscataquis co. Most of the slate is suitable for tables, blackboards, writing slates, and pencils. Few attempts have been made to work metallic ores. - The climate is one of extremes.
In the year the temperature ranges between 20° or 30° below to 100° above zero; and the isothermal lines vary with the latitude from 45i° to 37° F. The following meteorological summary for Portland, lat. 43° 40' N. and Ion. 70° 14' W., has been reported by the United States signal bureau:
Total rainfall, inches.
In the extreme northern part of the state the temperature ranges from 5° to 10° lower. The winters are severe, but the temperature is uniform and not subject to violent changes. The snow lies on the ground for from three to five months. The northeast winds from the Atlantic in the spring and early summer charged with cold fogs, constitute an unpleasant feature in the climate of a portion of the state. - The soil varies greatly, being sterile in the mountains and fertile in the valleys; the most productive land lies between the Kennebec and Penobscot and in the valley of the St. John. Great forests cover the central and N. portions of the state, yielding immense quantities of timber, which constitutes one of the leading sources of wealth. The most prevalent trees are the pine, spruce, and hemlock; maple, birch, beech, and ash are common, and the butternut, poplar, elm, sassafras, and a variety of others are found in particular districts. Apple, pear, plum, and cherry trees thrive, but the peach has not been cultivated with success. The dense forests still afford retreats for the moose and caribou. There are also the bear, deer, wolf, catamount, wolverene, beaver, marten, sable, weasel, raccoon, wood-chuck, squirrel, etc.
Wild geese and ducks, eagles, hawks, partridges, pigeons, owls, quails, crows, and humming birds are among the most common birds. The waters off the coast abound with fish, chiefly cod, herring, menhaden, and mackerel; and salmon, trout, pickerel, etc, are found in great abundance in the lakes and rivers. - According to the census of 1870, there were 59,804 farms, containing 2,917,-793 acres of improved land, 2,224,740 of woodland, and 695,525 of other unimproved land. The cash value of farms was $102,961,951; of farming implements and machinery, $4,809,-113; total amount of wages paid during the year, including the value of board, $2,903,-292; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $33,470,044; of orchard products, $874,569; of produce of market gardens, $366,-397; of forest products, $1,581,741; of home manufactures, $450,988; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $4,939,071; of all live stock, $23,357,129. The agricultural productions were 278,793 bushels of wheat, 1,089,888 of Indian corn, 34,115 of rye, 2,351,354 of oats, 658,816 of barley, 466,635 of buckwheat, 264,-502 of peas and beans, 7,771,363 of potatoes, 9,114 of grass and clover seed, 1,053,415 tons of hay, 5,435 lbs. of flax, 1,774,168 of wool, 296,850 of hops, 11,636,482 of butter, 1,152,-590 of cheese, 160,805 of maple sugar, 155,640 of honey, 5,253 of wax, 1,374,091 gallons of milk sold, 28,470 of maple molasses, and 7,047 of wine.
There were on farms 71,514 horses, 336 mules and asses, 139,259 milch cows, 60,-530 working oxen, 142,272 other cattle, 434,-666 sheep, and 45,760 swine. - The leading industries are directly connected with the natural yield of land and water, the most characteristic being the production of lumber and lime, the packing of ice, fish, and vegetables, ship building, and stone quarrying. It is estimated that the forests cover 10,505,711 acres, or very nearly one half the entire area of the state. This is not exceeded in any of the other great lumber-producing states except Michigan and Pennsylvania; while the ratio of the woodland to the entire area is greater in Maine than in any other state. The abundant water power renders the use of steam necessary in only a small number of mills. The great lumber mart is Bangor, where the amount surveyed during the season reaches about 200,000,000 ft. The most important centres of tins industry are Penobscot co., where a capital of about $2,-000,000 is employed; Washington co., about $1,500,000; Hancock, Kennebec, and Piscataquis cos. According to the census of 1870, the number of saw mills was 1,099, having 76 steam engines of 3,213 horse power, and 1,660 water wheels of 38,898 horse power, and employing 8,506 hands.
The capital invested amounted to $6,614,875; wages, $2,449,132; materials, $6,872,723; products, $11,395,747. Ship building, which declined during the civil war, has within a few years attained a prosperity exceeding that of former times. In 1870 Maine ranked next to New York and Pennsylvania in the value of work completed, and next to New York in 1873. In the former year 116 establishments were reported, employing 1,810 hands, and a capital of $908,173; the value of materials used was $1,267,146, and of products, $2,365,745. During the year ending Jan. 1, 1874, there were built in the state 276 vessels of 89,817 tons, being the largest tonnage ever built in one year. Among the vessels were 10 ships of 14,594 tons, 25 barks, 12 brigs, 206 schooners, 12 sloops, and 9 steamers. The principal yards are at Passamaquoddy, Machias, Frenchman's Bay, Castine, Bangor, Belfast, Waldoborough, Wiscasset, Bath, Portland and Falmouth, and Kennebunk. According to the census of 1870, the products of the Maine fisheries, exclusive of the whale fisheries, were exceeded onlv bv those of Massachusetts, the value being $979,610. This included 79,373 quintals of cod fish, 2,475 of haddock, 10,955 of hake, 2,653 barrels of herring, 31,901 of mackerel, and 75,334 of miscellaneous fish, besides 40,011 barrels of fish oil.
The value of fish cured and packed was $617,878. In 1873, 861 vessels of 46,196 tons were engaged in the cod and mackerel fisheries. About 2,000 men are employed in this industry. The propagation of salmon and trout by artificial means in the interior waters is carried on with success under the direetion of the state commissioners of fisheries. Along the coast, from Yarmouth to Cape Sable, the packing of fish, lobsters, clams, etc, is extensively carried on. The catching of lobsters is perhaps more extensive here than anywhere else in the country. The canning of vegetables in the interior is an important industry. The value of canned products in 1873 was $1,842,-000; the number of cans was 735,700 dozens, embracing 475,000 dozen cans of corn, 7,500 of succotash, 231,600 of lobsters, 20,000 of salmon, and 1,600 of clams. Ice is gathered chiefly in Kennebec and Knox cos. for exportation to various parts of the world. In 1873, 24 establishments cut 301,000 tons, valued at $552,000. Most of the granite quarries are on the coast, the principal ones being in Knox and Lincoln counties. Here the granite is dressed and shaped for use in buildings in distant parts of the country.
The stone quarried in 1870 was valued at $586,738, and the slate at $85,000. According to the census of 1870, Maine had more capital invested in the production of lime than any other state except New York, and produced more in value than any except Pennsylvania; the capital invested amounting to $1,058,000, and the products to $1,741,553. In the manufacture of cotton goods Maine in 1870 ranked sixth among the states. The manufacture of woollen goods is also an important industry. The census of 1870 gives the number of manufacturing establishments at 5,550, using 354 steam engines of 9,465 horse power, and 2,7G0 water wheels of 70,108 horse power, and employing 49,180 hands, of whom 34,310 were males above 10 years of age, 13,448 females above 15, and 1,422 youth. The amount of capital invested was $39,790,190; wages paid during the year, $14,282,205; value of materials, $49,397,757; of products, $79,497,521. The leading industries are indicated in the following statement:
No. of establishments.
Steam engines, horse power.
Water wheels, horse power.
Bleaching and dying...
Boots and shoes...
Carriages and wagons...
Cotton goods, not specified...
" batting and wadding...
" thread, twine, and yarn...
Edge tools and axes...
Fish, cured and packed...
. . - .
Flouring and irrist mill products..........
Iron, forged and rolled...
" anchors and cable chains............
" nails and spikes, cut and wrought___
" castings, not specified...
" stoves, heaters, and hollowware...
" morocco, tanned and curried.....
Molasses and sugar,refined...
Oil, floor cloth...........................
Ship building, repairing, and ship materials .......................
1 263 821
2 358 445
The industrial interests of Maine have been greatly extended in recent years. The condition of the most important industries in 1873, according to the state industrial statistician, is approximately given in the following statement, the number of establishments making returns being less than the actual number:
Value of products.
Bleaching and dyeing...
Roots and shoes.....
Carriages,wagons, and sieghs...........
Cotton batting, warp, and yarn..........
Fish, cured and packed..
No. of establishments.
Value of products.
Flouring and grist mill products ..........
Ice, prepared for market
Iron, east, forged, and; rolled................
Leather, tanned and curried ..................
Lumber, long and short.
Machinery, cotton and woollen..............
Machinery, steam en-, gines, ears, etc.......
Paper, printing and wrap-ping.................
Printing and publishing.
Sash, doors, and blinds.
Shooks, box and hogshead .............
According to the same authority, the total number of establishments devoted to manufacturing and mechanical industry was 6,072, employing 55,614 hands; the capital invested amounted to $48,808,448; materials used, $57,911,468; wages paid, $16,584,164; value of products, $96,209,136. - The extensive sea-coast and numerous harbors of Maine give the state great facilities for commerce. The harbor at Portland is one of the best on the Atlantic coast. There are 14 United States customs districts, viz.: Aroostook (port of entry, Houl-ton), Passamaquoddy (port of entry, Eastport), Machias, Frenchman's Bay (port of entry, Ellsworth), Castine, Bangor, Belfast, Waldobor-ough, Wiscasset, Bath, Portland and Falmouth, Saco, Kennebunk, and York. The imports from foreign countries and domestic exports for the year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows:
Portland and Falmouth...
The chief articles of import were coal, fish, iron, sugar, molasses, and wool; of export, cotton goods, canned fruit, fish, and vegetables, boots and shoes, bacon and hams, lard, and lumber. The vessels entering from and clearing for foreign countries, together with the vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in the ditterent districts, were as follows-
Portland and Falmouth___
Besides these, there were entered in the coasting trade and fisheries 2,291 vessels of 1,124,-127 tons, and cleared 1,526 of 847,17s ions. Of the total number registered, enrolled, and licensed, 3,157 of 547,665 tons were sailing, and 63 of 18,025 tons were steam vessels. The transit and transshipment trade at Portland is larger than that of any other port in the United States. - Maine had 11 miles of railroad in 1841, 293 in 1851, 472 in 1861, 871 in 1871, and 945 in 1874. A board of three railroad commissioners, appointed by the governor and council, are required to examine into and report upon the condition of the railroads in the state, the cause of accidents, etc. The lines in operation at the beginning of 1875, with their mileage, were as follows:
NAME OF CORPORATION.
Miles in operation in the state in
Length between termini when different from preceding.
Atlantic and St.Lawrence...
Bangor and Bucksport...
Bangor and Piscataquis...
Belfast and Moosehead Lake...
Boston and Maine...
Eruopean and North American..
Knox and Lincoln...
Leeds and Farmington..
Newport and Dexter...
Portland and Kennebec...
Poetland and Ogdensburg...
Portland Oxford Central...
Portland and Rochester...
Portsmouth. NRochester, N.H.... H___
Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth...
Portsmouth,Great Falls, and Conway...
St.Croix and Penobcot...
• • .
Of the lines above mentioned, the Androscoggin, Belfast and Moosehead Lake, Leeds and Farmington, Newport and Dexter, and Portland and Kennebec are leased and operated by the Maine Central company; the Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth, by the Eastern of Massachusetts; the Atlantic and St. Lawrence by the Grand Trunk of Canada; and the Bangor and Piscataquis by the European and North American railway company. Lines of steamers ply regularly between the larger cities and Boston. Steamers also ply between Portland, New York, St. John, N. B., and Halifax, and during the winter between Portland and Liverpool and Glasgow. - The number of national bonks in operation in 1874 was 04, having a paid-in capital of $9,840,000, and a circulation outstanding of $7,946,576. The circulation per capita was $12 67, while the ratio of circulation to wealth was 2.2 per cent., and to bank capital 80.8 per cent. Savings banks are well distributed throughout Maine, and are managed with great care. In 1874 there were 58 with $81,051,963 deposits and 96,799 depositors, the average amount on deposit by each being $320. The deposits in these institutions amount to nearly $0,500,000 more than the circulation and deposits of the national banks of the state.
The number of tiro, marine, and lire and marine insurance companies doing business in the state, Jan. 1, 1874. was 120, of which 41 were Maine com-panies. - The government of Maine is founded on the constitution of 1820. Every adult male citizen of the United States, not a pauper or criminal, who has resided in the state three months, is entitled to vote at elections. The legislature is composed of a senate of 31 members and a house of representatives of 151 members, all elected annually by the people. The general election is held on the second Monday in September, and the legislature meets in Augusta on the first Wednesday in January annually. The governor (salary $2,500) is also elected annuallv, and is assisted in his executive duties by a council of seven members, elected on joint ballot by the legislature. The secretary of stated (salary $1,500) and the state treasurer (salary $1,600) are also elected by the same body and in the same way. Other state officers are the attorney general, adjutant general, superintendent of common schools, land agent, insurance commissioner, bank examiner, three railroad commissioners, superintendent of public buildings, librarian, two assayers, inspector general of beef and pork, inspector general of n\h, two commissioners of fisheries, industrial statistician, and two Indian agents.
The governor appoints, with the advice and consent of the council, besides certain judicial officers, the attonney general, the sheriffs, coroners, registers of probate, and notaries public. The judiciary consists of a supreme court of eight judges, who are appointed by the governor and council for a term of seven years, and receive a salary of $3,000 a year each; the superior court of Cumberland co., held in Portland, with one judge appointed in the same way and for the same term; probate courts in each county, the judges being elected by the people for terms of lour years; municipal and police courts; and trial justices, appointed by the governor and council for seven years, with jurisdiction where the amount does not exceed $20. The state is divided into three judicial districts, eastern, middle, and western in each of which the supreme court holds an annual session as a court of law. Trial terms are also held in each county for civil and criminal business, except that in Cumberland co. the superior court has exclusive criminal jurisdiction. In each county there is a judge and register of probate. There is a state board of immigration, consisting of the governor, secretary of state, and land agent, who are required to appoint a commissioner of immigration.
The board may give to each male adult immigrant 100 acres of the public land on which to settle. It is the duty of the industrial statistician, which office was created in 1873, to collect and publish statistical information concerning the manufacturing, mining, commercial, agricultural, and other industrial interests, together with the valuation and appropriations for various purposes of the several towns and cities of the state. Maine is represented in congress by two senators and five representatives, and has therefore seven votes in the electoral college. - The laws for the prevention of intemperance in Maine have always been of a rigid character. The present law vests the sale of intoxicating liquors in special agents appointed by the state, and prohibits all other persons from selling such liquors, including ale, porter, strong beer, lager beer, and other malt liquors, wine, and cider, as well as all distilled spirits. The manufacture of intoxicating liquors for unlawful sale is also forbidden. The provisions of the law, however, do not extend to the manufacture and sale of unadulterated cider or wine made from fruit grown in the state.
The lawful sale of liquors is under the direction of a commissioner who is appointed by the governor, and who is required to furnish municipal officers of towns in Maine, and duly authorized agents of other states, with pure unadulterated intoxicating liquors, to be sold for medicinal, mechanical, and manufacturing purposes. If an authorized agent violates the law, he is subject to a fine not exceeding $30, and imprisonment not exceeding three months; while the penalty for a violation by a common seller is $100 fine or three months' imprisonment for the first, and $250 fine and four months' imprisonment for the second and each subsequent offence. Any one having been injured by an intoxicated person may maintain an action for damages against the person who sold the liquor; and the owner or lessee of the building in which the liquor was sold is jointly liable if cognizant that it was used for such purposes. A married woman may hold in her own right real and personal estate acquired by descent, gift, or purchase, and may convey or devise the same by will, without the consent of her husband, except such real estate as has been directly or indirectly conveyed to her by her husband or his relatives, in which case the husband must join in the conveyance.
A woman does not lose and a husband does not acquire rights to her property by marriage. The husband is not liable for the debts of the wife contracted before marriage, nor for those afterward contracted in her own name; but she is liable in both cases, and may be sued. Marriages, births, and deaths must be registered in every town, and reported to the secretary of state. Intention of marriage must be recorded in the office of the town clerk at least five days before the certificate is granted, and the marriage must be solemnized by a minister or justice of the peace. White persons are prohibited from marrying negroes, Indians, or mulat-toes. Treason, murder in the first degree, and arson of an occupied dwelling in the night, are punishable with death; so also is killing in a duel, and the seconds are liable to the same punishment as the principals. Rape, arson of a dwelling in the day time, and burglary at night by a person armed with a weapon, or making an assault, are punishable with imprisonment for life.
Adultery is punished with imprisonment for not less than one nor more than five years. - The receipts into the state treasury during the year ending Jan. 1, 1875, amounted to $1,423,473, and the expenditures to $1,524,-497. Of the receipts, $142,258 was from the tax on savings banks, and $67,996 on public lands, while nearly all of the remainder, about $1,170,000, was from direct taxation. Of the expenditures, $432,200 was on account of interest, and $238,276 on account of sinking fund and principal of public debt; about $82,-000 for special and exceptional appropriations; $407,477 to towns for common schools; and about $320,000 for general state purposes. On Jan. 1, 1875, the entire amount of the public debt was $7,088,400, of which $2,223,000 was in registered and $4,865,400 in coupon bonds. Deducting the sinking fund ($1,514,-022) held for the payment of the debt, the liability of the state amounted to $5,574,378. While in many other states a large portion of the public revenues is raised by indirect taxation, in Maine nearly the entire amount is derived from direct taxes. The rate on the valuation of 1874 was five mills on the dollar.
The total value of real and personal property in 1874, estimated on a true cash basis, was stated at $254,000,000. The assessed value of real estate, as returned by the census of 1870, was $134,580,157, and of personal property $69,673,623; the true valuation of real and personal estate'was $348,155,671. The total amount of taxation not national was $5,348,-645, of which $1,350,305 was state, $315,199 county, and $3,683,141 town, city, etc - The institutions supported wholly or in part by the state are the insane hospital, reform school, state prison, soldiers' orphans' home, and two normal schools. The insane hospital in Augusta was opened in 1840, since which time 4,404 patients have been received, of whom 4,011 have been discharged, 1,770 recovered, 767 improved, 675 unimproved, and 799 have died. The daily average under treatment in 1874 was 406. Of the 393 in the hospital at the close of the year, 43 were supported by the state, 291 were receiving state aid of $1 50 per week, and 59 were supported by their friends at the rate of $4 or $7 per week, according to accommodations. The capacity of this institution is inadequate to the needs'of the state, and provision has been made for the erection of another.
The total expenditures on account of the hospital in 1874 were $103,917, of which thestate paid about $34,000 for the support of indigent insane, and towns and individuals about $56,000. Maine has no state institutions for the care of the deaf and dumb or the blind; but $14,179 was paid from the treasury in 1878 for the education in other institutions of 55 deaf and dumb and 11 blind beneficiaries. The state prison at Thomaston at the beginning of 1874 contained 129 convicts, of whom 55 were under sentence for larceny, 20 for bunrlary, and 12 for murder. The average annual number of commitments during the ten years ending with 1873 was about 51. With the exception of a period of about eight years, the state has always employed the labor of the convicts in manufacturing operations on its own account, producing carriages, harness, and boots and shoes. In 1873 the labor of the convicts defrayed all the expenses of the institution, and yielded to the state a net profit of $2,084. During the 20 years ending with 1873 the sales of the product of convict labor amounted to $614,028. A beginning has been made of introducing this system of industry into the various county jails.
The average number of convicts in the 13 jails of the state in 1873 was 76, making with the average number in the state prison (146) a total of 222. The reform school, opened in 1852, is about 4 m. from Portland, where a farm of 160 acres is devoted to the purposes of the institution. Boys between the ages of 8 and 16 years are received, and besides attending school four hours a day are occupied in farming, making bricks, shoes, and chairs, and in general housework. The average number of boys in 1874 was 137, and the appropriation by the state amounted to $20,000. An industrial school for girls was opened in Hallowell in 1875. The military and naval orphans' asylum at Bath affords a home for the children of the soldiers who died in the civil war. The number of inmates at the close of 1874 was 55; state appropriation, $10,000. There is also a general orphan asylum in Bangor, which receives state aid. The Maine general hospital in Portland is aided by the state. - The educational interests of the state are under the supervision of a state superintendent, appointed by the governor and council, and there are city superintendents.
Every city, town, and plantation is required to raise and expend annually for the support of schools therein not less than $1 for each inhabitant, under penalty of not receiving any share of the state school fund. The permanent school fund, derived chiefly from the sales of wild lands belonging to the state, amounts to $369,883. Besides the income of this fund, the chief sources of revenue for school purposes are a state tax of one mill per dollar of valuation, a town tax of 80 cents per capita, and a tax of one half mill per dollar of the deposits of savings banks. The cost of supporting the public schools in 1874 (current expenses) was $1,237,-778 being about '005 on the state valuation, for each inhabitant, $5 49 for each person of school age, and $11 21 according to the average attendance. The school funds are apportioned among the several towns according to the number of persons between 4 and 21 years of age. The chief facts relating to the schools of the state are as follows:
Number of persons between 4 and 21 years of ape. 225.219 registered in summer schools............ 122,458
Average attendance ............................ 98,744
Number rejrtetered in winter schools............. 182,888
Average attendance............................. 108,478
Average duration of schools for the year. 20 weeks and 2 days.
Number of school districts....................... 4,043 houses........................ 4,199
Estimated value of all school property......... $3,079,311 teachers in summer........................ 161
" in winter.......................... 1,928
Female teachers in summer...................... 4.300 in winter........................ 2.307
Teachers, graduates of normal schools............ 294
Average wages of male teachers per month....... $30 17 of female teachers per week...... $4 05
Amount of school money voted................ $673,314
Excess above amount required by law............ $1S7,7S2
Amount raised per scholar....................... $2 90 received from state treasury during 1874. $367,009
By a recent act of the legislature a system of free high schools throughout the state has been established, the state defraying one half the cost of instruction upon certain conditions. In 1874 there were 355 terms of free high schools open, with 14,820 pupils enrolled. The amount paid by the state in aid of these was $39,969, Sixteen teachers' institutes were held in 1874, besides numerous educational conventions and associations. The normal schools are under the direction of seven trustees, five of whom are appointed by the governor, who, with the superintendent of common schools, is an ex officio member. The western state normal school at Farmington was established in 1803, and in 1873-4 had 8 instructors and 63 students during the autumn and 8G during the spring term, besides 31 in the model school. The course occupies two years, and tuition is free to those pledging themselves to teach in the public schools of Maine for as long a period as they have been connected with the normal school.
The eastern state normal school at Castine was opened in 1.07. and in 1873-'4 had 8 instructors and 94 students in the autumn, 58 in the winter, and 130 in the spring term; 170 of the total were females, and 112 males.' Tuition is free, but graduates are expected to become teachers in the public schools of the state In 1873 the state appropriated $17,500 for norma schools. The state college of agriculture and the mechanic arts at Orono, has received the grant of public lands mad. by congress for the establishment and maintenance of such institutions in the several states. A farm of 370 acres of superior land affords excellent facilities for the experimental purposes of the institution. Five courses of instruction are offered: in agriculture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry, and an elective course. The studies of the several courses are essentially in common during the first two years. Prominence is given to military instruction, and the students are required to devote not exceeding three hours a day for five days in the week to manual labor, for which they receive compensation. This institution was opened in 1868, and in 1874 had 8 instructors and 121 students. It is provided with valuable apparatus and a library of 2,000 volumes.
The most prominent educational institutions are Bowdoin coir lege in Brunswick (see Bowdoin College), Colby university (Baptist) at Waterville, and Bates college (Freewill Baptist) at Lewiston. Colby university was organized in 1820, and in 1874 had 7 instructors and 62 students; the library contains about 10,000 volumes; 66 scholarships, each yielding from $36 to $60 per annum, have been founded for the benefit of students needing aid; the university is open to students of both sexes. Bates college was organized in 1863; connected with it is a theological department, which was opened in 1870; the libraries of the institution comprise 8,300 volumes; in 1874 there were 8 instructors and 104 students, besides 18 students in the theological department. The theological seminary at Bangor (Congregational), established in 1820, is open to the Protestants of every denomination; the course of instruction comprises three years; in 1874 there were 4 professors, 40 students, 520 alumni, and a library of 14,000 volumes. Instruction in med-icine is afforded by the medical department of Bowdoin college, which is known as the medical school of Maine, and by the Portland med-ical school.
The Maine Wesleyan seminary, at Kent's Hill, and the Westbrook seminary (Uni-versalist), with a collegiate course for young ladies, at Deering, afford to students of both sexes classical, scientific, normal, and other courses. In 1874 the former had 14 instructors and 389 pupils, of whom 176 were females, and a library of 25,000 volumes, besides valuable collections. The East Maine conference seminary and commercial college, pleasantly situated at Bucks-port, is also open to both sexes, and provides several courses of instruction; in 1874 there were 6 instructors and 201 students, including 92 females. - According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 3,334 libraries, containing 984,510 volumes; of these, 1,872, with 450,963 volumes, were private, and 1,462, with 533,547 volumes, were other than private, including the state library with 20,000 volumes, 58 town and city with 14,649 volumes, 19 law with 9,748, 25 school, college, etc, with 63,425, 1,079 Sabbath school with 277,742, 140 church with 39,910, and 136 circulating with 100,273. The principal libraries are the state library in Augusta, which in 1874 contained 28,000 volumes; Bowdoin college, 35,000; Portland institute and public library, 15,378; Bangor theological seminary, 14,000; mechanics' association library of Bangor, 13,700; Colby university, 10,000; Bates college, 8,300; and Hallowell social library, 5,000. The number of newspapers and periodicals was 65, having an aggregate circulation of 170,690, and issuing annually 9,867,680 copies.
In 1870 there were 7 daily newspapers, with a circulation of 10,700; 1 triweekly, circulation 350; 47 weekly, circulation 114,600; 1 semi-monthly periodical, circulation 700; 8 monthly, circulation 42,840; and 1 quarterly, circulation 1,500. In 1874 there were 9 dailies, 56 weeklies, 1 semi-monthly, 4 monthlies, and 1 quarterly. - The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 1,326, having 1,102 edifices with 376,038 sittings, and property valued at $5,196,853. The denominations were represented as follows:
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian)...
Maine was visited in 1602 by Bartholomew Gosnold; in 1603 by Martin Pring; in 1604 by the French under De Monts, who wintered near the present site of Calais on the St. Croix, and in the following spring took possession of the shores of the river Sagadahoc or Kennebec; and in 1605 by Capt. George Weymouth. In 1607 the Plymouth company, having obtained a grant which included this territory, sent out a colony under George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert, but it remained only one year. In 1613 a French colony fitted out by Mme. de Guercheville, a pious Catholic lady to whom had been transferred the patent of De Monts, landed at Mount Desert, with the purpose of establishing a centre for missionary operations. The Virginia magistrates, however, sent an armed force which dispersed the emigrants and destroyed their settlement. In the following yea/Capt, John Smith arrived at Monhegan island, and went at once to the Kennebec, where he traded profitably with the Indians, explored the coasts, and compiled a short history of the country.
In 1620 Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained a new patent from James I., granting to the Plymouth company all the country between lat. 40° and 48° N, including that upon which the pilgrims landed in the following December. Gorges regarded these persons as intruders, and subsequently endeavored to oust them as well as the Massachusetts colony established under Winthrop at Charlestown and Boston. In 1621 the company transferred to William Alexander, afterward earl of Stirling, the country E. of the St, Croix (then all designated Nova Scotia), thus establishing the E. boundary of Maine as it now stands. Monhegan, the first or one of the first spots in Maine permanently peopled by Europeans, was settled in 1622, and Saco in 1623, or perhaps earlier. About 1629 the Plymouth company began to parcel out their territory in grants to suit applicants. In that year John Mason acquired the territory lying between the Merrimack and Piscataqua rivers, and called it New Hampshire, thereby settling the western boundary of Maine. In the course of two or three years the whole coast had thus been disposed of as far E. as the Penobscot. The country between the Penobscot and St. Croix, and even to the W. of the former river, was claimed by the French, and long remained a subject of dispute.
In 1635 the Plymouth company, having resolved to give up its charter to the government, divided the territory among its members, Gorges taking the whole region between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, of which he subsequently (1639) received a formal charter from Charles I. under the title of the province of Maine. Gorges was now appointed governor general of New England, with almost unlimited powers. (Seo Goeges.) His son Thomas was sent over as deputy in 1640, and established himself at Agamenticus, now York, where in 1642 arose a city called Gorgeana. On the deatli of Sir Ferdinando, Maine descended to his heirs. It was now really placed under four different jurisdictions: 1, that of Gorges, extending from the W. line to Kennebunk; 2, that of Kigby, from Kennebunk to the borders of the Kennebec valley, held under grant from Sir Ferdinando; 3, the Sagadahoc, from the Kennebec to the Penobscot; 4, the French (Acadia), from the Penobscot to the St. Croix. Massachusetts, apprehending that these fragmentary and unsettled governments might fall into hands hostile to her interests, and stimulated by the wishes of many of the inhabitants, set up (1651) a claim under her charter to the province of Maine, and sent commissioners to admit the people of Gorges's and Kigby's grants into the jurisdiction of the Bay colony.
The governments of Gorges and Rigby remonstrated, and carried the matter before the English parliament; but the Puritan party was now in the ascendancy at home, and the claims of the Puritan colony of Massachusetts were heard with more favor than the pn.tests of zealous royalists and adherents of the established church. In 1652, 150 freemen in five towns took the oath of allegiance to Massachusetts, which continued to exercise its authority in such a way as to prove that, however slight its claim to jurisdiction, the transfer was equally beneficial to both parties. The towns were governed in local matters nearly as they are now, and the rules of church discipline were less strict than in some other colonic- the poplc being generally favorable to religious freedom. No arts of persecution stain their history, and they frequently afforded an asylum to fugitives from intolerance in other part-. In 1653 Cromwell annulled the tran-fer of Acadia to France, which had been effected in 1682, and sent out Sir Thomas Temple a- governor.
He retained his post till 1667, when Acadia reverted to France in accordance with the treaty of Breda. In the mean time the Stuarts had been recalled to the throne of England, and the heirs of Gorges petitioned for the restoration of their territory in Maine. Royal commissioners were accordingly sent by Charles II. in 1664 to reestablish the authority of the grantees. Massachusetts resisted, and a conflict of jurisdictions ensued, which was terminated in 1677 by Massachusetts purchasing the interests of the claimants for £1,250 sterling. As early as 1607, according to De Peyster's "Dutch in Maine," the Dutch had attempted to gain and colonize this coast. In 1674 they conquered the coasts of Nova Scotia and Acadia adjacent to the Penobscot, tirst capturing Fort Pentagoet or Pemtegeovett (Castine). In 1676 Cornells Steenwyck was made governor of the conquered district by the Dutch West India company. The Hollanders, however, were soon after expelled by settlers from Boston. In 1675 the first Indian war in Maine was begun by King Philip, at whose instigation a series of unprovoked attacks were made upon the settlers, and more than 100 white persons were massacred within three months.
Thenceforth the savages held the country in terror till 1700. Meanwhile disputes were excited by the claims of the duke of York, who, under a grant from Charles II. of the Dutch territories in North America, pro-fessed to hold all that part of Maine lying between the Kennebec and St. Croix rivers. Sir Edmund Andros was commissioned as governor of the duke's territories in New York and Maine; but Massachusetts, having caused a new survey of the E. limit of her patent to be made, under which she pushed her boundary forward to the \Y. shore of Penobscot bay, continued to hold possession of all the colony except Sagadahoc and Pemaquid. When the duke came to the throne as James II., Andros was made governor of New England, and visited Maine, where he was guilty of great extortion. The Massachusetts charter had already been declared forfeit. The revolution of 1688, however, restored things to their former state, and thenceforth the history of the colony of Maine is merged in that of Massachusetts. From the close of Indian hostilities Maine began to make steady progress in civilization and wealth. The war of the revolution affected her but little, hut during that of 1812 she was again exposed to the horrors of frontier struggles.
The British obtained possession of a part of the country, and kept it until the conclusion of peace. The final separation of Maine from Massachusetts took place March 15, 1820, when she was admitted into the Union as an independent state. Ever since the treaty of 1783 a dispute had existed between the government of the United States and Great Britain as to the proper interpretation of that treaty so far as it related to the boundary between Maine and the British possessions. This controversy was finally settled by the treaty of Washington in 1842, by which Maine and the United States agreed to cede to Great Britain a small portion of the territory claimed by her, in return for the concession of Rouse's Point and the free navigation of the river St. John. The enterprise of founding a Swedish colony in Aroostook, begun in 1870, has proved successful. The place selected is called New Sweden, where in 1873 about 600 Swedes aided by the state had settled upon 20,000 acres of land. The colonists have their own municipal organization and schools, in which the chief study is the English language.
Maine, an ancient province of France, and with Perche one of the great military governments of the kingdom, bounded N. by Normandy, E. by Perche and Orleannais, S. by Tou-raine and Anjou, and W. by Brittany. It is now almost entirely included in the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. Its capital was Le Mans. Under the Carlovingian and early Capetian kings the province was governed by counts; it was subsequently in turn united with Normandy and Anjou, became subject to the kings of England, was wrested from John by Philip Augustus, and after various transfers was united with the crown of France in 1481.