Iowa, one of the interior states of the American Union, and the 16th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 40° 20' and 43° 30' N., and Ion. 90° 12' and 96° 38' W.; general extent N. and S. 208 m., and E. and W. about 300 m.; area, 55,045 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Minnesota, E. by the Mississippi, which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, S. by Missouri, and W. by the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, which separate it from Nebraska and Dakota. The state is divided into 99 counties, viz.: Adair, Adams, Allamakee, Appanoose, Audubon, Benton, Black Hawk, Boone, Bremer, Buchanan, Buena Vista, Butler, Calhoun, Carroll, Cass, Cedar, Cerro Gordo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Clarke, Clay, Clayton, Clinton, Crawford, Dallas, Davis, Decatur, Delaware, Des Moines, Dickinson, Dubuque, Emmett, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Fremont, Greene, Grundy, Guthrie, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Harrison, Henry, Howard, Humboldt, Ida, Iowa, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Kossuth, Lee, Linn, Louisa, Lucas, Lyon, Madison, Mahaska, Marion, Marshall, Mills, Mitchell, Monona, Monroe, Montgomery, Muscatine, O'Brien, Osceola, Page, Palo Alto, Plymouth, Pocahontas, Polk, Pottawattamie, Poweshiek, Ringgold, Sac, Scott, Shelby, Sioux, Story, Tama, Taylor, Union, Van Buren, Wapello, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Webster, Winnebago, Winneshiek, Woodbury, Worth, Wright. Des

State Seal of Iowa.

State Seal of Iowa.

Moines is the capital. The cities of Iowa, as reported by the census of 1870, were: Burlington, having 14,930 inhabitants; Cedar Falls, 3,070; Cedar Rapids, 5,940; Clinton, 6,129; Council Bluffs, 10,020; Davenport, 20,038; Des Moines, 12,035; Dubuque, 18,435; Fairfield, 2,226; Fort Dodge, 3,095; Fort Madison, 4,011; Glenwood, 1,291; Independence, 2,945; Iowa City, the former capital, 5,914; Keokukj 12,766; Lyons, 4,088; McGregor, 2,074; Ma-quoketa, 1,756; Marshalltown, 3,218; Muscatine, 6,718; Oskaloosa, 3,204; Ottumwa, 5,214; Sioux City, 3,401; Waterloo, 4,337; Waverly, 2,291; and Winterset, 1,485. The population of Iowa (exclusive of tribal Indians, now numbering about 300, other Indians being included in the total), according to the federal census, and its rank in the Union, have been as follows:

YEARS.

White.

Colored.

Total.

Rank.

1840.........

42,924

188

43,112

28

1850.........

191.881

333

192,214

27

1860.........

673,779

1,069

674,913

20

1870.........

1,188,207

5,762

1,194,020

11

According to the state census of 1873, the population had increased to 1,251,333. There were 231,540 dwellings and 238,098 families. The number of persons entitled to vote was 261,205; of militia, 190,383; of foreigners not naturalized, 26,250. The population of Burlington was returned at 20,156; Council Bluffs, 10,525; Davenport, 20,550; Des Moines, 15,061; Dubuque, 22,151; Keokuk, 11,761. Of the total population in 1870, 625,917 were males and 568,103 females; 989,328 were of native and 204,692 of foreign birth, including 115,053 males and 89,639 females. Of the native population, 428,620 were born in the state, 65,391 in Illinois, 64,083 in Indiana, 14,186 in Kentucky, 5,943 in Maine, 5,972 in Maryland, 8,929 in Massachusetts, 8,918 in Michigan, 13,831 in Missouri, 5,057 in New Hampshire, 5,688 in New Jersey, 79,143 in New York, 5,090 in North Carolina, 126,285 in Ohio, 73,435 in Pennsylvania, 12,204 in Vermont, 19,558 in Virginia and West Virginia, and 24,309 in Wisconsin. Of the foreigners, 17,907 were born in British America, 2,827 in Denmark, 3,130 in France, 66,162 in Germany, 16,660 in England, 40,124 in Ireland, 5,248 in Scotland, 1,967 in Wales, 4,513 in Holland, 17,558 in Norway, 10,796 in Sweden, and 3,937 in Switzerland. The density of population was 21 .69 to a square mile.

There were 222,430 families with an average of 5.37 persons to each, and 219,846 dwellings with an average of 5.44 persons to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 76.91 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 255,802. There were 394,696 persons from 5 to 18 years of age; the total number attending school was 306,353; 24,115 persons 10 years old and upward were unable to read, and 45,671 could not write; of the latter, 24,979 were of native and 20,692 of foreign birth; 44,145 were white and 1,524 colored; 21,065 were males and 24,704 females; 5,928 were from 10 to 15 years of age, 3,826 from 15 to 21, and 35,980, 21 and over, of whom 14,782 were white males, 19,825 white females, 635 colored males, and 673 colored females; 5.3 per cent. of the male adults and 8.37 per cent. of the female adults were illiterate. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1,1870, was 1,543, at a cost of $175,179; 853 were receiving support at the end of the year, of whom 542, including 56 colored, were of native, and 311 of foreign birth. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 615. Of the number (397) in prison June 1, 1870, 287 were of native and 110 of foreign birth.

The state contained 465 blind, 549 deaf and dumb, 742 insane, and 533 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (837,-959), there were engaged in all occupations 344,276; in agriculture, 210,263, of whom 69,-821 were laborers, 139,478 farmers and planters, and 810 gardeners and nurserymen; in professional and personal services, 58,484, including 1,596 clergymen, 15,725 domestic servants, 202 journalists, 24,823 laborers not specified, 1,456 lawyers, 1,865 physicians and surgeons, 6,012 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 28,210; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 47,319. The number of deaths from all causes was 9,597; from consumption, 1,313, being one death from that disease to 7.3 from all causes; from pneumonia, 678, or 1 to 14.2; from whooping cough, 337, being a higher ratio of deaths from that disease than in any other state except Nebraska and Arkansas; from diphtheria and scarlet fever, 473; intermittent and remittent fevers, 161; enteric fever, 521; diarrhoea, 339; dysentery, 228; enteritis, 238. - Besides the great rivers which bound it, Iowa has a large number of interior watercourses, many navigable, and others of less dimensions, but supplying abundant water power.

All the streams of the state flow into the great boundary rivers. The Mississippi receives the Des Moines, the Checaque or Skunk, the Iowa and its affluent the Red Cedar, the Wapsipinicon, the Maquo-keta, the Turkey, the Upper Iowa, etc, all of which have S. E. courses, and generally run parallel with each other. The Iowa rises in Hancock co., in the northern part of the state, and empties into the Mississippi 35 m. above Burlington; its length is about 300 m., and it is navigable to Iowa City, 80 m. The rivers flowing to the Missouri are short, and as to volume scarcely compare with the smallest class flowing to the Mississippi. The Big Sioux forms a portion of the W. boundary. The Chariton, Grand, Platte, Nodaway, and Nishnabatona rise in the south of Iowa, pass into Missouri, and join the Missouri river in its course through that state. The largest interior river of the state is the Des Moines, which flows from N. W. to S. E. not less than 300 m. through Iowa, and drains more than 10,000 sq. m. of its territory. It forms a portion of the boundary line between Iowa on the N. E. and Missouri on the S. W. Next in size of the interior rivers is the Red Cedar, which rises in Minnesota, and after a S. E. course joins the Iowa in Louisa co. about 30 m. from its mouth.

One of the most important streams of N. W. Iowa is Little Sioux river, which rises near the Minnesota border, and after meandering about 250 m. falls into the Missouri. In the northern portion of the state there are numerous small but beautiful lakes, which are a part of the system of lakes extending northward into Minnesota. One of the largest, Lake Okoboji, in Dickinson co., is about 15 m. long and from 1/4 to 2 m. wide. - The surface of Iowa is generally undulating, and forms a country of unrivalled beauty. It has no mountains nor even high hills; yet on the margins of the rivers there are frequent bluffs of calcareous strata intersected by ravines. These bluffs are generally from 40 to 130 ft. high, and are the breastwork of table lands which sweep away from them in gentle undulations. The southern portion of the state is the most picturesque, abounding with grassy lawns and verdant plains, interspersed with groves and meandering rivulets, and intersected by the larger rivers which flow to the Mississippi or by the numerous affluents of the Missouri. In the northeastern part the surface is more elevated, hills and mounds are not uncommon, their tops covered with towering oaks, and the rivers tumble over precipitous ledges of craggy rocks.

The N. E. section abounds in lead ore and various other metals, but nevertheless contains much excellent land. The unique and admirably diversified prairies of Iowa are, however, its most distinguishing feature. These natural meadows are covered with a rich coating of coarse grass, forming excellent pasturage, and are not un-f requently interspersed with hazel thickets and fragrant shrubs, and in the season of flowers are decorated with a brilliant garniture of honeysuckles, jessamines, wild roses, and violets. - A geological survey of Iowa was begun under the direction of Prof. James Hall, the chemical and mineralogical department being conducted by Mr. J. D. Whitney, and a report in 2 vols. 8vo was published in 1858-9, which presents the general arrangement of the formations, with details of their fossils and economical importance. The survey was resumed in 1866, under the direction of Dr. Charles A. White of Iowa City. The geological formations are exclusively palaeozoic, their range being from the Potsdam sandstone to the coal measures, inclusive.

The latter formation occupies the S. and W. portion of the state, and reaches within a few miles at its S. E. corner of the Mississippi river, from which it is separated by a belt of about 20 m., over which the carboniferous limestone is spread out. This limestone outcrop thence extends diagonally across the state to the extreme N. W. corner. Toward the northeast lower formations continue to appear in succession, and stretch in long parallel belts N. W. and S. E. The course of the rivers, as they descend from the N. border of the state to the Mississippi, is along the range of these formations; and it is remarkable how each river keeps almost exclusively along the same geological belt for nearly 200 m. The successive belts are thus designated by Prof. Hall, advancing N. E. in the descending series from the coal measures and the underlying carboniferous limestone: the Hamilton and Chemung groups of the Devonian series, the Leclaire and Niagara limestones of the upper Silurian, the Hudson river shales, Galena limestone, Trenton limestone, St. Peter's sandstone, and Potsdam sandstone of the lower Silurian. The last occupy the N. E. corner of the state.

The coal measures are regarded as the most permanent source of mineral wealth, though the lead mines in the Galena limestone have attracted the earliest and greatest attention, and have so far been the most important in the value of their productions. Their aggregate thickness in the S. part of the state is less than 500 ft., and in this are found several workable beds of bituminous coal, one of which is sometimes 7 ft. thick. The formation thins out as it spreads over the carboniferous limestone, and in this are found several outlying shallow basins of small extent. They are also met with beyond the limits of this rock, scattered in the depressions of the Devonian, and even the Silurian series, and resting unconformably upon the upturned edges of these lower formations. Along the Mississippi river, between Davenport and Muscatine, a deposit of this character stretches 20 m. up and down the river, and not more than 3 m. back from it. This is the extension on the Iowa side of the Illinois coal field, the Mississippi river having completely separated this marginal portion from the main body. The thickness of this isolated group of coal measures is not more than about 70 ft.

It contains one coal bed which is identified as the lowest workable coal of the series; it is of no great importance, being only about 2 1/2 ft. thick. A few yards beneath it is a bed of carbonaceous slate, which sometimes presents a seam of cannel coal a foot thick. The coal field of the state embraces an area of about 20,000 sq. m.; the coal is bituminous and of excellent quality. In the N. part of the state are extensive beds of superior peat from 4 ft. to 10 ft. in depth. The lead mines are in the belt occupied by the Galena limestone. This tract reaches the Mississippi river at Dubuque, and lies along the valley of Turkey river toward the N. W.; but the only mines that have been worked in it are near the Mississippi. The ore is chiefly found in vertical crevices which are traced in E. and W. lines with remarkable regularity. They are congregated in great number in the immediate vicinity of Dubuque, and from the report of the state geologists it appears that no district in the Mississippi valley has produced so large an amount of ore for its extent as this tract of 12 or 15 sq. m. From 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 lbs. of ore have been smelted annually at the Dubuque mines, yielding about 70 per cent. of lead.

The crevices in the limestone are frequently found to expand into what are called openings and large caves several hundred feet long. The walls of these are incrusted with the sulphuret of lead, of which a single cave sometimes furnishes several million pounds. The depth of the mines is limited to the thickness of the Galena limestone, which seldom reaches 200 ft. In the blue limestone, which underlies it, the crevices either close up or are unproductive. The yield of ore is very irregular, and the same mines rarely continue to be worked for even a few years. (See Lead.) Iowa has also small deposits of iron ore, and there are many other minerals of considerable value. A deposit of gypsum of remarkable fineness and purity exists near Fort Dodge; it is confined to an area of about 6 by 3 m. on both sides of the Des Moines river, and is from 25 to 30 ft. thick. Plaster of Paris of superior quality has been manufactured from it. Building stone of the best description, various clays, etc, sufficient for all present or prospective requirements, are found. - The soils of Iowa are generally excellent, and no state of the Union has a smaller amount of inferior land.

The valleys of the Red Cedar, Iowa, and Des Moines, as high as lat. 42° 30', present a body of arable land which, taken as a whole, for richness in organic elements, for amount of saline matter, and due admixture of earthy silicates, affords a combination that belongs only to the most fertile upland plains. North of this, the best agricultural region of the state, the lands are inferior, but still not unprofitable, and the lower grounds are either wet and marshy or filled with numerous ponds, and entirely destitute of timber. - The climate of Iowa is moderate, and highly favorable for agricultural operations. As a general rule the peach blossoms in mid April, and wheat ripens early in August. The winters, however, are severe from the prevalence of N. and N. W. winds, which sweep over the level prairies without obstruction; but they are very equable and healthful. In summer the winds are from the west and south, and, being constant, greatly relieve the heats of that season. The mean temperature of the year is about 48° F.; spring, 47 1/2°; summer, 70 1/2°; autumn, 45°; winter, 23 1/2°. The highest temperature observed for 30 years was 99°, Aug. 31,1854; the lowest - 30°, Jan. 18, 1857. The temperature is seldom lower than - 10°, or higher than 90°. The mean annual amount of rainfall for 30 years was 44.27 in.; least, 23.35 in.; greatest, 74.49 in.

Iowa is classed among the most healthy countries of the world, a fact to be attributed to the excellent drainage furnished by its rolling surface. The exceptions to this condition are very rare. - The natural growths of Iowa are similar to those of the whole middle zone of the Union. North of lat. 42° timber is comparatively-scarce, but south of that line and along the rivers the country is well wooded. Ash, elm, sugar and white maple, and cottonwood grow in the river bottoms; and in other localities are found poplar, oak, hickory, walnut, basswood, etc. In the north there is some pine timber. Groves of cedar are found along the Iowa and Red Cedar rivers. Among fruit trees, the apple, cherry, and pear attain the highest perfection; the wild plum, grape, and gooseberry are indigenous. For the cultivation of the cereals no part of the country surpasses this state; it is also favorable both in climate and soil for the castor oil plant, flax, tobacco, etc. Potatoes are also a favorite staple. Tea has been raised in Crawford co., the yield being over 700 lbs. to the acre. Iowa ranks high in agriculture. According to the census of 1870, it produced more wheat and Indian corn than any other state in the Union except Illinois, and ranked fifth in the production of oats.

The state contained 9,396,467 acres of improved land, 2,524,796 of woodland, and 3,620,533 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 116,292, of which 34,041 contained from 20 to 50 acres, 41,372 from 50 to 100, 30,142 from 100 to 500, 321 from 500 to 1,000, and 38 over 1,000. The cash value of farms was $392,662,441; of farming implements and machinery, $20,509,582; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $9,377,878; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $114,386,441; value of orchard products, $1,075,169; of products of market gardens, $244,963; of forest products, $1,200,-468; of home manufactures, $521,404; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $25,781,223; of all live stock, $82,987,133. There were on farms 433,642 horses, 25,485 mules and asses, 369,800 milch cows, 614,366 other cattle, 855,493 sheep, and 1,353,908 swine. The chief productions were 28,708,312 bushels of spring and 727,380 of winter wheat, 505,807 of rye, 68,935,065 of Indian corn, 21,005,142 of oats, 1,960,779 of barley, 109,432 of buckwheat, 42,313 of peas and beans, 5,914,620 of Irish and 34,292 of sweet potatoes, 2,475 of clover seed, 53,432 of grass seed, 88,621 of flax seed, 1,777,339 tons of hay, 71,792 lbs. of tobacco, 2,967,043 of wool, 27,512,179 of butter, 1,087,741 of cheese, 146,490 of maple sugar, 171,113 of hops, 695,518 of flax, 853,213 of honey, 2,225 of wax, 37,518 gallons of wine, 688,800 of milk sold, 1,218,635 of sorghum and 9,315 of maple molasses.

According to the state census, the number of acres of improved land in 1872 was 9,987,788. There were produced in that year 32,437,836 bushels of wheat, 141,744,522 of Indian corn, 22,113,-013 of oats, 5,770,169 of barley, and 2,348,884 lbs. of wool. The total assessed value of live stock in 1873 was $36,521,346. There were 1,178,017 cattle, valued at $12,931,807; 557,052 horses, $18,936,037; 32,010 mules, $1,357,478; 523,089 sheep, $572,438; and 1,460,784 swine, $2,723,586 - The total number of manufacturing establishments was 6,566, having 899 steam engines of 25,298 horse power, and 726 water wheels of 14,249 horse power, and employing 25,032 hands, of whom 23,395 were males above 16 years of age, 951 females above 15, and 686 youths. The capital invested amounted to $22,420,183; wages paid during the year, $6,893,292; value of materials, $27,-682,096; products, $46,534,322. The chief industries were as follows:

INDUSTRIES.

Number of establishments.

Steam engines, horse power.

Water wheels, horse power.

Hands employed.

Capital invested.

Wages paid.

Value of materials.

Value of products.

Agricultural implements...........

55

457

20

552

$543,040

$182,138

$401,372

$829,965

Blacksmithing.....

886

• • • •

........

1,607

491.562

206,923

438,176

1.320,019

Boots and shoes......

530

• • • •

.......

1.292

401,593

301,174

543.036

1,218,480

Carpentering and building......

889

48

.....

2,335

293.220

527,388

1,550.274

2.981,988

Carriage and wagons.....

449

208

1,662

1,086.882

566.222

739.240

1,952,143

Flouring and grist mill products___

502

7.236

10,172

1,867

5,765,758

605.865

11,961.444

15,635.345

Furniture........

223

439

62

959

670.525

295.343

340,124

981.691

Liquors.malt.........

101

191

8

405

1,238,134

131.571

422.148

992,848

Lumber,planed......

21

522

• • * •

191

201,800

82,738

707.344

867,415

Lumber,sawed........

545

12,758

2,593

3,782

3,925.001

995.962

3,302.782

5,794.285

Porl packed........

10

85

......

328

927,150

45,170

1,064,100

1,190,400

Saddlery and harness.........

325

...

...

879

417,615

208,232

591,272

1,110.852

Woolen goods.........

68

968

907

1,038

1,382,784

264,061

929,132

1,561,341

- Iowa has no direct foreign commerce, but its trade with the Atlantic and gulf ports and the interior is comparatively extensive. The exports consist of the products of agriculture and mines, and the imports of eastern and foreign manufactures, groceries, etc. The shipping points are Keokuk, Fort Madison, Burlington, Muscatine, Davenport, Clinton, Bellevue, Dubuque, McGregor, etc.; and at all of these places an active trade is also carried on with the interior, with which they are connected to a large extent by river steamboat routes and by railroad. The state has three United States ports of delivery, Burlington, Dubuque, and Keokuk. The total number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in 1873 was 78, having a tonnage of 5,489; 70 of these belonged to Dubuque. At this point boat building is carried on to some extent; five vessels of 497 tons, including four steamers, were built here in 1873. In November, 1873, 75 national banks were in operation; paid-in capital, $6,017,000; bonds on deposit, $5,909,000; circulation outstanding, $5,363,885. The bank circulation of the state amounted to $5,674,385, being $4 75 per capita, 8 per cent. of the wealth of the state, and 88.3 per cent. of the banking capital.

There were 23 banks, of which 15 were savings banks, organized under the laws of the state, having $1,015,956 capital stock paid in, with assets amounting to $3,879,033. - In the development of its railroad system Iowa has made rapid progress. The total mileage of main track has increased from 68 m. in 1855 to 655 in 1860, 891 in 1865, 2,683 in 1870, 3,160 in 1871, 3,643 in 1872, and 3,744 in 1873. In 1856 and 1864 grants of lands were made by congress to the state to aid in the construction of railroads; these lands were in turn granted by the state to various companies for the construction of five great trunk lines crossing it from east to west and extending from the Mississippi to the Missouri river. Four of these are now in operation, and the fifth is partially built. The most southerly is the Burlington and Missouri River railroad, which extends from Burlington to Council Bluffs. The Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific, and the Chicago and Northwestern, have the same place as their western terminus in Iowa, the former extending from Davenport and the latter from Clinton. At Council Bluffs, which is on the opposite side of the Missouri river from Omaha, Nebraska, these three lines connect with the Union Pacific railroad, which has its eastern terminus at this point, a bridge having been constructed across the Missouri. The next grand line crossing the state is the Iowa division of the Illinois Central railroad, which extends from Dubuque to Sioux City. The projected line will connect McGregor, opposite Prairie du Chien, 111., with Sioux City; it has been completed to Algona, 169 m. from the Mississippi, and is now (1874) operated by the Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad company.

All these great channels have communication with Chicago and the great eastern commercial centres, and for their accommodation the Mississippi has been spanned with several bridges. The numerous railroads crossing these trunk lines give Iowa extended facilities of communication with the states lying to the north and the south. The assessed value of the 3,643 m. of railroad in the state in 1872 was $18,842,592. The railroads lying wholly or partly within the state, together with their termini, are indicated in the following table, which shows also the number of miles completed within the state in 1873, and the entire length of the various lines:

NAME OF CORPORATION.

TERMINI.

Length completed in state, miles.

Total length between termini when different from preceding.

Burlington, Cedar Rapids, and Minnesota.....

Burlington and Austin. Minn........

248

261

Milwaukee division..........

Cedar Rapids to Postville.........

106

• • ■

Branches..............

Vinton to Traer..........

25

...

Muscatine to Iowa river.......

27

...

Burlington and Missouri River............

Burlington and Council Bluffs........

292

...

Branches.................

Chariton to Leon..........

32

...

Creston to Hopkins........

44

...

Villisca to Clarinda.........

16

...

Red Oak to East Nebraska City........

51

...

Burlington and Southwestern......

Burlington and St. Joseph, Mo.........

80

260

Central of Iowa........

Northwood and Albia.........

189

...

Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy (branch)........

Burlington and Keokuk......

43

...

Chicago, Clinton, and Dubuque.........

Clinton and Dubuque........

60

...

Chicago, Dubuque, and Minnesota.......

Dubuque and La Crescent, Minn...........

92

118

Chicago and Northwestern.........

Iowa

Division.

(Chicago,lowa,and Nebraska)........

Clinton and Cedar Rapids..........

82

...

(Cedar Rapids and Missouri River).........

Cedar Rapids and Council Bluffs........

272

...

Stanwood and Tipton).......

Stanwood and Tipton..........

9

...

(lowa Midland)............

Clinton and Anamosa........

71

...

Chicago. Rock Island, and Pacific: lowa division .................

Davenport and Council Bluffs......

310

...

Branches.......................

Wilton to Washington......

50

...

Washington to Sigourney......

28

...

Des Moines to Indianola.............

21

...

Summerset to Winterset........

25

Chicago and Southwestern.........

Washington and Leavenworth, Kan....

128

271

Davenport and St. Paul...........

Davenport and Favette.......

125

...

Branch................

Eldridge to Maquoketa..........

32

...

Des Moines Valley..........

Keokuk and Fort Dodge.........

249

...

Dubuque and Southwestern..........

Farley and Cedar Rapids.......

55

...

"Illinois Central:

...

...

lowa Division.............

Dubuque to Iowa Falls......

143

...

Iowa Falls to Sioux City........

184

...

Cedar Falls to Mona...........

76

...

Kansas City, St. Joseph, and Council Bluffs........

Kansas City, Mo., and Council Bluffs......

51

200

Milwaukee and St. Paul..........

Milwaukee, Wis., and St. Paul Minn........

85

405

Branches......................

Calmar to Algona.........

126

...

Conover to Decorah.......

10

...

Mason City to Austin, Minn.......

28

40

Sabula to Marion.......

87

...

Missouri, Iowa, and Nebraska.......

Alexandria, Mo., and Nebraska City, Neb.....

12

300

St. Louis, Kansas City, and Northern (branch)........

Moberly, Mo., to Ottumwa.....

43

131

Sioux City and Pacific.........

Sioux City and Fremont, Neb.........

80

107

Sioux City and St. Paul..........

Sioux City and St. James, Minn...........

57

148

- The present constitution of Iowa was adopted in convention, March 5, 1857. It grants the right of voting to every male citizen of the United States who has resided in the state six months and in the county 60 days. The general election is held on the second Tuesday in October, except in the years of the presidential election, when it occurs on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November. The legislature consists of a senate of 50 members elected for four years, half biennially, and a house of 100 members elected biennially. Senators must be 25 and representatives 21 years of age, and otherwise must have the qualifications of voters. In all elections by the legislature votes are given viva voce. The legislature meets on the second Monday of January biennially (even years). The governor and lieutenant governor are chosen by a plurality of votes, and hold office for two years. They must be at least 30 years of age, and have been citizens and residents for two years next preceding election. The salary of the governor is $3,000 per annum.

The secretary of state, auditor of state, treasurer of state, register of state land office, and superintendent of public instruction are elected by the people for two years, and have each a salary of $2,200. The lieutenant governor and attorney general (salary $1,500) are elected for two years, and the supreme court clerk and reporter are elected for four years. The adjutant and inspector general (salary $2,000) and state librarian (salary $1,200) are appointed by the governor for two years. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, district courts, and such other courts, inferior to the supreme court, as the legislature may establish. The supreme court, with appellate jurisdiction only in chancery cases, consists of four judges elected by the people for six years, one every second year, and the one having the shortest time to serve is chief justice. Judges of the district court are elected in single districts (of which there are now 13) for four years. The salary of supreme court judges is $4,000, and of district judges $2,200 per annum. A district attorney is elected in each judicial district for four years. There are also 13 circuit courts, each with one judge, the circuits having the same boundaries as the judicial districts.

The county officers consist of a board of supervisors, auditor, clerk, treasurer, recorder, sheriff, superintendent of common schools, surveyor, and coroner. The counties are subdivided into townships, each of which elects three trustees, a clerk, justices of the peace, constables, and road supervisors. Among the general provisions of the constitution are the following: The credit of the state shall not be given for any purpose; deficits in the revenue may be made up by borrowing money, but the sum not to exceed $250,000 at any one time; debt may be contracted to repel invasion or suppress insurrection; no corporation shall be created by special law; stockholders in banks shall be individually liable to double the amount of the stock, and billholders shall have preference over other creditors; suspension of specie payment shall not be permitted; no new county shall be made of less than 432 sq. m., nor shall any existing county be reduced below that size; no lease of agricultural lands shall be for more than 20 years; aliens, residents of the state, may hold and transmit real estate; imprisonment for debt is prohibited except in cases of fraud; parties in suit may be witnesses; duellists are disqualified from holding any office; the legislature is prohibited from granting divorces, or authorizing lotteries; in all prosecutions for libel the truth may be given in justification.

The constitution requires a census to be taken in 1875 and every ten years thereafter; but a state census has been taken at frequent intervals. In 1872 the death penalty as a punishment for crime was abolished by a vote of 29 to 17 in the senate and 66 to 22 in the house; and it was provided that all crimes previously punishable with death should be punished by imprisonment for life, and that in these cases the governor shall not be empowered to grant a pardon except upon the recommendation of the general assembly. The executive council is required on the first Monday of March in each year to assess all the property of every railroad company in the state used in the operation of their roads; and it is made the duty of the officers of the company to report under oath the necessary facts for such assessment. All railroad property is taxable at the same rates and in the same manner as that of individuals. No distinction is made in law between the husband and the wife in regard to property. One third in value of all the real estate of either, upon the death of the other, goes to the survivor in fee simple. Neither is liable for the separate debts of the other.

The wife may make contracts and incur liabilities which may be enforced by or against her in the same manner as if she were unmarried; and so a married woman may sue and be sued without the husband being joined in the action. Iowa is represented in congress by nine representatives and two senators, and has therefore 11 votes in the electoral college. - The total bonded debt of the state in November, 1873, was $543,056. The receipts into the state treasury during the two years ending Nov. 1, 1873, amounted to $2,407,938, and the disbursements to $2,446,680. The income was from the following sources:

State tax levy..........

$1,595,010

8I

Interest on delinquent taxes.......

54.195

19

Insane dues from counties.......

226,250

12

Peddlers' licenses.........

382

66

Sale of laws and revisions.....

765

58

Railroad taxes received in 1872..........

34.230

63

Taxes on insurance companies........

76.721

23

Auditor's fees from insurance companies.....

31,091

32

Secretary of state, fees.........

3,253

80

Register of the state land office, fees......

215

25

United States war and defence fund.......

102.247

86

Sale of arms, etc........

5,213

06

Other sources..........

278,361

35

Total.............

$2,407,938

86

The total valuation of taxable property after equalization by the state board of assessment, and the state tax thereon, for a series of years have been as follows:

YEARS.

Total valuation.

Rate.

State tax.

1858...........

*$214,625,730

1 1/2

mills

*$321,938 60

1859...........

197,823.250

1*

,,

296,734 81

1860...........

*193,385,530

1*

,,

*290,078 30

1861...........

177.451,003

2

,,

354,901 92

1862...........

†175,000,000

2

,,

350,000 00

1863...........

167,108,974

2

,,

334,217 90

1864...........

†165,000,000

2

,,

330,000 00

1865...........

215,063,401

2

,,

430,126 83

1866...........

†220,000,000

2*

,,

550,000 00

1867...........

256,517,184

2 1/2

,,

641,292 88

1868...........

†260,000,000

2 1/2

,,

650,000 00

1869...........

294,532,252

2

,,

589,064 44

1870...........

†300,000,000

2

,,

600,000 00

1871...........

348,642,728

2

,,

697,285 55

1872...........

366,076,206

2*

,,

915.190 51

1873...........

364,336,580

2

,,

728,672 78

The valuation for 1873 included 33,730,669 acres of land; reported value, $217,907,148; reported value of town lots, $47,642,585; equalized value of lands and town lots, $273,-797,687; value of personal property, $71,683,-367; of railroad property, $18,885,526; reported total value, $356,088,626; total equalized value, $364,336,580. The entire tax in 1872 amounted to $10,711,925, as follows: state tax, 2 1/2 mills, $909,464; county, $1,460,-734; insane hospital, $217,691; county school, $402,435; district school, $3,954,210; bridge, $705,445; road, $360,700; special, $433,108; judgment and bond, $598,471; corporation, $340,359; railroad, $1,329,303. - The college for the blind at Vinton receives students who are citizens of the state free of charge for board and tuition. This school is strictly educational, and not for the treatment of disease. Since its opening in 1853, 269 pupils have been admitted; the number attending in 1873 was 112, who were instructed by 10 teachers. The total current expenditures for the two years ending Nov. 4,1873, amounted to $51,175. Instruction is afforded to the deaf and dumb of the state, between the ages of 10 and 25 years, by the institution at Council Bluffs; such persons may receive their board and instruction free of charge for a period of seven years.

Established in 1855, this institution in 1873 had 7 instructors and 119 pupils; the current expenses for the two years ending Nov. 1, 1873, were $56,221. Iowa has two hospitals for the insane: one at Mt. Pleasant, which at the end of 1873 had 495 inmates, and for which $229,-441 had been expended during the previous two years; and the other at Independence, which was opened in May, 1873, and at the close of the year had 152 patients. Of the patients treated in the former during the two years ending with 1873, 28.16 per cent. had recovered, 21.65 per cent. had improved, and 27.64 per cent. had remained stationary. Iowa has three soldiers' orphans' homes, at Cedar Falls, Davenport, and Glenwood. The support of these institutions during 1873 cost the state $146,050, besides $12,000 expended for improvements and $550 for libraries. At the end of the year there were in these homes 508 children, of whom 256 were at Cedar Falls, 154 in Davenport, and 98 at Glenwood. There is a reform school for boys at Eldora, and one for girls near Salem. In 1873 there were in the former 146 boys and in the latter 11 girls.

The cost of the boys' school for the two years ending Nov. 1, 1873, was $32,031, and of the girls' $2,250. The penitentiary at Fort Madison has 318 cells, and at the close of 1873 contained 276 convicts, of whom 63 were sentenced by the United States. The labor of the convicts who are employed within the prison is disposed of by contract at 40 1/3 cents a day for each laborer. The number thus employed in 1873 was 258, and the earnings from this source for two years amounted to $54,081. These contracts will expire Jan. 1, 1875, when it is believed that much higher rates will be realized. The institution is self-sustaining. The total receipts for the two years ending Nov. 1, 1873, were $134,899, and the expenditures $118,912. Another penitentiary is in process of construction at Anamosa, in Jones county. - According to the census of 1870, the total number of educational institutions in Iowa was 7,496, having 9,319 teachers, of whom 5,663 were females, and 217,654 pupils. There were 7,322 public schools, with 8,866 teachers and 205,923 pupils; 21 colleges, with 139 teachers and 3,061 students; 34 academies, with 103 teachers and 2,333 pupils; and 100 private schools, with 136 teachers and 4,872 pupils.

The total income of all the educational institutions was $3,570,093, of which $63,150 was from endowment, $3,347,629 from taxation and public funds, and $159,314 from tuition and other sources. The system of public schools is substantially the same as that adopted in 1858. The constitution of 1857 vested the management of the educational institutions of the state in a board of education, consisting of the governor, the lieutenant governor, and an elected member from each judicial district in the state. This body was not empowered to levy taxes or make appropriations of money for school purposes, but was required to provide for the education of all the youths of the state through a system of common schools; such schools to be organized and kept in every school district at least three months a year, and any district failing to do so for two consecutive years may be deprived of its portion of the school fund. The permanent school fund embraces all lands granted to the state by the general government for schools, and all estates of deceased persons who have died without leaving a will or heir.

The money paid for exemption from military duty, and the net proceeds of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws, must be applied to the support of common schools or the establishment of libraries, as the board of education may provide. Educational funds must be distributed among the districts in proportion to the number of persons between 5 and 21 years of age. The board of education was abolished in 1864. The school system of the state contemplates a threefold plan of superintendence, state, county, and district. There is a state superintendent of public instruction, and a superintendent for each county, while the general supervision of thedistrict is vested in a board of directors. The following are the most important statistics of the public schools for 1873:

* Partly estimated, some counties not having reported. + Estimated, the valuation of realty being the same as the year previous.

Number of school districts.....

2,536

" of schools graded.......

419

" of schools ungraded......

8,397

" of school houses.....

8,856

Average number of months schools have been taught.

6 1/2

Number of teachers (6,091 male and 10,193 female)..

16,284

Average compensation of males per month.....

$36 28

" " of females " " ......

$27 68

Number of persons between 5 and 21 years of age..

491.344

" of pupils enrolled in public schools........

347.572

Total average attendance........

204,204

Percentage of enrollment on total enumeration......

71

" of attendance upon enrollment.......

58

" " " enumeration.....

42

Number of private schools.......

121

" of teachers in same..........

364

" of pupils " ..........

12,132

The amount of the permanent school fund on Nov. 1, 1873, was $3,294,742, on which the interest for 1873 amounted to $275,789. The total expenditures for school purposes amounted to $4,229,455, of which $2,248,676 was for teachers' salaries. The total cost of education in 1873 was $3 38 per capita based on the total population, $8 60 on the school population (between 5 and 21 years old), $12 17 on the enrollment, $20 71 on the average attendance, $17 76 on the number of heads of families, and $15 17 on the number of adult males. Based on taxable property, the cost was 11.59 mills on the dollar, including 6.17 mills for tuition, 2.24 for incidentals, and 3.18 for the erection of school houses. Although normal instruction is afforded by several institutions in the state, Iowa has no state school devoted exclusively to the training of teachers. The state teachers' association meets annually, and there are numerous county institutes. Teachers in the public schools are required to hold certificates obtained by examination, and issued by county superintendents for a term not exceeding one year.

Prior to September, 1873, examinations were conducted and perpetual state certificates granted by a state board of examiners consisting of the faculty of the state university; but this board has been abolished. The most important educational institutions of Iowa, with the number of instructors and pupils during the year 1873-'4, were:

TITLE.

Location.

Denomination.

When founded.

No. of faculty.

No. of students.

State university........

Iowa City.......

.......

1860

30

551

State agricultural college.......

Ames.....

........

1869

17

263

Upper Iowa university......

Fayette.....

Methodist Episcopal.....

1858

10

113

Tabor college.......

Tabor......

Congregational......

1866

5

199

Iowa Wesleyan university.....

Mount Pleasant.......

Methodist Episcopal.....

1855

14

200

German college.........

Mount Pleasant........

Methodist Episcopal......

1873

4

15

Whittier college.......

Salem.......

Friends......

1867

5

150

Humboldt college.......

Springvale......

None.........

1869

3

40

Cornell college........

Mount Vernon......

Methodist Episcopal....

1855

16

353

Western college........

Western.......

United Brethren......

....

4

120

Oskaloosa college......

Oskaloosa......

Disciples.....

....

5

170

Central university of Iowa......

Pella......

Baptist.........

1854

7

123

Amity college........

College Springs.......

.......

2

.40

University of Des Moines......

Des Moines......

Baptist........

• • •..

5

125

Iowa college......

Grinnell.........

Congregational.....

■ • • •

19

331

Penn College..........

Oskaloosa......

Friends.......

1873

5

150

Simpson Centenary college........

Indianola.......

Methodist Episcopal...

1860

6

191

Norwegian Luther college.......

Decorah........

Lutheran.....

1861

6

185

Burlington university........

Burlington......

Baptist.........

1853

5

51

The state university comprises academical, normal, medical, and law departments. In the first named, besides a preparatory course of two years, there is a four years' curriculum affording three courses, classical, philosophical, and scientific. The course in the law department covers one, and in the medical department two years. Of the 551 students' of the university in 1873, 85 were in the law, 70 in the medical, and 17 in the normal department. The income from June 20, 1871, to Oct. 1, 1873, amounted to $128,499, and the disbursements to $103,415. The state agricultural college has received the congressional land grant for the promotion of instruction in agriculture and the mechanic arts.

In the regulation of this institution two interesting experiments have been made, and are regarded as successful: 1, the union of manual labor with intellectual exercise as a part of the course, students being required to devote an average of 2 1/2 hours a day throughout the college year to manual labor; 2, co-education of the sexes. The institution has extensive grounds and valuable collections. Courses of instruction are provided in agriculture, four years; horticulture and forestry, stock breeding, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, mining engineering, architecture, "general science for ladies," military tactics and engineering, normal course, and course in bee-keeping. The Norwegian Luther college, the largest Norwegian institution of the kind in the country, was established by the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran synod of Iowa and adjacent states, and is under the direction of that body. It is supported by voluntary contributions, and affords instruction free to all students. The plan of the Iowa Wesleyan university embraces a department of the liberal arts, comprising classical, scientific, normal, and preparatory courses; a department of technology, including courses in fine art and industrial art; and departments of theology, law, and medicine. Both sexes are admitted.

Instruction in theology is afforded by the Wartburg seminary (Lutheran) at Casstown, the Swedish Lutheran mission institute at Keokuk, the German theological school of the Northwest (Presbyterian) at Dubuque, and the theological department of the Wesleyan university (Methodist Episcopal) at Mt. Pleasant, with courses in English and German; in law, by the law departments of the state and the Wesleyan university; in medicine, by the medical department of the state university, the department of pharmacy in the Wesleyan university, and the college of physicians and surgeons established in Keokuk in 1849, which had 10 instructors and 142 pupils in 1873; and in science, by the state agricultural college. - According to the census of 1870, there were in Iowa 233 newspapers and periodicals, having an aggregate circulation of 219,090, and issuing 16,403,380 copies annually. There were 22 daily, with a circulation of 19,800; 3 triweekly, 1,650; 1 semi-weekly, 1,000; 196 weekly, 187,840; 3 semi-monthly, 3,400; 5 monthly, 3,950; 2 bi-monthly, 750; 1 quarterly, 700. The state census of 1873 returned as published in Iowa 22 daily newspapers, 2 tri-weekly, 6 semi-weekly, 272 weekly, 2 semi-monthly, 19 monthly, and 1 bi-monthly. The total number of libraries in 1870 was 3,540, containing 673,000 volumes.

Of these, 2,387 with 295,-749 volumes were private, and 1,153 with 377,851 volumes were other than private, including 1 state, with 11,000 volumes; 23 town, city, etc, with 22,808; 11 court and law, with 944; 15 school, college, etc, with 18,747; 999 Sunday school, with 278,251; 85 church, with 25,584; and 18 circulating libraries, with 20,367 volumes. The chief libraries are the state library in Des Moines, which in 1874 had 12,000 volumes, exclusive of 4,000 duplicates; the Keokuk library association, 7,000; state historical society, Iowa City, 3,300; public library of Burlington, 5,398; and Jefferson county library association, Fairfield, 3,480. The state historical society at Iowa City is partly supported and controlled by the state. A chief object is the collection and preservation of historical works, manuscripts, relics, etc, pertaining to the history of the state. - In 1870 the state contained 2,763 religious organizations, having 1,446 edifices with 431,709 sittings, and property valued at $5,730,352. The various denominations were represented as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.

Organizations.

Edifices.

Sittings.

Property.

Baptist, regular......

307

147

44,340

$622,700

other.......

45

18

6,350

46.200

Christian........

113

48

15,750

124.450

Congregational........

187

125

33,925

529.570

Episcopal, Protestant....

58

36

9.584

192,862

Evangelical Association......

32

11

2,400

22.800

Friends.....

82

60

17,075

125.800

Jewish......

5

1

150

1,900

Lutheran........

79

45

12,285

113.950

Methodist.......

982

492

142,655

1,490,220

Moravian (Unitas Fratrum)....

5

3

800

9,000

Mormon.......

6

1

200

600

Presbyterian, regular.....

270

156

44.265

734.225

" other.....

105

66

20,625

228.100

Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed).....

4

4

1,500

25,000

Reformed church in the United States (late German Refor'd).

13

13

3,950

46.000

Roman Catholic......

216

165

57,2S0

1,216.150

Second Advent....

28

10

2,950

13.050

Unitarian........

3

2

715

19,000

United Brethren in Christ......

188

28

10,445

69.250

Universalist.........

35

15

4,465

99,525

Total.........................

2,763

1,446

431,709

$5,730,352

- Iowa derives its name (said to mean in the language of the Indians " the beautiful land ") from the river so called, and was originally a part of the vast territories included in Louisiana, ceded to the United States in 1803. The first settlement of whites within the present limits of the state was made by Julien Dubuque, a Canadian Frenchman, who in 1788 obtained a grant of a large tract, including the present city of Dubuque and the rich mineral lands in its vicinity. Here he built a small fort, and carried on the mining of lead and trade with the Indians until his death in 1810. In 1834 the territory now included in Iowa was placed under the jurisdiction of Michigan, and in 1836 under that of Wisconsin. No steps were taken toward its further settlement till the spring of 1833, when several companies of Americans from Illinois and other states settled in the vicinity of Burlington; and at a later period settlements were made at other points along the Mississippi. On June 12, 1838, Iowa was erected into a separate territory; and on July 4 ensuing the new government was formally installed at Burlington. Under its territorial organization Iowa included all the country N. of Missouri, between the Mississippi and the Missouri and to the British line, and consequently the greater part of the present state of Minnesota and the whole of Dakota territory, with an area of 194,603 sq. m.

In 1839 the government removed to Iowa City. In 1844 a state constitution was formed, and a petition sent to congress for admission to the Union. This was not granted, on account of the constitutional limits assumed; and by an act of March 3, 1845, congress defined the boundaries that would be acceptable. The next year the proposed boundaries were approved by a convention assembled for the purpose; and on Dec. 28, 1846, Iowa was admitted into the Union. The capital was removed to Des Moines in 1857. On Jan. 24, 1855, an act was passed by the legislature submitting to the people the question of calling a constitutional convention. The proposition having been approved, an election of delegates was held in November, 1856. On Jan. 19, 1857, the convention met in Iowa City and framed the present constitution, which was ratified on Aug. 3, 1857, by a vote of 40,311 to 38,681. The word "white," where it had been used in defining the qualifications of electors, the basis of representation, and the obligation of militia duty, was stricken out by acts of the legislature, subsequently approved by the people in 1868. The question of revising the constitution was submitted to the people in 1870, when a majority voted against it.

A report on the geological survey of the state during 1866-'9, by Charles A. White, state geologist, was published in Des Moines in 1870 (2 vols.).