Ohio, one of the central states of the American Union, the fourth admitted under the constitution, lying between lat. 38° 27' and 41° 57' N., and'ion. 80° 34' and 84° 49' W.; greatest length from E. to W. 225 m., greatest breadth from N". to S. about 200 m.; area, 39,964 sq. m. It is bounded K by Michigan and Lake Erie, E. by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, S. by West Virginia and Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. The Ohio river extends along half of its E. and the whole of its S. boundary, having a course along the borders of the state of 436 m. The lake shore of Ohio has an extent of 230 m., giving the state a whole navigable water frontier of 666 m. Ohio is divided into 88 counties, viz.: Adams, Allen, Ashland, Ashtabula, Athens, Auglaize, Belmont, Brown, Butler, Carroll, Champaign, Clarke. Clermont, Clinton, Columbiana, Co-shocton, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Darke, Defiance. Delaware, Erie, Fairfield, Fayette, Franklin, Fulton, Gallia, Geauga, Green, Guernsey, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Harrison, Henry, Highland, Hocking, Holmes, Huron, Jackson, Jefferson, Knox, Lake, Lawrence, Licking, Logan, Lorain, Lucas, Madison, Mahoning, Marion, Medina, Meigs, Mercer, Miami, Monroe,.Montgomery, Morgan, Morrow, Muskingum, Nobte, Ottawa, Paulding, Ferry, Pickaway, Pike, Portage, Preble, Putnam, Richland, Ross, Sandusky, Scioto, Seneca, Shelby, Stark, Summit, Trumbull, Tuscarawas, Union, Van Wert, Vinton, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Williams, Wood, and Wyandot. Columbus, the capital (pop. in 1870, 31,274), is near the centre of the state; Cincinnati (pop. in 1870, 216,239) is the largest city.

The other cities, with their population according to the census of 1870, are Akron, 10,006; Bellair, 4,033; Canton, 8,660; Chillicothe, 8,920; Circleville, 5,407; Cleveland, 92,829; Dayton, 30,473; Delaware, 5,641; Fremont, 5,455; Gallipolis, 3,711; Hamilton, 11,081; Ironton, 5,686; Lancaster, 4,725; Lima, 4,500; Mansfield, 8,029; Marietta, 5,218; Massillon, 5,185; Mount Vernon, 4,876; Newark, 6,698; Piqua, 5,967; Pomeroy, 5,824; Portsmouth, 10,592; Sandusky, 13,000; Springfield, 12,652; Steu-benville, 8,107; Tiffin, 5,648; Toledo, 31,584; Urbana, 4,276; Warren, 3,457; Wooster, 5,419; Xenia, 6,377; Youngstown, 8,075; Zanesville, 10,011. The population of the state, and its rank in the Union according to the federal census, has been as follows:

YEAR.

White.

Colored.

Total.

Rank.

1800...............

45,028

337

45,365

18

1810...............

228,861

1,899

230.700

13

1820.............

576.572

4,723

581.215

5

1830

923,329

9.574

937.003

4

1840

1.502,122

17,345

1,519,467

3

1850...............

1,955,050

25.279

1,980,329

3

1860...............

2,302,808

36,673

2.339,511

3

1870...............

2,601,040

63,213

2,665,200

3

The total for 1860 includes 30 Indians, and that for 1870 30 Indians and 1 Chinaman. Of the total population in 1870, 1,337,550 were males and 1,327,710 females; 2,292,767 were of native and 372,493 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 1,842,313 were born in the state, 17,382 in Indiana, 26,230 in Kentuckv, 23,292 in Maryland, 43,390 in Massachusetts, 13,239 in New Jersey, 67,594 in New York, 149,784 in Pennsylvania, and 62,936 in Virginia and West Virginia. Of the foreigners, 12,988 were born in British America, 36,561 in England, 82,674 in Ireland, 7,819 in Scotland, 12,939 in Wales, 182,897 in Germany, and 12,727 in Switzerland. The density of population was 66.69, persons to a square mile. There were 521,981 families with an average of 5.11 persons each, and 495,667 dwellings with an average of 5.38 to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 13.92 per cent. There were 425,466 males and 420,505 females from 5 to 18 years of age, 501,750 males from 18 to 45, and 592,350 male citizens 21 years old and upward. The total number attending school was 645,639. There were 92,720 persons 10 years of age and over unable to read, and 173,172 unable to write.

Of the latter, 134,102 were of native and 39,070 of foreign birth; 125,495 were 21 years old and over, including 41,439 white males and 68,449 white females, and 7,531 colored males and 8,076 colored females. During the year ending June 1, 1870, 6,383 paupers were supported at a cost of $566,280; and 2,860 native and 814 foreign paupers were receiving support, June 1, 1870. In 1874 there were 6,001 paupers supported by the state. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 2,560; 1,405 were in prison at that date. The number convicted in 1874 was 2,682. Of the total population 10 years old and over (1,953,374), there were engaged in all occupations 840,889; in agriculture, 397,024, including 191,063 laborers and 202,425 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 168,308, of whom 3,572 were clergymen, 53,599 domestic servants, 68,518 laborers not specified, 2,563 lawyers, 4,638 physicians and surgeons, and 12,-084 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 78,547; and in manufactures, mechanical and mining industries, 197,010. According to the census of 1870, the total number of deaths in that year was 29,568, or 1.11 per cent, of the population.

Consumption was the cause of 17.8 per cent, of all deaths, and pneumonia of 6.8 per cent., the number of. deaths being 5,255 from the former and 1,997 from the latter disease. During the year ending March 31, 1873, there were reported 26,-460 marriages, 58,977 births, and 27,112 deaths. Of the deaths 24,890 were from ordinary causes, 1,531 from epidemic or uncommon diseases, and 691 from violence and accident. - Though the topography of Ohio is marked by no striking features, its surface is pleasingly diversified. The general aspect is that of a plateau whose average elevation is 300 to 500 ft. above Lake Erie, which lies 565 ft. above the sea. The highest point in the state is in Logan co., 1,540 ft., and the lowest the shore of the Ohio near Cincinnati, 433 ft. above the sea. The numerous draining streams have deeply excavated and eroded this plateau, giving the surface an alternation of hills and valleys and a general rolling character. The most prominent feature in the topography is the great divide separating the drainage of Lake Erie from that of the Ohio. This passes diagonally across the state from Trumbull co. in the northeast to Mercer and Darke cos. in the west, with an average altitude of about GOO ft. above Lake Erie. From the summit of the watershed the surface slopes gradually northward to the lake and southward to the Ohio, and is more or less eroded by the draining streams.

Many of these streams flow in valleys 200 to 300 ft. in depth, and the Ohio river occupies an excavated trough 500 to GOO ft. below the summits of the adjacent hills. The streams flowing southward to the Ohio are the longest and deepest, as the Mahoning, Muskingum, Hockhocking, Scioto, Little Miami, and Great Miami rivers. The Muskingum is made navigable by slackwater improvements to Dresden, a distance of 95 m. from its mouth. The shorter watershed on the N. side of the divide is drained by the Chagrin, Cuyahoga, Rocky, Black, Vermilion, Huron, Sandusky, Portage, and Mau-mee rivers, none of which are navigable for any distance from the lake. Bounded on its northern margin by Lake Erie, and on its southern by the navigable waters of the Ohio river, Ohio possesses water communication through the Erie canal and St. Lawrence river with the Atlantic ocean, and through the Mississippi with the gulf of Mexico. The outline of the lake shore, though but little interrupted, affords several harbors, as Ashtabula, Cleveland, Black river, Sandusky, and Toledo. The Ohio river, 130 ft. below Lake Erie at Cincinnati, and 100 ft. above at the crossing of the Ohio and Pennsylvania line, is navigable for light-draught vessels to Pittsburgh, excepting during dry seasons. - The soil of Ohio is universally fertile, though over more than one half of the state it is of foreign origin, being derived from the clays and gravels of the drift.

The uplands are especially adapted to the growth of wheat, and for a long time Ohio was the largest grain-producing state. The southern slopes of the watershed are best fitted for the growth of grain, while the northern slopes are well suited for grazing and dairy lands; and the bottom lands of the larger rivers are among the richest corn-growing regions of the world. Though more wheat is produced in the S. W. part than in any other equal area in the state, it is more particularly the product of the Maumee region of the northwest and the Muskingum region of the southeast. The clay soils of the northeast, or Western Reserve, form the great dairy region of the west, and furnish 19,000,000 of the 20,000,000 lbs. of cheese made annually in the state. The bottom lands of the larger rivers, as those of the Miami, the Scioto, and Muskingum, are rich alluvial soils, and as well adapted to the growth of Indian corn as any portion of the middle states. The rocks underlying the area drained by the Miami are calcareous, and the soil produced from them is of great fertility, being in fact an extension of the famous blue-grass region of Kentucky. Grape culture has received careful attention in the valley of the Ohio and on the shores and islands of Lake Erie, and large quantities of wine are annually produced there.

Heavy crops of apples, peaches, and other fruits are also gathered, especially in the Miami region and on the shores of the lake. Originally almost the entire area of the state was covered by forests of oak, chestnut, maple, etc, on the highlands, and elm, beeches, ash, etc, on the lowlands, though in the northwest there are prairies of limited extent. The wild animals, as the deer, wolf, bear, raccoon, and fox, which once abounded in the state, have almost entirely disappeared. - The geological structure of Ohio exhibits no great breaks of the strata, and the sedimentary rocks which underlie the state show only a slight inclination from the horizontal. The chief disturbing element is the Cincinnati arch or anticlinal, which extends from the islands of Lake Erie to Cincinnati, and beyond into Kentucky and Tennessee. From this arch the strata dip westward to the Illinois coal field, and southeastward under the Alleghany coal basin. A study of the composition of this anticlinal shows that its elevation must have occurred at the close of the lower Silurian and previous to the commencement of the upper Silurian age, thus establishing the fact that the Illinois and Alleghany coal fields were separate and distinct basins during the deposition of their strata.

The geological formations exposed in the state are the lower Silurian, upper Silurian, Devonian, carboniferous, and drift. The oldest rocks are those of the lower Silurian age which are exposed at and near Cincinnati, called the Cincinnati group, the equivalents of the Trenton and Hudson formations of New York. These are composed of beds of limestone and clay or marl, and in the richness and variety of their fossil remains are unequalled by any other known locality. Their maximum thickness exposed near Cincinnati is about 1,000 ft. Of the formations of the upper Silurian age, the Clinton and Niagara limestones lie around and thin out upon the lower Silurian area, and are exposed at different points on the crown of the Cincinnati arch toward the lake. The Salina group, the formation containing the salt at Syracuse, N. Y., appears at Sandusky, 30 to 40 ft. in thickness, where it carries valuable beds of gypsum, but thins out toward the southwest and soon disappears. The waterlime, which represents the Helderberg of New York, is very largely developed in the western part of the state and on the islands of Lake Erie. It flanks both sides of the Cincinnati arch, and its thickness near the lake is about 100 ft, The base of the Devonian system, the Oriskany, is recognizable in a few places as a saccharoidal sandstone, 3 to 10 ft. thick.

The corniferous limestone, the chief element of the Devonian in Ohio, forms two belts of outcrop on opposite sides of the Cincinnati arch, one extending from Sandusky, where it is about 100 ft. thick, thinning out southward toward Columbus and disappearing in Pickaway co. The other belt crosses the X. W. corner of the state diagonally from Michigan near Toledo to the Indiana line near Van Wert. The surface rock of Kelley's island is also formed of corniferous limestone. It is largely quarried at Kelley's island, Sandusky, Columbus, and elsewhere for building stone and lime, and the state house at Columbus is built of it. The corniferous at Delaware and Sandusky also yields interesting fossil fish remains, such as macropetalichthys and onychodus. The Hamilton is exhibited in but few localities as a thin bed of marly limestone overlying the corniferous. The Huron or black shale, the equivalent of the Genessee and lower part of the Portage of New York, is a mass of black bituminous shale 300 ft. thick containing 10 to 20 per cent, of carbonaceous matter.

It occupies the entire N. W. corner of the state and a belt 10 to 20 m. wide extending from the mouth of the Huron river on Lake Erie to the Ohio. It contains the remains of huge fossil fishes, dinichthys, and is the source of the oil and gas of Pennsylvania and parts of Ohio. The Erie shale, the upper member of the Devonian and the continuation of the Portage and Chemung of western New York, is a mass of argillaceous shale bordering the lake shore from the Pennsylvania line, where it is 1,000 ft. thick, to the Vermilion river, where it has thinned out and disappeared. Nearly the entire E. half of this state is underlaid by the members of the carboniferous system, which here form the N. W. border of the great Alleghany coal field. The base of this system is composed of the shales and sandstones of this Waverley group, which are the western continuation of the "vespertine" of Pennsylvania. The Berea grit, a sandstone stratum of the Waverley, is extensively quarried at Berea, Amherst, Independence, etc, in the N. part, and at Buena Vista in the S. part of the state, from which places it is largely exported for building purposes and grindstones.

The S. E. third of the state is occupied by the coal measures, which are underlaid at places by the conglomerate, especially in the N. part, where it is locally 175 ft. thick; and also by the carboniferous limestone, which however is rarely over 20 ft. thick, and does not extend N. of the central part of the state. The coal measures are composed of strata of shale, sandstone, coal, limestone, and fire clay with iron ores, with a maximum thickness of 1,200 ft. These cover in Ohio an area estimated at 10,-000 sq. in. They are divided into the lower coal measures, 400 ft. thick, the barren measures, 400 ft., and the upper coal measures, 300 to 600 ft. In the lower coal measures there are seven workable seams of coal of general extent, varying in thickness from 2½ to 13 ft. The lowest and one of the most important seams is coal No. 1, the Brier Hill, Massillon, and Jackson coal. This is an open-burning block coal, 2 to 6 ft. thick, and is used extensively in the iron manufacture in the Mahoning and Tuscarawas valleys, and in Jackson co. Coal No. 6 is one of the most extended and valuable seams in the state. It is of variable thickness, and in the Hocking valley at Straitsville, etc, attains a maximum thickness of 12 to 13 ft.

It is generally a coking coal, but as best developed in the Hocking valley is an excellent open-burning coal. The barren coal measures are so called because of the absence from them of any extended workable coals, though locally seams occur of value. The upper coal measures contain three to four workable seams, the lowest and most important of which is the Pittsburgh coal, or coal No. 8. It occupies the district extending from Steubenville to McConnellsville and Pomeroy. It is a strong caking coal, but inferior in quality to the same seam as developed in S. W. Pennsylvania. The deposits of the drift or quaternary cover about two thirds of the area of Ohio, and extend from the lake southward to a line irregularly drawn from the N. lino of Columbiana co. on the east to Dayton and the Indiana line on the southwest. They consist of heavy beds of clay (the Erie clay), sand, gravel, and bowlders, attaining sometimes a thickness of 200 ft., and giving character to the agriculture of large areas. The underlying rocks are often found planed, scored, and polished by glaciers.

An interesting feature in the surface geology of Ohio is the buried river channels and deeply excavated troughs, now filled wholly or partially by sand, gravel, etc, many of which are occupied by rivers now flowing far above their old rocky bottoms. This points to a time at which the land was more elevated than at present, during which the river channels were excavated, and to a subsequent period during which the land was less elevated, and the channels were filled up; and it is considered that the area of the state has never been wholly submerged since the close of the carboniferous age. - The principal mineral products of Ohio are coal, iron, clays, gypsum, peat, salt, petroleum, lime, hydraulic cement, marl, and building stone. Coal is the great mineral staple of the state. The distribution and quality of the Ohio coals have been already noticed. The iron ores of the lower coal measures in the Hanging Rock region, in Lawrence, Jackson, and Scioto cos., are of great value, and sustain an iron manufacture of large extent. Blackband ore is found in one or two localities in N. E. Ohio, associated with coals No. 1 and No. 4; but the most important deposit overlies coal No. 7, at the base of the barren measures, in Tuscarawas and Stark cos., where it attains a maximum thickness of 16 ft.

It is there of considerable economic value, and is used in the manufacture of iron at Massillon, Dover, and Port Washington. The ores chiefly used in the extensive iron manufactures of Ohio, which ranks second among the iron-producing states, are obtained from the Lake Superior region, whence they are shipped to and distributed from Cleveland. Several varieties of fire clay underlie the coal seams, and at certain horizons clays are obtained which are valuable in the manufactures of pottery, fire brick, etc.; as those under coal No. 3 and coal No. 5, which are largely used on the upper Ohio and elsewhere in the E. part of the state. The products manufactured from these clays reach an annual value of over $1,000,000. Some of the finest building stones found in the country are obtained from the sandstones of the Waverley group at Amherst and Berea in northern Ohio, and from Waver-ley and Buena Vista in the S. part of the state. From all these localities large quantities of freestone, as well as flagging and grindstones, are exported to other states. The corniferous limestone has already been mentioned; and the sandstones of the coal measures also yield good building stone. Large quantities of white limestone have been taken from the great quarries in Montgomery and adjacent counties.

Gypsum is mined from the Salina group at Sandusky, and is used both for architectural purposes and as a dressing for land. Salt is produced in many localities, as at Poraeroy in Meigs co., in Athens, Morgan, and Tuscarawas cos., derived mainly from the rocks of the Wa-verley group. Oil is obtained in small quantities from Mecca, Trumbull co., Grafton, Lorain co., and Liverpool, Medina co., from the Waverley; and more abundantly in southern Ohio on Duck creek, Noble co., from the coal measures, though its source is in the deeper strata of the Devonian. Lime of excellent quality is made from the Niagara and corniferous limestones in many localities in the western half of the state. Hydraulic cement is made in Belmont, Lucas, and Auglaize cos. At Barnesville in the former county 12,337 barrels were made in 1873, of a quality equal to any produced in this country. - The climate is pleasant and healthful. There are great and rapid changes in temperature, but the constantly varying winds prevent long continued extremes.

In 1874 the mean temperature for the year was 49.76° at Cleveland, lat. 41° 30', and 55.24° at Cincinnati, lat. 39° 6'; the amount of rainfall was 38.43 inches at the former and 33.38 inches at the latter city. - Ohio holds a very high rank as an agricultural state. Its broad area of fertile valleys and undulating and table lands, its extensive hills, so favorable for raising sheep and other stock on a large scale, its great shipping facilities on the northern and southern borders, and its network of railroads, afford unusual advantages for this industry. According to the federal census of 1870, Ohio ranked first among the states in the production of wool, flax, flax seed, and maple molasses; next to Illinois and New York in the extent of improved land in farms and in the total value of farm productions; to New York in the cash value of farms and the value of orchard and forest products; to Illinois in the amount of wheat produced and the value of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter; to Pennsylvania in the production of clover seed; to Illinois and Iowa in Indian corn; to Vermont and New York in maple sugar; and to Indiana in sorghum molasses.

According to returns made by the state authorities in 1874, Ohio ranked fifth among the states in the production of wheat and oats, third in Indian corn, and sixth in barley. In regard to the production of wheat, Ohio may be divided into three districts stretching across the state from E. to W. In 1873 the average yield per acre was 14.02 bushels in the northern, 12.61 in the central, and 10.36 in the southern district. More than a fifth of the entire wool clip of the country in 1870 was produced in Ohio, which contained more than a sixth of all the sheep in the United States. In 1874 there were more sheep reported in California than in Ohio, but their value was less. Of the 27,133,034 lbs. of flax produced in the United States in 1870, 17,880,624 lbs. were the product of Ohio. As a dairy state Ohio with New York and Pennsylvania is in the first rank. In 1870 each of the latter states contained more milch cows and produced more butter than Ohio; but in the amount of cheese produced and the quantity of milk sold Ohio ranked next to New York. The leading dairy counties are in the N. E. part of the state, known as the Western Reserve, the most important being Lorain, Trumbull, Ashtabula, Geauga, Portage, Medina, Cuyahoga, Summit, and Ashland. During the 14 years ending with 1873 the average annual production of butter was 37,613,639 lbs., and of cheese 23,-981,990 lbs.

According to the federal census of 1870, the state contained in farms 14,-469,133 acres of improved land, 6,883,575 of woodland, and 359,712 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 195,953, containing an average of 111 acres each; 7,028 contained from 3 to 10 acres, 13,794 from 10 to 20, 55,286 from 20 to 50, 71,066 from 50 to 100, 48,072 from 100 to 500, 454 from 500 to 1,000, and 69 had over 1,000 acres. The cash value of farms was $1,054,465,226; of farming implements and machinery $25,692,787; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $16,480,778; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $198,256,-907; orchard products, $5,843,679; produce of market gardens, $1,289,272; forest products, $2,719,140; home manufactures, $1,371,409; animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $40,-498,375 ; value of all live stock, $120,300,528. In 1873 the assessors returned 18,575,239 acres of taxable lands, including 8,535,917 cultivated, 4,855,425 in pasture, 4,085,909 woodland, and 541,022 other land unproductive. It was believed, however, that the actual amount was about 36 per cent, more than that reported.

The chief crops, as returned by the federal census of 1870 and by the state authorities for the three following years, were as follows:

State Seal of Ohio.

State Seal of Ohio.

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

PRODUCTS.

Federal census.

Total production.

No. of acres sown.

Average production per acre.

Total production.

No. of acres sown.

Average production per acre.

Total production.

No. of acres sown.

Average product'n per acre.

Wheat, bush...............

27,882,159

22.274,378

1,667,659

13.27

18,087,664

1,611,217

11.22

21,974,385

1.742,756

12.61

Indian corn, bush.........

67,501,144

98,868,060

2,632,165

36.67

103,053,234

2,520,253

40.89

84,049,328

2,400,295

35.07

Eve, bush.................

846,890

428,014

37.207

11.50

295,843

25,166

11.75

291,829

27,927

10.45

Oats, bush.................

25.347.540

32.696.127

1,000,122

82.69

25,825,742

971.494

26.58

20,501,904

791,927

25.87

Barley, bush..............

; 1,715.221

1,941.240

81,252

23.89

1,528,266

72,488

21.08

1,074,906

49,872

21.55

Buckwheat, bush..........

180,341

177,939

14.972

11.88

266,807

34,SS2

7.65

213,074

21.002

10.14

Potatoes, Irish, bush.......

11,192,814

8,755.193

100.630

87

7,832,297

105.896

73.96

5,966,316

78,199

76.55

sweet, bush.......

230,295

207.676

2,693

77

215.023

8,026

71

170,370

2,701

6307

Hay, tons

2,289,565

1,928.221

1,881,975

1.05

1,763,950

1,815,55s

1.02

1,870,212

1,966,315

1.05

Grass and clover seed, bush.

151.166

384,974

308.903

205,944

........

Flax, lbs

17,880,624

24,477,361

85,868

9,060,588

72,078

5,070,786

43,650

Flaxseed, bush.

631,894

733,384

457,379

167,510

Tobacco, lbs...............

18, 741,973

36,177,630

2S,862

12.53

34.900,996

46,227

7.55

39.572,558

43,S50

9.02

The counties having the greatest extent of cultivated land are Richland, Seneca, Wayne, Darke, Fairfield, and Montgomery, the total number of acres under crops in these six counties being 999,925. Other agricultural productions have been reported as follows :

PRODUCTIONS.

1870.

Federal census.

1871.

1872.

1873.

Wool, lbs...................................................

20.539.643

16,139,331

17,536,209

17,175,465

Hops, lbs

101.236

Cheese, lbs

50.266.372

44,994,152

45,413,066

43,533,865

Milk, gallons sold

24,153,876

82,394,152

34,403,857

43,533,865

Maple sugar, lbs

22.275.344

" molasses, galls

8.469,128

1.832,396

2.690.011

2,150.072

Sorghum sugar, lbs

352,612

271,113

536,320

376,348

" Molasses, galls

25,505

34.599

36.846

molasses, galls....................................

2,023,427

1,817,042

968,130

692.314

Honey, lbs

763,124

Wax, lbs...................................................

22,488

Orchards, acres.............................................

State returns for 1870.

877.297

383,647

391.550

885.829

Apples, bush

11,012,5S2

10,437,437

21,632,475

11,343,431

Peaches, bush

309.639

860.530

405.619

94,516

Pears, bush

67,047

126,982

153,968

80,033

Vineyards, acres............................................

10,890

11,219

15,111

19,660

Grapes, lba.................................................

15.853,719

19,292.980

10,016,427

6,607 658

Wine, galls.................................................

2,577,907

1,031,923

425.923

208,289

The number of domestic animals reported by the federal census of 1870, and the number and value returned for taxation in 1874, were as follows:

ANIMALS.

1870.

1874.

Number.

Value.

Horses.........

704.664

729.303

$45,932,368

Mules and asses.

16,065

25,315

1,778,181

Cattle..........

1,678,864

27,917.537

Milch cows

654.390

Working oxen..

23,606

Other cattle.....

843.425

Sheep

4,923.635

4,333,868

10.452.067

Swine..........

1,728.963

1,915,220

6,152,875

Ohio possesses great natural advantages as a manufacturing state, and holds a very high rank in this respect. According to the federal census of 1870, it ranked after New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts in the amount of capital employed in manufactures and the value of products; first in the value of wooden ware; next to Illinois in agricultural implements and distilled liquors; to New York in cooperage, linseed oil, and factory cheese; to Pennsylvania in iron ore and coal oil; to New York and Pennsylvania in iron castings, forged and rolled iron, sash, doors, and blinds, soap and candles, tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, and malt; to Illinois and Missouri in bituminous coal and pork packed; and to California and Missouri in vinous liquors. It also ranked among the first in malt liquors, machinery, mining, and leather. The total number of manufacturing establishments of all kinds was 22,773, having 4,586 steam engines of 129,577 horse power, and 2,157 water wheels of 44,746 horse power, and employing 137,202 hands, of whom 119,680 were males above 16 years of age, 11,575 females above 15, and 5,941 youths.

The capital emploved amounted to $141,923,964; wages, $49,066,488; materials, $157,131,697; products, $269,713,610. The leading industries are represented in the following table:

INDUSTRIES.

No. of establish-; incuts.

Steam engines, horse power.

Water wheels, horse power.

Hands employed.

Capital.

Wages.

Value of materials.

Value of products.

Agricultural implements

219

8,581

253

5,124

$7,570,820

$2 -41 518

$5 240 550

$11,907,366

Blacksmithing

2.406

45

....

4.270

1,089,692

518,222

938,602

3.099,476

Boots and shoes

2,853

48

6.738

2,058,067

1,747,310

2,834,261

6,559,946

Bread, crackers, and other bakery products.

279

250

975

495,522

2-4.532

1,288,604

2,202,818

Brick

331

516

8

2.409

633.660

462,758

294,420

1,252.-57

Carpentering and building................

1,613

300

4.924

1.036.777

1,481,184

8,277,849

6,805,653

Carriages and wagons

1,221

231

28

5.094

2,964,768

1.671.070

1,587,164

5 049 580

Cars, freight and passenger...............

11

467

1.462

1,355,970

917,565

1.865.679

2,555,855

Cheese

195

317

40

759

474,970

116,685

1,875,711

2.287,804

Clothing, men's

773

....

10.632

4.61.6.727

2,436,829

7,496,501

12,867,440

Coal oil, rectified

25

385

....

270

757,000

157,359

4,496,163

5,388,478

Cooperage

658

963

50

8,206

1,108,1)57

1,105,530

1.729.417

3.554,171

Flouring and grist-mill products..........

1,396

18,884

26,564

8.932

11.334.952

965.724

26.498,777

31,692,210

Furniture, not specified

553

2,299

193

4,996

5.004,465

2,106,971

1 734 459

5,794,376

" chairs

55

575

48

1.275

610,600

382,071

419 106

998 209

Hubs and wagon materials..............,

58

1,693

145

1,801

1.303.450

548,647

665.190

1,712,208

Iron rolled and forged

3S

11,186

100

4.670

6,686,659

2,791,560

8,435,585

13,033,169

" nails and spikes, cut and wrought___

10

1.477

370

841,241

198.140

1,807,402

2,097,848

" pigs

65

10,158

....

4.5-2

7,437.826

2.085.520

7,056,405

10,956,938

" castings, not specified..............

215

2,858

458

3.073

5,656,879

1,757,800

8,569,086

7,318,102

" " stoves, heaters, and hol. ware.

53

968

32

1,987

2,616,750

1,100,866

1,195,424

8.221,298

Leather, tanned

495

1.622

94

1.265

2,171,108

879,178

2,768,498

3,714,232

" curried

387

210

796

1,057.733

251,413

2,933,218

3,522,100

Liquors, distilled

63

2.710

205

735

2,829,700

369,987

4,371,289

7.022.656

malt............................

199

1,257

4

1.305

5,337,272

748,540

2,711.270

5,758,666

" vinous

33

...

124

869,90!

25.306

179.775

309,375

Lumber planed

142

2.883

95

1,695

1,212,902

491,263

1,599,615

2.519.745

" sawed..........................

2,228

36.693

9,690

8.225

6,188,17!

1.534.75!

4,913.828

10,102,780

Machinery, not specified..................

142

1.750

528

2.254

3,395,885

1,244,973

1,580,596

4,198,912

" railroad repairing..............

13

732

1,862

2.447.284

1.117.110

1.130,339

2.248.149

" steam engines and boilers

72

1.265

20

2,311

2,826,l2l

1,301,649

2,656,409

4,801,341

Malt....................................

34

189

30

166

965,228

75.801

943,818

1.129.695

Marble and stone, work not specified......

79

1,010

70

927

1.085,125

410,396

439,674

1,112,072

" " monuments and tomb- stones.............

118

172

677

661.445

278,590

502,865

1,108,951

Meat, packed, pork

58

106

....

830

3,792,490

341.964

9.370.626

10,655,950

Oil animal

11

108

....

148

501.000

71,822

1.558,186

1,702,343

" linsed

23

366

277

202

1.090.967

76,590

1,587,291

1.840.000

Paper, printing

17

1,288

819

785

1,604,800

306,273

1.511.145

2.219.-0

" wrapping

20

383

965

368

876,000

144.776

792,664

1.224.253

Patent medicines and compounds.........

17

16

134

417.400

68,780

269.442

1.004.200

Printing and publishing, not specified

43

425

....

1.433

1,763.400

948,521

958.444

2,696,720

Saddlery and harness

7S7

1,999

832,328

419,097

992,922

2.074.268

Salt.....................................

40

849

40

437

1,085,904

16,.420

362,922

773.492

Sash, doors, and blinds

142

3,423

250

2,07S

2,428,523

949.374

1,730,236

3,416,998

Soap and candles

42

267

....

407

1,085,150

166,518

2.887.625

2.976.544

Stone and earthen ware

170

482

19

1.244

751.700

417,508

250.070

970,749

Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware..........

652

77

2.313

1,598,488

711.421

1,458,584

3,214,285

Tobacco, chewing, smoking, and snuffing..

35

206

19

1.042

570,980

269,700

1.469,626

2,880,588

" cigars

406

6

2,499

826,369

769,937

973.174

2,666,183

Woollen goods

191

2.689

1,873

2.169

2,962,169

554,680

1.-95,622

8,187.815

Besides the above, there were 535 establishments engaged in mining, having 121 steam engines of 4,143 horse power, and employing 11,241 hands, about one half of whom are employed under ground. The capital invested amounted to $9,017,197, and the annual products to $7,751,544. Among the latter were 2,527,285 tons of bituminous coal, valued at $5,482,952; 316,529 of iron ore, $960,984; petroleum, $228,488; and stone, $1,079,120. According to returns by the state authorities, 55,316,666 bushels of coal were mined in 1871, 110,438,754 in 1872, and 87,794,240 in 1873. The counties in which the largest amounts were produced in the last named year were Stark, 10,002,642 bushels; Perry, 9,979,056; Trumbull, 8,217,248; Athens, 7,803,637; Columbiana, 6,728,570; Meigs, 5,757,203; Summit, 5,395,444; and Wayne, 5,189,018. There were 336,758 tons of iron ore mined in 1872, and 332,972 in 1873, more than half being the product of Lawrence and Jackson cos. The production of pig iron was reported by the American iron and steel association at 399,743 tons in 1872, and 406,029 in 1873, which was about one seventh of the entire product of the United States. The number of stacks in 1873 was 988. In 1873 the assessors reported 44 rolling mills, including 15 manufacturing rails, 4 Bessemer steel rails, and 7 other kinds of steel.

The reported production of salt was 4,154,187 bushels; petroleum, 1,315,660 gallons; lime, 488,331 barrels; water cement, 12,377 barrels; stone ware, 4,525,300 gallons. In extent of pork packing Ohio ranks above all other states except Illinois. During the winter season of 1874-5 there were packed 871,-736 hogs, weighing in the aggregate 241,737,-547 lbs., the average gross weight being 277.3 lbs. each. The total product of lard was 35,459,-594 lbs.; value of hogs packed, $16,597,490. Among the other products were 465,075,171 lbs. of green sides, 186,030,068 of shoulders, and 162,776,309 of hams. The chief seat of this industry is Cincinnati, where the number of hogs packed was 560,164. (See Cincinnati.)-Ohio has three United States customs districts, Miami, Sandusky, and Cuyahoga, the ports of entry being Toledo, Sandusky, and Cleveland. Cincinnati is a port of delivery in the district of Louisiana. By act of congress of July, 1870, it is also made a port of entry, where merchandise may be entered without appraisement at the port of first arrival.

The value of the merchandise thus transported during the year ending June 30, 1874, was $111,-576; that entered from other districts amounted to $75,435. The imports and domestic exports in the three customs districts during the year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows:

DISTRICTS.

Imports.

Domestic exports.

Cuyahoga

$449,118

$1,426,990

Miami

79,018

1,836,825

Sandusky

26,240

264,914

Total........................

$564,376

$3,528,729

The number of vessels and tonnage that entered and cleared in the foreign trade, and the whole number registered, enrolled, and licensed in each district, were as follows:

DISTRICTS.

ENTERED.

CLEARED.

REGISTER'D, &C.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

Cuyahoga...

924

198,676

947

189,587

10

2,320.20

Miami

302

69.517

286

71.339

Sandusky ..

136

12,089

155

14,332

Total

1,362

280,232

1,3S3

275,258

10

2,320.20

The number of vessels engaged in the coastwise trade and those built in the different districts were as follows:

DISTRICTS.

COASTWISE TRADE.

BUILT.

ENTERED.

CLEARED.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

No.

Tons.

Cuyahoga....

3.315

1,126,839

3.418

1,170,351

20

11.242.75

Miami........

1,962

441,593

1,918

425,951

6

1,807.84

Sandusky

3,140

479,897

3,124

474,602

2

614.16

Total.......

8,417

2,048,329

8,460

2,070,904

28

13,664.75

The mileage of railroads in Ohio has increased from 36 m. in 1841 to 572 in 1851 3,024 in 1861, 3,176 in 1865, 3,214 in 1867, 3,224 in 1869, 3,457 in 1871, 3,787 in 1872, and 4,163 in 1873; and 4,374 m. of main line and branches were reported by the commissioners of railroads and telegraphs, June 30, 1874, besides which there were 1,142 m. of sidings and other tracks, making the total extent of track 5,516 m. The total amount of capital stock paid in was $147,902,160; funded and other debt, $151,029,300; total stock and debt, $298,931,461; number of passengers carried, 14,886,294; freight, 26,199,435 tons; gross earnings on 4,195 m. operated, $37,177,129; net earnings, $10,182,894. The lines in operation in 1874, with their termini and number of miles completed, are represented in the following table:

NAME OF CORPORATION.

TERMINI.

Miles in operation in the state in

1874.

Total length between termini when different from the preceding.

From

To

*Ashtabula, Youngstown, and Pittsburgh..........

Youngstown.........

Ashtabula

63

Atlantic and Great Western..

Salamanca, N.Y

Dayton

243

387

Extension

By means of extra rail on Cincinnati,

Hamilton, and Dayton road

Dayton

Cinicinnati

60

Divisions

Cleveland and Mahoning.............

Cleveland

Sharon, Pa

80

81

Niles and New Lisbon................

Niles

New Lisbon

33

....

Liberty and Vienna

Girard

New Vienna

8

....

Baltimore and Ohio

Leased -

Baltimore, Pittsburgh, and Chicago

Centreton

Chicago Ill

05

269

Central Ohio

Columbus

Bellaire

137

Sandusky, Mansfield, and Newark.....

Sandusky............

Newark..............

116

Newark. Somerset, and Straitsville.....

Newark.............

Shawmee............

44

Chicago and Canada Southern (branch)..

Toledo...............

TrentonCrossing Mich.

4

38

† Cincinnati and Indiana......

Cincinnati

Indiana state line.....

20

Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Davton.. .........

Dayton

Cincinnati

60

Leased

Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Indianapolis..

Hamilton

Indianapolis, Ind.....

21

93

Cincinnati. Richmond, and Chicago......

Cincinnati

Richmond, Ind

37

42

Dayton and Michigan..................

Dayton

Toledo..............

141

*Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley

Dresden Junction

Morrow

148

Cincinnati, Sandusky, and Cleveland.....

Springfield

Sandusky............

130

Branch.......

Cleveland

Findlay

15

....

Leased, Columbus, Springfield, and Cincinnati....

Galion

Columbus............

45

....

Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis

Delaware

Columbus

138

....

Springfield

Indianapolis, Ind

119

203

Hudson

Springfield

50

Leased. Cincinnati and Springfield...............

Clinton

Cincinnati

74

Cleveland, Mt. Vernon, and Delaware..............

Cleveland

Columbus

145

Leased, Massillon and Cleveland

Bellaire

Massillon

13

*Cleveland and Pittsburgh

Bayard

Rochester, Pa........

109

124

River division..

Columbus

Yellow Creek........

43

Tuscarawas branch

Bayard ..............

New Philadelphia

32

Columbus and Hocking Valley

Columbus

Athens...............

76

Branch

Logan

New Straitsville......

13

Dayton and Union

Dodson..............

Union City, Ind......

32

†Harrison branch

Valley Junction

Harrison

7

.. .

* Operated by the Pennsylvania railroad company.

† Operated by the Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafayette railroad company.

†Operated by the Whitewater Valley railroad company of Indiana.

NAME OF CORPORATION.

TEEMINI.

Miles in operation in the state in

1874.

Total length between termini when different from the preceding.

From

To

Iron

Ironton............

Centre Station........

14

Lake Erie and Louisville........................

Sandusky..

Cambridge City, Ind..

87

189

Lake Shore and Michigan Southern..............

Buffalo, N. Y.........

Chicago, Ill

265

539

Sandusky branch

Elyria...............

Milbury..............

77

Franklin division...................

Ashtabula.........

Oil City, Pa

36

87

Leased, Mahoning Valley..............

Andover..............

Youngstown.........

88

Lake Shore and Tuscarawas Valley..............

Black River..........

Uhrichsville

100

*Mansfield, Coldwater, and Lake Michigan.........

Mansfield.............

Allegan, Mich........

64

223

§Marietta and Cincinnati.......................

Parkersburg, W. Va..

Cincinnati

201

Branches

Marietta

Scott's Landing......

4

Portsmouth.........

Hamden

56

Hillsboro.............

Blanchester..........

21

Marietta, Pittsburgh, and Cleveland................

Marietta............

Canal Dover

98

Ohio and Mississippi.............................

Cincinnati............

St. Louis, Mo

19

340

Ohio and Toledo

10

Painesville and Youngstown......................

Painesville...........

Youngstown.........

50

64

*Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis..............

Pittsburgh, Pa........

Columbus............

125

193

Branch

Junction.............

Cadiz................

8

Leased

Columbus, Chicago, and Indiana Cen-tral...............................

Columbus...........

Chicago, Ill

105

314

Bradford Junction..

Indianapolis, Ind

32

106

Little Miami

Columbus

Cincinnati...........

120

Branches

.....................

Xenia

Springfield...........

19

....

Dayton and Xenia.......

Dayton

Xenio

16

Dayton and Western.....

Dayton

Richmond, Ind.......

41

*Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago

Pittsburgh, Pa

Chicago. Ill

249

468

Branch

Lawrence Junct'n, Pa.

Youngstown.........

17

Rocky River

Cleveland

Rocky River

5

Toledo. Canada Southern, and Detroit..............

Toledo...............

Detroit, Mich

7

57

*Toledo, Tiffin, and Eastern

Tiffin................

Toledo...............

42

....

Toledo, Wabash, and Western.....................

Toledo...............

Camp Point, Ill

76

454

Ohio has 654 m. of canals proper, 36 m. of feeders and side cuts, 11 m. of reservoirs, and 95 m. of the Muskingum slack-water improvement, from Marietta to Dresden, making a total of 796 m. of artificial navigation. The first canal (the Ohio) was begun in 1825, and the last completed in 1844. The total cost of all was $14,688,666. The canals are as follows:

Ohio, Cleveland to Portsmouth

309 m.

Trenton feeder

3

Dresden side cut

2

Granville feeder

6

Columbus feeder

11

Miami and Erie, Cincinnati to Toledo

246

Branch to Indiana state line, connecting with Wabash and Erie canal

18

Sidney feeder

14

St. Mary's reservior

11

Walhonding, Roscoe to Rochester

25

Hocking, Carroll to Athens

56

The number of national banks in the state .Nov. 1, 1874, was 170, having a paid-in capital of $29,223,000; bonds on deposit, $25,964,750; circulation issued, $34,474,265; outstanding, $23,605,633. The circulation was $8 68 per capita, 1 per cent, of the wealth of the state, and 80.8 per cent, of the bank capital. Besides the above, 21 state banks were reported in 1874, capital $658,666; 32 savings banks, capital $1,-879,324; and 190 private banks, capital $8,-502,414.-The present constitution of Ohio was adopted in 1851. The right to vote is secured to every white male citizen of the United States 21 years of age, who has resided one year in the state, 30 days in the county, and 20 in the township, village, or ward, next preceding the election. Colored citizens are entitled to vote under the federal constitution. The general elections are held annually on the second Tuesday of October. The general assembly consists of a senate of 36 members and a house of 105 representatives, both elected for two years. Its regular sessions are biennial, beginning on the first Monday of January in even years.

The executive officers are a governor, salary, $4,000; lieutenant governor, $800; secretary of state, $2,000; auditor, $3,000; treasurer, $3,000; comptroller of the treasury, $2,000; attorney general, $1,500 and fees; and commissioner of schools, $2,000. All are chosen for two years, except the auditor, whose term is four, and the comptroller and commissioner of schools, who hold office for three years. The board of public works comprises three members, who are also elected. The commissioner of railroads and telegraphs, the superintendent of insurance, supervisor of public printing, gas commissioner, and state and law librarians are appointed by the governor. The state board of agriculture consists of ten members, five of whom are chosen annually for two years, at a convention composed of the presidents of the county agricultural societies. The officers are chosen annually by the board. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and four judges, salary $3,000 each. It has original jurisdiction in quo warranto, mandamus, habeas corpus, and procedendo, and appellate jurisdiction of the judgments of the district courts.

Regular terms are held annually in Columbus, beginning on the first Monday in December. The state is divided into nine common pleas districts, each of which is subdivided into three parts, each part electing one or more of the judges. Courts of common pleas are held by one or more of the judges in each county, and district courts by the common pleas judges of each district, with one judge of the supreme court, The district courts have original jurisdiction similar to that of the supreme court, and appellate jurisdiction of the judgments of the common pleas, They are composed of the judges of the common pleas in the respective districts and one of the judges of the supreme court, A court of common pleas is held in each county by a single judge, and has original jurisdiction when the amount in controversy exceeds $100, and appellate jurisdiction from justices of the peace and probate courts, There are special superior courts in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dayton, and Xenia, Probate courts are established in each county, Justices' courts have exclusive jurisdiction in civil actions where the amount does not exceed $100, and concurrent jurisdiction with the common pleas when the amount is between §100 and $300, All judges are elected, those of the supreme and common pleas courts for live years, The state is divided into two United States judicial districts, the courts being held in Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Toledo, A married woman may hold, free from the interference of her husband or his creditors, the property belonging to her at the time of marriage, or afterward acquired by gift, bequest, or inheritance, or by purchase with her separate means, and may dispose of 6uch property by will, She has similar control of her earnings, Divorces may be obtained for three years' desertion, adultery, impotence, extreme cruelty, fraudulent contract, gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness for three years, or imprisonment under criminal sentence, Wills, except nuncupative, must be in writing and signed by two or more witnesses, The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent,; not more than 8 per cent, may be agreed upon in writing, but 6 per cent, may be recovered on a contract for more than 8 per cent, Statistics of agriculture, industry, etc, are annually collected by township assessors and published under the direction of the secretary of state, Ohio has 2 senators and 21 representatives in congress, and has therefore 23 votes in the electoral college, - The state funds, not including transfers, during the year ending Nov, 15, 1874, were:

§ Including the Cincinnati and Baltimore railroad, which extends from Cincinnati 6 m. eastward.

FUNDS,

Receipts,

Disbursements,

Balances, Nov,15,1874,

General revenue......

$1,024,588

$725,864

$193,876

Asylum...........

1,875,889

1,943,338

40,224

Sinking........

1,315,210

910,121

450,570

State common school,,

1,535,125

1,487,562

127,727

National road

17,971

19,093

Total........

$5,768,789

$5,0S5,978

$812,397

The receipts of the general revenue fund included $920,672 from taxes and licenses, $19,-271 insurance fees, $24,930 from board of public works, and $42,440 from sale of Central Ohio lunatic asylum grounds, Among the disbursements were $150,278 for salaries of the judiciary, $135,909 for state binding, printing, and stationery, $127,543 expenses of constitutional convention, $101,159 for legislature, $44,275 for public works, $37,876 for clerks in civil departments, $31,587 for salaries of state officers, $16,976 for geological survey, and $3,000 for encouragement of agriculture, The funded debt of the state on Nov, 15, 1874, amounted to $7,988,205, of which $22,365 had ceased to draw interest and $7,965,840 was interest-bearing, The local debts on Sept, 1, 1874, were $21,886,007, making the entire indebtedness of the state (with an irreducible debt of $4,121,394) $33,995,606, The total amount of taxable property in 1874 was returned at $1,580,379,324, including $1,052,-257,736 real estate, of which $354,849,199 was in cities, towns, and villages, and personal property valued at $528,121,588, The total taxes levied on this valuation amounted to $26,-837,196 (exclusive of $777,532 for delinquent taxes and forfeitures of other years), including $5,050,367 for state and $6,038,750 for county purposes, and $15,748,079 township, city, school and special taxes, The purposes for which the state tax was levied, with the amounts and rates, were as follows :

FUNDS,

Rate,

Mills on the dollar,

Amount,

General reserve

•5

$788,856

Ashlum

•9

1,419,941

Sinking

.8

1,262,170

State common school

1,0

1,579,400

Total.......................

3,2

$5,050,367

The value of taxable property and the amount of taxes levied for a series of years have been as follows:

YEARS,

Value of realty,

Value of personalty,

Total value of taxable property,

State tax,

Total taxes on duplicate,

1840

$85,287,261

$27,088,895

$112,326,156

$504,435

$1,755,539

1850

341,388,838

98,,487,502

439,876,340

1,413,830

4,227,708

1800

639,894,311

248,408,290

888,302,601

3,503,713

10,817,676

1861

643,883,552

248,966,532

892,850,084

4,050,379

11,050,814

1862

645,070,080

243,615,312

8S9,285,292

4,129,473

10,135,285

1863

649,500,022

286,871,222

930,871,244

4,722,00s

11,859,574

1864

655,498,100

351,198,016

1,000,090,116

5,329,963

16,595,639

1865

660,557,979

409,047,876

1,069,605,855

5,663,807

20,870,828

1866

603,047,542

442,501,379

1,106,208,921

3,807,167

18,868,437

1867

673,998,757

404,701,022

1,138,754,779

8,981,099

20,258,615

1868

683,452,487

400,008,899

1,143,461,386

3,997,472

2o,489,148

1869

697,418,203

459,702,252

1,157,180,455

4,045,470

22,232,877

1870

707,846,836

459,884,861

1,168,731,697

4,000,242

23,463,631

1871

1,025,619,034

470,510,987

1,502,129,971

4,350,728

22,955,388

1872

1,030,160,528

494,159,590

11,524,328,118

4,414,557

23,248,979

1873

1,041,763,931

525,510,708

1,567,274,689

5,477,859

26,131,353

1874

1,052,257,736

528,121,588

1,580,879,324

5,050,307

26,887,196

Ohio has made liberal provision for the care of its defective and dependent classes, Four institutions for the insane are wholly and two partially supported by the state, The oldest is the central Ohio hospital, which was opened at Columbus in 1839, The building was destroyed by fire in 1868, and a new one is now (1875) in process of construction on a plot of 300 acres of land near the same city. For 15 years prior to its destruction the average daily number of inmates of this institution was 262. The other state hospitals for the insane are the northern Ohio, in Newburgh, Cuyahoga co.; the southern Ohio, in Dayton, and the southeastern, in Athens. The Longview lunatic asylum, near Cincinnati, belongs to Hamilton co., but state patients are received here, and the institution is supported in part by legislative appropriations, which in 1874 amounted to $81,856. Both white and colored insane persons are treated in this institution. The Lucas county asylum, known also as the Northwestern hospital for the insane, near Toledo, does not belong to the state, but receives state patients. During the year ending March 31, 1874, 1,018 were sent to the hospitals for the insane.

There is also a city institution for the insane in Carthage, opened in 1860. The state asylum for idiots in Columbus has been in existence since 1857. The present building was first occupied in 1868. (See Idiocy, vol. ix., p. 174.) The asylum for the deaf and dumb and that for the blind are in Columbus. The former had 24 instructors in 1874, and the latter 14. The soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home was established near Xenia, Greene co., in December, 1869, and was sustained by private contributions till May 1, 1870, when it became a state institution. The state reform school is situated upon a farm of 1,170 acres 6 m. S. of Lancaster. The buildings, 15 in number besides barns and outhouses, with the yards, lawns, and play grounds, occupy 20 acres. Boys are sent to the institution by some court of record for crime or misdemeanor, and are here classed in families of 50, each family being under the supervision of an "elder brother," an assistant elder brother, and a female teacher. Besides receiving instruction, the boys are employed in farm work and other industrial pursuits. Since the opening of the institution in 1857, 1,984 boys have been admitted and 1,520 discharged, the average time of detention being 2½, years.

The industrial school for girls is at White Sulphur Springs, where the state owns 189 acres of land. The state penitentiary is in Columbus. The convicts are employed in various manufactures on the direct account of the state, and their labor is let out to contractors. By good behavior and diligence in his work, a convict may diminish his sentence five days a month, and receive a portion of his earnings, not exceeding one tenth. If he passes the entire period of his sentence without violating the rules of the prison, he will be restored to citizenship. There is a separate department for insane convicts. The total receipts during the year ending Nov. 1, 1874, were $177,367, including $165,207 from convict labor; the expenditures were $171,955, not including $4,362 expended in the manufacture of gas for public institutions. During the year 509 prisoners were received, 371 were discharged, and there were 1,005 in confinement at the close of the year. The total disbursements by the state on account of the penitentiary amounted to $187,103, besides $61,576 for the prosecution and transportation of criminals.

The condition of the charitable and reformatory institutions for the year ending Nov. 15, 1874, is given in the following statement:

INSTITUTIONS.

Opened.

INMATES.

Current expenses and ordinary repairs.

Total disbursements by the state,

Whole

No.

Average daily No.

Central Ohio hospital for the insane

1839

$304,523

Norhtern " " " "

1855

527

253

$57,741

858,841

Southern " " " "

1S55

960

526

99.896

99.396

Southeastern Ohio hospital for the insane

1ST4

70S

426

94.725

220,539

Longview asylum for the insane

1861

785

582

119.424

210,869

Lucas co, " " " "

1871

174

100

25.02s

25.278

Asylum for idiots

1857

386

352

69,908

97.012

" for deaf and dumb

1829

468

400

61,781

81,781

" for blind

1837

169

109

40.763

121,067

Soldiers' and Sailors' orphans' home

1869

555

520

61.051

83.567

Reform school

1867

636

450

49,901

68,568

Girls' industrial home

1869

166

143

20,202

49,728

In April, 1874, there were reported in the state, not in any of the above named institutions, 1,347 insane, 1,271 idiotic, 1,039 deaf and dumb, and 870 blind. During the year ending March 31, 1874, 4,066 paupers were supported in county infirmaries, besides 1,935 dependent persons otherwise maintained by counties.-The first law assessing a school tax in Ohio was passed in 1825. In 1838 the school laws were revised, and a state common school fund of $200,000 was established, to be distributed among the several counties according to the number of youth therein. The office of state superintendent of common schools was established in 1837 and abolished in 1840. In 1853 the office of state commissioner of common schools was created. In 1873 the school acts were consolidated into a general law, which provides for the division of the state into school districts of five classes. City districts of the first class include cities having by the census of 1870 a population of 10,000 or more, while cities having less than 10,000 inhabitants constitute city districts of the second class. Village districts embrace incorporated villages. The territory not within any of these classes is divided into special districts and township districts.

In all of these districts boards of education are elected by the people. Among other duties they may authorize and require for school purposes a tax not exceeding seven mills on the dollar. They may require any language to be taught in the schools under their control, and are required to provide instruction in the German language upon the demand of 75 freeholders, representing not less than 40 pupils who desire and intend to study both the German and English languages. Prior to 1873 instruction in the German language exclusively was given in many of the public schools. Under the new law all branches must be taught in the English language. Boards of education are also empowered to establish separate schools for colored children when their number exceeds 20, and to provide suitable evening schools for whites. An enumeration of all unmarried persons between 6 and 21 years of age is required to be made in each district annually. The state commissioner of common schools is chosen by the people for three years, and receives a salary of $2,000 besides his travelling and contingent expenses.

He is required to visit annually each judicial district, and to make a report before Jan. 20. A state board of three examiners, appointed by the state commissioner for two years, are authorized to issue life certificates to teachers upon examination; there are also county examiners. The state common school fund consists of the proceeds arising from the sale of lands appropriated by congress for the support of schools and the amount accruing from the one-mill tax on the taxable property of the state. The school statistics for 1873-4, as reported by the state commissioner of common schools, are as follows :

Number of persons between 6 and 21 years of age..

985,947

White .......................................

963,548

Colored.......................................

22 399

Males..........................

505.001

Females.............

4S0.946

Number of school districts.......................

1,919

" of school houses........................

11,688

" of school rooms

14,768

Estimated value of school houses and grounds....

$18,829,586

Number of teachers (males 9,911, females 12,464)..

22,375

Average number of weeks the schools were in sess 'n

29

" " of puplis enrolled

707.943

" " in daily attendance.....

429,630

Number of teachers in colored schools...........

160

Pupils

6,131

Total revenue for school purposes................

$8,300,594

Income from mill tax...............

$1,491,510

from interest on irreducible funds and rents of school lands

$225,523

Income from local taxes (average rate 5.23).......

$5,960,625

" from sale of bonds

$399,625

" from fines, licenses, etc...................

$223,310

Total expenditure......

$8,072,167

Amount paid teachers.....

$4,614,499

for supervision.....................

$188,530

for sites and buildings .............

$1,474,082

for interest on and redemption of bonds.......

$516,603

Amount paid for fuel and contingent expenses

$1,328,452

Average cost per pupil on year's expenditures, net per capita on average daily attendance.......

$14 15

On enrollment..

$8 57

Average cost per pupil enrolled including 6 per cent, on value of permanent improvements..

$9 55

The number of high schools reported was 108, having 678 teachers and 23,372 pupils. Besides the public schools above enumerated, there were in the state 265 instructors and 13,066 pupils in private schools. These schools receive no support from the public school funds, but boards of education are required to report concerning their condition. Ohio has no state normal school; but several institutions not receiving public funds are maintained for the training of teachers. Chief among these are the National normal school in Lebanon, the Northwestern Ohio in Ada, the Northwestern in Fostoria, the Ohio Central in Worthington, the Western Reserve in Milan, the McNeeley in Hopedale, the Orwell normal institute in Orwell, and the normal school in Cincinnati. Most of these have courses of instruction in addition to the normal. The most extensive of them is the National normal school, opened in 1856, which has collegiate (including scientific and classical courses), teachers', engineering, business, and preparatory departments, in all of which there were in 1873-'4 17 teachers, of whom 7 were females, and 1,657 pupils, of whom 324 were females. During 1873-'4, 75 teachers' institutes were held, and were attended by 8,579 teachers.

Nothing is contributed by the state to the support of this means of training teachers. Of the cost ($15,318) of maintaining these institutes, $11,792 was taken from the fund accruing from the fee of 50 cents paid by each applicant for a teacher's certificate, and $3,332 was contributed by teachers and others. The Ohio agricultural and mechanical college has been established by means of the congressional land grant of 1862, from which a productive fund of over $500,000 has been realized. The institution was opened in Columbus in September, 1873. The system of instruction embraces three schools: 1, exact sciences, including mathematics, civil engineering, physics and mechanics, and chemistry; 2, natural history, comprising botany, zoology, geology, and agriculture; 3, letters, embracing the English, German, French, Latin, and Greek languages and literatures. Social science and political economy are also taught. The entire course of instruction occupies four years. The studies of the first two years are prescribed. During the remainder of the course the student has a liberty of choice from six courses of study. He is required to take at least one from each of the schools above mentioned, and may take all of his remaining studies from one school. Instruction is free to pupils of both sexes.

Applicants for admission are examined in the ordinary English branches. The degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and civil engineer are conferred. The institution has a farm of 320 acres, and valuable apparatus and collections for imparting an industrial and scientific education. In 1874-'5 there were 10 instructors and 75 students.- The colleges and professional schools of the state, with the number of instructors and pupils in 1874-'5, were as follows :

INSTITUTIONS.

Where situated.

Denominations.

In what year opened.

No. of instructors.

Pupils in collegiate department.

Pupils in all departments.

Antioch college....................

Yellow Springs..

Unitarian..............

1853

10

43

120

Baldwin university

Berea

Methodist Episcopal......

1856

18

179

283

Buchtel college

Akron...........

Universalist..............

1872

14

101

180

Capital university.................

Columbus.......

Evangelical Lutheran.....

1850

6

60

80

Cincinnati Wesleyan college

Cincinnati.......

Methodist Episcopal......

1842

18

114

220

Denison univesity

Granville........

Baptist.................

1881

10

87

162

Farmer's college

College Hill......

Not denominational......

1S47

8

20

82

Franklin college

New Athens.....

United Presbyterian......

1825

German Wallace college

Berea

Methodist Episcopal......

1864

7

35

110

Heidelberg college

Tiffin............

Reformed.................

1850

7

102

210

Hiram college

Hiram..........

Disciples.................

1867

8

37

233

Kenyon college

Gambier

Protestant Episcopal......

1825

13

52

69

Marietta college

Marietta.........

Not denominational......

1835

10

85

188

Mount St. Mary's of the West

Cincinnati

Roman Catholic..........

1851

15

318

112

Mount Union college

Mount Union

Methodist Episcopal...

1858

16

638

809

Muskingum college

New Concord

Not denominational....

1887

Oberlin college

Oberlin

Congregational

1883

68

159

1,880

Ohio Central college

Iberia

United Presbvterian......

1854

8

15

50

Ohio university

Athens

Not denominational

1804

6

48

109

Ohio Wesleyan university

Delaware

Methodist Episcopal

1844

12

159

376

One Study university

New Mark't Stat'n

Methodist Episcopal

1859

4

> * ■

217

Otterbein university

Westerville......

United Brethren in Christ.

1847

11

75

205

Richmond college

Richmond.......

Not denominational

1835

4

• > •

St. Xavier college

Cincinnati.......

Roman Catholic

1831

16

159

272

University of Wooster

Wooster.........

Presbyterian.............

1870

27

155

806

Urbana university

Urbana

New Church

1851

4

10

25

Western Reserve College

Hudson

Not denominational.......

1826

16

66

183

Wilberforce university

Xenia...........

Afric'n Method't Episcopal

1856

• • ■

.

Wilmington college

Wilmington......

Friends

1870

4

15

79

Willoughby College

Willoughby......

Methodist

1858

5

25

150

Wittenberg college

Springfield.......

Evangelical Lutheran

1845

10

100

163

Xenia college

Xenia

Methodist Episcopal

1850

7

122

271

SCHOOLS OF LAW.

Law school of Cincinnati college___

Cincinnati

1833

4

65

...

Ohio state and union law school

Cleveland

1856

SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE.

Cincinnati college of medicine and

Surgery

Cincinnati

Regular

1821

14

Cincinnati college of pharmacy

"

Pharmaceutic

1871

3

76

...

Cleveland medical college

Cleveland

Regular

1842

15

66

Eclectic medical institute

"

Ecelctic

1843

...

Homoepathic hospital college

Columbus

Homoepathic

1849

13

70

Medical college of Ohio

Cincinnati

Regular

1819

10

282

Miami medical college............

"

".

1852

12

Ohio college of dental surgery

"

Dental

1845

7

88

...

Pulte medical college..............

"

Homoeopathic

1872

14

56

Starling medical college and hospital

Columbus

Regular

1848

8

65

SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY.

Lane theological seminary.

Cincinnati

Presbyterian

1833

5

48

Mount St. Mary's of the West.

"

Roman Catholic

1851

7

St. Mary's theological seminary....

Cleveland

Roman Catholic

1849

3

30

Theological seminary

Xenia

United Presbyterian

1794

...

Theological seminary of the Evan- gelical Lutheran joint synod of

Ohio

Columbus

Evangelical Lutheran

1830

...

Theological seminary of St.

Charles Borromeo

Carthagena

Roman Catholic

1860

8

48

Union Biblical seminary

Dayton

United Brethren in Christ.

1871

3

25

The system adopted by the One Study university enables students to complete one study before beginning another. The Cincinnati Wes-leyan college is exclusively for females. Both sexes are admitted to Antioch, Hiram, Mount Union, Oberlin, Ohio Central, One Study university, Otterbein, Richmond, and the university of Wooster. Besides these, there are numerous seminaries of a high order for the superior instruction of females. In addition to the professional schools above named, there is a law department in Wilberforce university; a medical department (in Cleveland) of the university of Wooster; a college of pharmacy connected with Baldwin university; scientific departments of Denison university and Oberlin college; and theological departments of German Wallace college, Heidelberg college, Mount St. Mary's of the West, Oberlin college, Wilber-force university, and Wittenberg college. The Toledo university of arts and trades has recently been organized for advanced artistic and industrial instruction of young men and women. The number of libraries in 1870 was 17,790, with an aggregate of 3,687,363 volumes.

Of these, 11,765 with 2,353,000 volumes were private, and 6,025 with 1,334,363 volumes other than private; 3 town, city, etc, 61,000; 1,118 school, college, etc, 426,013; 4,896 Sabbath school, 796,650; and 5 circulating, 8,500 The largest libraries are the public in Cincinnati, which in 1874 had 62,000 volumes; the state in Columbus, 39,000; the mercantile in Cincinnati, 35,500; and the library of Marietta college, with 26,000 volumes. St. Xavier college, Mount St. Mary's of the West, Ohio Wes-leyan university, Denison university, Western Reserve college, and Oberlin college have also large libraries. The Cincinnati law library contains about 10,000 volumes. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals in 1870 was 395, having an aggregate circulation of 1,388,367, and issuing annually 98,548,814 copies. There were 26 daily, with a circulation of 139,705 ; 8 tri-weekly, 13,560; 3 semi-weeklv, 7,200; 299 weekly, 923,502; 8 semimonthly, 65,050; 47 monthly, 228,750; 2 bimonthly, 2,700; and 2 quarterly, 7,900. In 1874 the total number reported was 505, viz.: 29 daily, 10 tri-weekly, 5 semi-weekly, 386 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, 12 semi-monthly, 61 monthly, and 11 quarterly.-The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 6,488, having 6,284 edifices with 2,085,586 sittings, and property valued at $25,554,725. The denominations were represented as follows:

DENOMINATION'S.

Organizations.

Edifices.

Sittings.

Property.

Baptist, regular

555

545

164,020

$2,533,000

" other

158

157

83,850

225,500

Christian

681

610

167.625

1,366,990

Congregational

198

195

87,150

1,385,585

Episcopal, Protestant ...

114

112

51,150

1,343,280

Evangelical Association..

157

140

33,500

338,500

Friends

91

91

26,050

218,770

Jewish

7

7

4,000

360,584

Lutheran

477

476

131,050

1,392,975

Methodist

2,161

2,115

714,146

6,540,910

Moravian

4

4

1,200

14,000

New Jerusalem (Swe- denborgian).........

8

6

1,350

55,000

Presbvterian, regular....

628

625

233.945

3,580,756

" other......

164

165

60,000

564,970

Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed)..........

2

2

700

9,500

Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed)..

288

266

88,900

887,700

Roman Catholic

295

295

160,700

3,959,970

Second Advent

1

1

300

1,000

Shaker

4

4

2,100

16,000

Universalist............

78

78

20,750

175,950

Unknown, local missions

2

2

200

600

" union

33

33

8,600

34,775

The first explorations in the territory which now constitutes the state of Ohio were made by the French, the discoveries of La Salle in this region dating from about 1680. The object of the French adventurers, however, seems to have been trade rather than settlement. They were soon involved in disputes with the English, who, having obtained from their sovereign a grant covering part of the territory claimed by the French, sent out surveyors, and established trading posts in the Ohio valley. It was in the war which broke out in consequence of these conflicting claims that Washington first became known ; but neitber his abilities nor the operations of a powerful force sent out under Gen. Braddock could overcome the French, who kept possession of the country until Canada and the whole country W. to the Mississippi were surrendered by the treaty of 176:3. After the war of the revolution disputes arose between several of the states respecting the right of soil in this territory, which were only allayed by the cession of the whole to the United States, Virginia reserving 3,709,848 acres near the rapids of the Ohio for her state troops, and Connecticut a tract of 3,666,921 acres near Lake Erie (the West-ern Reserve). In 1800 jurisdiction over these two tracts was relinquished to the federal government, the states retaining the right to the soil, and disposing of it in small lots to settlers, while the Indian titles to the rest of the state were bought up by the general government.

In 1787 congress undertook the government, and in 1788 the first permanent settlement was made at Marietta. The first years of the Northwest territory, as it was called, were harassed by Indian warfare, which was not terminated until after the signal victory of Gen. Wayne in 1794. In 1799 the Northwest territory was organized, and shortly afterward Ohio was formed into a separate government. It was admitted into the Union as a state in 1803. From 1800 to 1810 the seat of government was in Chillicothe, from 1810 to 1812 in Zanesville, and from 1812 to 1816 in Chillicothe. Columbus became the capital in 1816. A convention to revise the constitution assembled in Columbus May 6, 1850, and finally adjourned March 10, 1851, a portion of the session having been held in Cincinnati. The amended constitution was ratified by the people June 17, 1851. Another convention to revise the constitution convened in Columbus May 14, 1873, and, having adjourned to Cincinnati, framed a new constitution, which was rejected by the people at the election of 1874. The whole number of troops furnished by Ohio to the Union army during the civil war was 317,133, or 239,976 reduced to a three years' standard.

The first geological survey of Ohio was made in 1837-8, under the supervision of Prof. W. W. Mather, chief geologist. A more complete survey was begun in 1869 and completed in 1874, by Prof. J. S. Newberry as chief and E. B. Andrews, Edward Orton, and John II. Klippart as assistant geologists. Besides the reports of progress for 1869, 1870, and 1871, two volumes of the final report, each in two parts (geology and palaeontology), have been published. The publications yet to be made comprise a volume on geology, one on economic geology, and one on zoology and botany, besides a geological map.

Ohio #1

I. A N. W. County Of West Virginia

A N. W. County Of West Virginia, bounded E. by Pennsylvania and W. by the Ohio river, and drained by Wheeling and other small creeks ; area, 140 sq. m.; .pop. in 1870, 28,831, of whom 444 were colored. Its surface is hilly and the soil fertile, especially along the Ohio. Most of the land is well adapted to pasturage. Mines of bituminous coal among the hills are extensively worked. It is intersected by the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 42,276 bushels of wheat, 225,465 of Indian corn, 97,372 of oats, 26,967 of barley, 46,748 of potatoes, 120,135 lbs. of butter, 175,124 of wool, and 8,389 tons of bay. There were 1,637 horses, 1,585 milch cows, 1,493 other cattle, 47,201 sheep, and 4,153 swine; 23 manufactories of iron in various forms, and many other manufacturing establishments, chiefly at the capital, Wheeling.

II. A W. County Of Kentucky

A W. County Of Kentucky, bounded S. by Green river, which is here navigable by steamboats, and intersected by Rough creek; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,15,561, of whom 1,393 were colored. It has an undulating surface and a fertile soil, and contains iron ore and coal. The Elizabeth and Paducah railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 40,321 bushels of wheat, 577,371 of Indian corn, 96,268 of oats, 28,033 of Irish and 16,870 of sweet potatoes, 177,229 lbs. of butter, 42,567 of wool, 3,392,633 of tobacco, and 3,564 tons of hay. There were 5,325 horses, 3,801 milch cows," 6,329 other cattle, 21,308 sheep, and 30,646 swine. Capital, Hartford.

III. A S. E. County Of Indiana

A S. E. County Of Indiana, bounded E. by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and N. W. by Laughery creek; area, about 90 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,837. The surface rises in some places into high hills, but in very few places is it too much broken for cultivation. The soil, resting mainly on blue limestone, is fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 61,833 bushels of wheat, 12,231 of rve, 221,565 of Indian corn, 10,224 of oats, 13,581 of barley, 89,379 of potatoes, and 6,489 tons of hay. There were 1,234 horses, 1,150 milch cows, 1,286 other cattle, 2,742 sheep, and 4,342 swine. Capital, Rising Sun.