London, the metropolis of Great Britain, situated on the Thames, 60 m. W. from the sea by the course of the river to the Nore light, and 40 m. in a straight line; lat. (of the centre of the dome of St, Paul's cathedral) 51° 30' 48" N., lon. 0° 5' 48" W. It includes parts of the counties of Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent, extending N. and N. W. to Clapton, Highgate, and Hampstead; E. and S. E. to Bow, Barking, Plumstead, and Eltham; S. and S. W. to Sydenham, Norwood, Tooting, Wandsworth, and Fulham; S. and W. to Hammersmith and Wormwood Scrubs; area, 122 sq. m. The population increased from about 50,000 in the 12th century to nearly 200,000 in the 17th. In 1801, by the first systematic census, it was 958,863; in 1821, 1,378,947; in 1841, 1,948,417; in 1861, 2,803,989; and in 1871, according to the census statistics of the metropolitan board of works, 3,266,987. The ratio of increase from 1841 to 1851 was 19.7 per 1,000; in 1851-'61 it declined to 17.3, and in 1861 - '71 to 15 in the metropolis proper, but respectively advanced to 27.7 and to 42 in the outlying districts.

The registrar's tables for 1871 give the population of the various divisions of the metropolis as follows:

DIVISIONS.

Population.

West Districts.

PART OF MIDDLESEX.

Kensington............

283,153

Chelsea.......

71,089

St. George, Hanover Sq.

155.986

Westminster.............

51,181

North Districts.

Marylebone........

159,254

Hampstead......

32.2S1

St. Paneras.......

221,465

Islington........

213.77S

Hackney......

124,951

Central Districts.

St. Giles...............

53.556

Strand.....

41.339

Holborn..........

163.491

London city........

75,9s3

East Districts.

Shoreditch.........

127,164

Bethnal garden.......

120.104

Whltechapel...........

76,573

St. George in the East..

48.052

Stepney

57.690

Mile End, Old Town....

93,152

116.376

2286568

PART OF SURREY.

South Districts.

St. Saviour,

- Southwark

175.049

St. Olave,

122.398

Lambeth.....

208,342

Wandsworth......

125.060

Camberwell.........

111,306

742,155

PART OF KENT.

Greenwhich.....

100.600

Lewisham......

51.557

Woolwich........

73,380

225,537

Total.......................

3.254,260

Of the total population returned by the registrar in 1871, 3,029,260 were born in England and Wales, 41,029 in Scotland, 91,171 in Ireland, 20,324 in the colonies and India, 5,170 in the islands of the British seas, and 1,205 in ships at sea. The remainder, 66,101, were foreigners, nearly half Germans, and the rest comprising almost all nationalities. The population was estimated by the registrar in the middle of 1874 at 3,400,000. The postal district covers an area of 250 sq. m. The metropolitan police district comprises many towns, villages, and parishes formerly independent, and still often spoken of as such, and extends over the whole of Middlesex (exclusive of London City, which has its own police) and the surrounding parishes in the counties of Surrey, Kent, Essex, and Hertford, of which any part is within 12 m. of Charing Cross, and not over 15 m., embracing an area of 687 sq. m. and a population in 1871 of 3,808,360, or including the City police district 3,883,092, being one eighth of the whole population of the United Kingdom, and 500,000 more than that of all Scotland. This does not include transient residents, whose number is immense at all times, and especially between May and August, when the patricians, politicians, and votaries of fashion are in town, together with many interested in parliamentary business.

At this time London is most brilliant, the West End resembling a fashionable watering place, where distinguished people unite affairs of state with social pleasure, and where the rush from the club houses to parliament, to galleries of art, to the drives in the parks and gardens, and to the opera, halls, and receptions, is incessant. Autumn and winter find the West End comparatively deserted, but with the pleasant walks along the new embankments and increasing improvements, and the animation of the popular thoroughfares and the business regions, the metropolis is at all times attractive, and full of boundless resources and of grandeur, although the atmosphere is always lurid with the smoke of coal, and is often foggy and damp. - The following are the ten parliamentary boroughs of the metropolis: City of London (pop. in 1871, 74,732), Westminster (216,413), Chelsea (258,011), Marylebone (477,555), Hackney (362,427), Finsbury (443,316), Tower Hamlets (391,568), Lambeth (379,112), Southwark (207,-335), and Greenwich (167,632). Their population is only about 3,000,000, the remainder belonging to non-metropolitan electoral districts.

The City, though containing a much smaller number of residents than any of the other boroughs, and which further declined between 1861 and 1871 to the extent of 40,000, is on account of its commercial and financial importance represented by four members of parliament, and the other nine boroughs by two each. The city of London proper, the original nucleus of the metropolis, and called distinctively "the City," has for its base the N. bank of the Thames, with its W. line extending to Middle Temple lane, where, crossing Fleet street at Temple Bar and Holborn at Southampton buildings, it skirts Smithfield, Barbican, and Finsbury circus on the north; traversing the end of Bishopsgate street Without, and proceeding southward down Petticoat lane across the end of Aldgate street and along the Minories, it finally reaches the Thames at the tower of London. The City comprises 110 parishes, four of which are without the walls. Westminster is bounded N., from Tottenham Court road to its suburban limit at Kensington gardens, by Oxford street; while on its extreme W. side, crossing the centre of the Serpentine in Hyde park, it reaches the river at Chelsea hospital. It includes the district of the Savoy and the lordship of the duchy of Lancaster, which are situated between the Strand and the river.

Tower Hamlets adjoins the city of London and Fins-bury on the west; Finsbury adjoins Westminster and Marylebone on the west, and the west part of the city of London on the south. Marylebone is chiefly in the Regent's park district in the West End; Southwark and Lambeth are on the Surrey side; Greenwich comprises Deptford, Woolwich, and other places; Hackney, a N. district forming part of Tower Hamlets, and Chelsea, in the West End, became separate boroughs in 1867. - The Thames runs through the centre of the city, and is spanned by many bridges. Most frequented is London bridge, over 900 ft. long, with a daily traffic of 25,000 vehicles and countless multitudes constantly passing between the city and the other side of the river; tunnels have been built and are in course of construction under the bridge to relieve the pressure. Westminster bridge, 1,200 ft. long, finished in 1862, is double the width of the old bridge, and consists of seven iron arches resting on stone piers with foundations descending 30 ft. below low water. Blackfriars bridge was replaced in 1869 by a new one nearly 1,300 ft. long, with five iron arches; it was opened in 1870 at the same time with the N. Thames embankment.

Close to Blackfriars is the Alexandra lattice bridge of the London, Chatham, and Dover railway, carrying four lines of rails to Ludgate hill station. Southwark bridge, 700 ft. long, with three iron arches, dates from 1819; the penny toll was abolished in 1865, and it became city property in 1868. Waterloo bridge, one of the finest in the world, is 1,240 ft. long, with nine elliptical arches; it was opened on the second anniversary of the battle of Waterloo in 1817. The halfpenny toll is annually paid by about 3,000,000 persons. Vauxhall bridge, dating from 1816, is 800 ft. long, with nine arches, and extends from Vauxhall to Millbank. Albert bridge, 800 ft., the longest and most substantial of the suspension bridges, extends from the Chelsea embankment to Battersea park, and was opened Aug. 23, 1873. An iron bridge was opened in 1874 from Wandsworth to Ful-ham, midway between Battersea and Putney bridges. The Charing Cross or Hungerford (dating from 1863) replaced Hungerford suspension bridge, and there are various other bridges. - The greatest recent improvements are the river quays or Thames embankments.

The northern or Victoria embankment, 100 ft. wide, and costing nearly £2,000,000, was opened in 1870; it forms a matchless public way between Westminster and Blackfriars bridges, following the easy curve of the river, with the houses of parliament at one end and St. Paul's at the other, Waterloo bridge and Somerset house midway, and all along in sight of the Thames with its ever-crowded shipping.

London and its Environs.

London and its Environs.

The southern or Albert embankment, completed about the same period at a cost of £1,100,-000, runs from Westminster bridge nearly to Vauxhall bridge, with the new St. Thomas's hospital, a long range of buildings, facing the houses of parliament and extending from the foot of Westminster bridge to Lambeth palace; but this embankment, though superior to the northern one in the edifices bordering it on the land side, has the disadvantage of terminating somewhat abruptly among the potteries, gas and chemical works, and other unsavory establishments of Lambeth. The Chelsea embankment, opened May 9, 1874, begins at Chelsea hospital gardens, where it joins the embankment constructed some years ago to the old Battersea bridge, presenting along that space a massive granite wall to the river, and on the land side an unbroken roadway 70 ft. wide. For a considerable distance it is flanked by pleasure grounds; and though much less costly and less ornamented than the northern and southern embankments, it is almost equally grand.

New groups of streets, buildings, and shops cluster round the new embankments and their various continuations, while many others are in course of construction. - The most northerly of the longitudinal lines of street parallel to the river enters the metropolis on the west by the Bayswater road, and traverses Oxford street, Holborn, and Newgate street, till it reaches Cheapside; it next passes through the Poultry, having the bank of England and the royal exchange on the one hand, and the mansion house on the other, along Cornhill to Leadenhall street, and is thence continued by Whitechapel and the Mile End road, which leads to Essex and the eastern counties. The other great longitudinal line begins on the west at Hyde Park corner, passing Kensington gardens, part of Hyde park, and the Green park. On the E. end of Piccadilly the continuous line of street diverges to the right through the Hay-market, whence it proceeds to the east along E. Pall Mall, through Trafalgar square, past St. Martin's church, till it reaches the Strand. The great line is thence continued through Fleet street and Ludgate hill, till it arrives at St. Paul's cathedral.

At the N. E. end of St. Paul's churchyard it joins the great northern street line which runs from the Bayswater road; but another branch of the former line runs nearer the river through Watling street, Eastcheap, and Tower street to Tower hill, whence it may be followed either in a straight line through Radcliffe highway, N. of the London docks, or close by the river along Wapping and Shad-well, where the lines unite in a single street, leading to the West India docks. Another line of street which unites with that last described begins at Vauxhall bridge, and runs through Abingdon street until it has Westminster abbey on the left and the houses of parliament and Westminster hall on the right. Leaving these, with Westminster bridge on the right, it joins Parliament street and Whitehall, the latter separating it from St. James's park on the left. Beyond Whitehall is Charing Cross, where the line, bending E. with the river, unites with the Strand. Among the streets running from N. to S., the principal and most westerly is the Edgeware road with its continuations, Park lane, Grosvenor place, and Vaux-hall bridge road, which for the most part form the western boundaries of the metropolis.

The second line of street proceeding eastward is the thoroughfare formed of Portland place, Regent street, and Waterloo place, extending between Regent's and St. James's parks; a little north of Piccadilly it curves through the Quadrant, and continues northward to Oxford street, where it expands into a circus, and then, resuming its former dimensions, proceeds to Lang-ham place, where by a slight curve westward it continues into Portland place, Park crescent, and Park square, leading to Regent's park. The third great line is a continuation southward of the road from Hampstead, passing through Tottenham Court road to the E. end of Oxford street, from which point it proceeds through narrow streets down St. Martin's lane to Charing Cross. The chief N. line connecting the city with its northern suburbs is composed of Gray's Inn lane, which runs from Hol-born hill to the Euston, formerly the New road; Aldersgate street and Goswell street, leading in a direct line from the post office to Islington; and the street commencing at the Regent's canal on the north, successively called Kingsland road, Shoreditch, Norton Folgate, Bishopsgate street, and Gracechurch street, connecting Kingsland and Hoxton with London bridge and South-wark, the street line passing at the S. end of Gracechurch street over London bridge, and thence prolonged for some distance through the Borough, the main thoroughfare of Southwark. Another line connects Finsbury circus with London bridge; and Cannon street extends from King William street to St. Paul's, and connects with the same bridge.

Vast lines of street on the north proceed from Uxbridge road to King's Cross, St. Pancras, and thence to Fins-bury square, and extend under the names of New road and the City road almost completely round the north and east of the metropolis. On the Southwark and Lambeth or Surrey side six great roads converge from the different bridges to the Elephant and Castle tavern. From this point the roads, the principal of which is the Blackfriars road, again diverge, the Kent road leading to Greenwich, the Ken-nington and Newington roads to Brixton and Tulse hill, and the road southward to Svdenham. Many new thoroughfares have sprung up near the Holborn viaduct, one of the most magnificent recent improvements. The new Queen Victoria street is the eastward continuation of the northern embankment through the heart of the City. A broad thoroughfare was opened in 1871 from High street, Whitechapel, to the Commercial road, connecting the City with the East and West India docks and Blackwall; and many others have been opened or are in progress. - The principal E. and W. lines of street run from Mile End road to Hyde Park corner, through the heart of the City (the great landmarks of which are St. Paul's, the bank of England, the royal exchange, and the mansion, house), through Cheapside, Fleet street, the Strand, and Charing Cross; or on the north of Cheapside along Newgate street, the Holborn viaduct, and Oxford street.

N. of these lines sweep the Euston road (the longest road of London, nearly 3 m., leading to Regent's park), St. John's Wood, and the Edgeware road and City road, which run from the Angel tavern at Islington to Finsbury square. Another line of traffic of vast extent passes over London bridge, already mentioned. Just below the bridge is the Pool, with its fleets of colliers moored in the stream; above it are the stairs of the penny and twopenny steamboats. At the foot of the bridge is Fishmongers' hall. Fish street hill, nearly opposite, contains the most picturesque of all metropolitan monuments, erected in commemoration of the great fire; and at the entrance of King William and Cannon street is the statue of William IV. Among the most bustling streets are Upper and Lower Thames street, with the custom house, Bishops-gate street Without and Within, Gracechurch street, Leadenhall street, Fenchurch street, Cornhill, Cheapside, and Queen Victoria and other new streets. At the intersections of Gracechurch with Cornhill and Leadenhall streets and Lombard and Fenchurch streets nearly 60,000 persons cross in the aggregate in the course of nine hours during the day; at the junctions of streets around King William IV.'s monument, King William street, the traffic within the same space of time is estimated at over 40,000 persons, and between the bank of England and the mansion house at nearly 60,-000. These are the most dangerous crossings in the City. It has been ascertained that more than 700,000 persons enter the city of London every morning and leave it again every evening, and that 60,000 vehicles enter it every 24 hours.

The by-streets of Cheapside are filled with Manchester wholesale houses, and the street itself as well as Cornhill displays a variety of jewellers', goldsmiths', watchmakers', saddlers', and other shops. St. Paul's churchyard, Lud-gate hill, and Fleet street are also popular localities for shopping; and from the most distant parts in the East End almost all the houses contain shops, which increase in attractiveness in proportion as they advance westward. Cheapside has long been famous for its traffic. Tournaments were formerly held there, and along it still proceeds annually the antiquated and grotesque turnout on lord mayor's day. One of its cross streets, King street, leads to the guildhall, and Queen street leads to Southward bridge. The mansion house, the official residence of the lord mayor, is bounded E. by the Poultry (enlarged in 1874), which is a continuation of Cheapside, and the new Queen Victoria street connects the mansion house with Blackfriars bridge. The whole neighborhood teems with new buildings and stores. In St. Martin's-le-Grand is the new post office, substantially completed in 1874, facing the old site, and extending from Newgate to Bath and Angel streets, the principal front being 286 ft., and the end fronts 142 ft. long.

Newgate prison in the Old Bailey, the seat of the central criminal court (of which the recorder, the first law officer of the City, is the chief judge), and where those sentenced to death are hanged, throws a gloom over the City. In the vicinity is the Charterhouse in Aldersgate street. The Holborn viaduct, opened in November, 1869, has been lined with new rows of buildings and shops, and is doing much to relieve the traffic on other roads. The law region of Gray's Inn and Chancery lane lies among the cross streets of Holborn. Some of the unseemly by-streets between Holborn and the Strand are rapidly disappearing, though enough are left to mar the locality. Holborn leads into Oxford street (so called from being on the former highway from London to Oxford), running between St. Giles's pound and old Tyburn (now Cumberland gate), and was formerly known as Tyburn road. New Oxford street occupies (since 1847) the site of the so-called "rookery" of St. Giles's, long a notorious resort of the dangerous classes, nearly 3,000 of whom were crammed in 1849 into fewer than 100 adjoining hovels; but these slums have almost disappeared.

Oxford street is well patronized by the substantial middle classes, and is one of the most animated and spacious streets of London. At right angles with it is Tottenham Court road, leading into Hampstead road, a popular thoroughfare of the working classes, containing many furniture and other shops, and crowded on Saturday evenings with purchasers of provisions for Sunday. On proceeding from the east to the west through Ludgate hill, the most conspicuous building is St. Paul's cathedral, of which a finer view is now obtained from the recent removal of the railings in front of the church. St. Paul's churchyard is the name applied to an irregular group of houses enclosing the cathedral and its burial ground; and near by is Paternoster Row, the headquarters of eminent publishers and booksellers. A number of small streets connect the hill on which St. Paul's stands, said to be the highest ground in the city, with Blackfriars bridge. In Water lane is Printing House square, occupied by the offices of the " Times." At the base of Ludgate hill formerly ran the Fleet ditch, now a covered sewer, which gave the name to Fleet street. The famous Fleet prison has been converted into a freight depot for a railway station. Newspaper offices abound in this street and in the surrounding series of courts.

It terminates at Temple Bar, which was long the official boundary between the West End and the City, the keys of which were here handed by the lord mayor to the sovereign on royal visits to the East End. Temple Bar, which is about to disappear (1874), celebrated the second century of its erection in 1872, after having long enjoyed a credit for antiquity to which it had no claim, from the fact that Lud gate, the real western gate of the City proper, has long since disappeared, the comparatively modern structure having been erroneously regarded as one of the veritable gates of mediasval London. Between Temple Bar and Holborn is Lincoln's Inn Fields, one of the best squares of London, and a great legal centre. - The Strand extends from Essex street (a little be-yond Temple Bar) to Charing Cross, and is among the most cheerful and animated central thoroughfares, with many streets extending on its S. side to the river, and with the sites of Durham house, York house, where Bacon was born, and many other memora-ble localities, including Essex house, Arundel house, and Maypole (now St. Mary-le-Strand) church. It contains also * Somerset house, with the internal revenue and other offices, Exeter hall, King's college, several theatres, and various public institutions.

Among its many adjacent curious lanes and streets is Wych street, leading to Drury lane; and close by is a labyrinth of alleys and lanes literally swarming with the poorest class of people, chiefly Irish. Another curiosity is Holywell street, with its old book and old clothes stalls. The best known by-streets of the Strand are Southampton, Craven, Wellington (connecting with Waterloo bridge), Adam (with Adelphi terrace), Bedford, Catharine, and King William streets, many of them containing comparatively cheap hotels and boarding houses. At the western extremity of the Strand is Charing Cross, with a magnificent railway station, celebrated for its architecture. Charing Cross and Trafalgar square (called by the late Sir Robert Peel the finest site of Europe, but somewhat deformed by the want of proportion in the Nelson and other monuments) are the great turning points from Whitehall and various parts of the West End and N. W. to the City, and, from their proximity to the club houses, the houses of parliament, and the galleries of art, are among the most animated localities in the metropolis, particularly during the season, when cabs start thence in all directions in great numbers, Charing Cross being the official centre of the service.

S. W. of Charing Cross are Whitehall, Downing, and Parliament streets, all greatly improved by the new government buildings, the foreign and India offices having been completed for several years, and the home and colonial offices approaching completion in 1874. Old houses have been pulled down, and the thoroughfare has been widened so as to form a continuous connection with Charing Cross, and to present a nobler view of Westminster abbey and the new houses of parliament. The projected demolition of the admiralty, to make room for new streets, and the doom of Northumberland house, which was sold in 1873 for about £500,000 to the board of works, deprive Charing Cross and vicinity of the most timehonored edifices. Waterloo place is one of the centres of club houses and of social and political life, and opens to view the noble park front of Carlton terrace, on the former site of Carlton house. Pall Mall extends from the foot of St. James's street to the foot of the Haymarket, and was as favorite a resort of the wits of Queen Anne's time as it is of the fashionable world and politicians of the present day.

Between Charing Cross and Regent street it is called Pall Mall east, and thence to St. James's street simply Pall Mall. In Pall Mall are the British institution, the new society of painters in water colors, Marlborough house (the residence of the prince of Wales), and the principal clubs. At the end of the Mall is St. James's palace. St. James's street, also celebrated for its club houses, commences at St. James's palace and extends to Piccadilly. In King street, near by, are Willis's rooms, where the once fashionable balls of Almack's were held. Haymarket, with the Haymarket theatre and Her Majesty's theatre, is chiefly occupied on its W. side by restaurants and oyster shops. At night it was formerly the resort, according to Dickens, " of the worst company in London, male and female," particularly in the direction of Coventry and Regent streets. From Drury lane, not far distant from Great Russell street, where the British museum is, Long Acre, much occupied by carriage builders, leads to Leicester square.

The Haymarket, the fine opening of Waterloo place and Regent street, Covent Garden, and other well known localities, communicate with Piccadilly, which is one of the most brilliant streets of the metropolis, particularly at its W. entrance from Hyde Park corner, with Apsley house on the one hand and the arch surmounted by an equestrian statue of the duke of Wellington on the other, near Constitution hill and the Green park. It is mentioned for the first time in the latter part of the 16th century by Gerarde, who remarks that "the small wild buglosse grows upon the dry ditch bankes about Pickadilla." It continues to be one of the great points of egress from London, although the White Horse cellar, whence the mail coaches started for the west of England, which made Hazlitt say "that the finest sight of the metropolis is that of the mail coaches setting off from Piccadilly," has lost its bustle since the introduction of railways. Piccadilly communicates with the chambers in the Albany, and through Park lane, one of the most beautiful and select streets of the West End (widened in 1873-'4), with Oxford street. Bond street, on the right of Piccadilly, is celebrated for its fashionable throng during the season, and its tradesmen are well patronized by the ladies of the aristocracy.

In the vicinity are Burlington arcade, Burlington street, and Saville row, the latter inhabited by many physicians. Regent street, the handsomest street of London, commences at St. Alban's street, crosses Piccadilly and Castle street, where it forms a quadrant, and then crosses Oxford street to Langham place, where it opens into Portland place. It is lined with the most diverse and attractive establishments, and is a favorite resort of shopping ladies and of promenaders and idlers. In the neighborhood of Portland place are the polytechnic institution and the national institute of fine arts. The Edgeware road, a great and popular thoroughfare, leads from the W. end of Oxford street, and proceeds due N. to St. John's Wood, which is a charming locality, most of the houses being provided with gardens and almost entwined in flowers and evergreens. Bayswater, Maida hill, and almost all the streets clustering round Kensington gardens and Kensington proper, contain delightful residences, which are eagerly sought by City people; the population of Kensington, with Brompton, Hammersmith, and Fulham, has consequently increased from 185,000 in 1861 to 283,000 in 1871, and about 325,000 in 1874. Other airy localities have largely increased, especially Islington, which had 155,341 in 1861 and 213,749 in 1871. The Harrow road, diverging from the Edgeware road, leads to the famous village and school of that name, as well as to Kensal Green cemetery.

Mayfair, including Curzon street, Hill street, Chesterfield house, Berkeley square, and a large portion of the streets and squares between Piccadilly and Grosvenor square, built mostly on ground belonging to the duke (late marquis) of Westminster, was for nearly 100 years, until the rise of Belgravia, the great centre of high life. Sydney Smith said that the parallelogram between Piccadilly, Bond street, Park lane, and Oxford street included more of beauty, wealth, wit, and fashion than any other part of the world. Tyburnia, the northern wing of the West End, is principally inhabited by professional men, merchants, and artists. Belgravia, the southern wing of the West End, built between 1826 and 1852, includes Belgrave and Eaton squares, and is the most fashionable locality in the West End. In this vicinity are Brompton and Chelsea. N. E. of Tyburnia is the Regent's park district, extending from the N. side of the Euston (formerly New) road to Camden Town and Somers Town. Between 1849 and 1873 6,578 new streets were laid out in the police area, and 262,563 houses built. - The squares are numerous, and those in the West End are remarkable for their fine trees, but in other respects they are imperfectly cultivated.

The best known West End squares are Belgrave, Eaton, Portman, Manchester, St. James's, Berkeley, and Hanover; the most fashionable is Grosvenor square, and the most salubrious and best cultivated is Cavendish square. Among the largest are Eaton (also one of the most select), 1,637 by 371 ft.; Cadogan, 1,450 by 370; Bryanston, 814 by 198; and Montagu, 820 by 156. Most of those previously mentioned range from 500 to nearly 700 ft. Two other divisions of squares are situated between Regent street on the west and Gray's Inn lane and Chancery lane on the east; Holborn and Oxford street form the boundary line between them. South of that line are the squares which, having once been the seats of rank and elegance, have become rather unfashionable. North of it are Russell square and the Bedford and Bloomsbury square district, which are now chiefly inhabited by lawyers and merchants. Further E. are Great Ormond, Queen, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg squares, where lodging houses abound. North of this range are Regent, Torrington, Wo-burn, Gordon, Tavistock, and Euston squares. Soho square, near Oxford street, was one of the gayest in the days of George III. and of the prince regent (afterward George IV.), and is to be embellished like Leicester square.

The latter has become in the present century the haunt of foreigners, and was disfigured by unseemly sights and exhibitions; but in 1874 a beautiful garden laid out in it by Baron Grant was thrown open to the public, and there is a movement in favor of admitting the people to the gardens in all the squares. Seventy-one new squares were formed in the police area between 1849 and 1873. - The public parks are among the greatest attractions of London, and have been justly called its lungs. (See Park.) Hyde park (area about 400 acres), connecting the Green park with Kensington gardens, with a fine sheet of water called the Serpentine, is a fashionable resort belonging to the crown, and is indebted for its beauty to William III. and Queen Caroline. The bridle road from Apsley house to Kensington gardens, known as Rotten Row, a corruption of the French route du roi ("king's drive "), is thronged with brilliant cavalcades during the season. The present greatest artistic feature of Hyde park, and the most splendid monument of modern times, is the new Albert memorial, erected on the site of the crystal palace of 1851, in honor of the services of Prince Albert. At the corners are marble groups of Asia, America, Europe, and Africa. Reliefs and frescoes rising up to the winged angels at the top and on the cast and south fronts contain 169 life-size portrait figures of illustrious artists, poets, and composers.

The central space under the grand canopy is occupied by the seated figure of Prince Albert. This great work of genius, together with the equally famous Albert Hall opposite, and the adjoining South Kensington museum buildings, throw over this part of London an exquisite halo of aesthetic grace and beauty. Regent's park (450 acres) is nearly circular and surrounded by mansions of the larger class built in uniform terraces, producing a fine effect. The zoological and botanic gardens, which are in this park, are among its principal attractions. St. James's park (59 acres) resembles in its shape a boy's kite; the head is bordered by the Horse Guards in the centre, the admiralty on its right, and the treasury on its left; the tail is occupied by Buckingham palace; the N. side by the Green park, Stafford house, St. James's palace, etc.; and the right or S. side by Queen square and the Wellington barracks. The road connecting this park with Hyde park, and skirting the garden wall of Buckingham palace, is called Constitution hill.

Green park (60 acres), next to Hyde park, is entered from Piccadilly by a triumphal arch, surmounted by an equestrian statue of Wellington, and situated between that street and St. James's park, Constitution hill, and the houses of Arlington street and St. James's place. The available space of this park was extended in 1856 by the removal of the reservoir of the Chelsea water works. It is one of the smallest and prettiest parks of London. Alexandra park, N. of Highgate, a favorite place for horse shows, contains charming grounds, in the midst of which a new palace was fast approaching completion in 1874. Victoria park (300 acres) is a great benefaction for the overcrowded and hard-working inhabitants of Bethnal Green and Spitalfields in the N. E. part of London. On the Surrey side are Kennington park (formerly Kennington common) and Battersea park, which faces Chelsea hospital. Among recent pleasure grounds are Southwark park at Rotherhithe, between Spa road station and the Lower road, Deptford, and divided by Bermondsey from the district of Southwark; Finsbury park, between Hornsey and Hollo-way; and West Ham park, which was opened in 1874 as a relief to the hard-working people of the district, on the grounds of the Gurney family.

Hampstead heath, Tooting common, and Clapham common are to be converted into parks, and a similar project was formed in 1874 in respect to Stoke-Newington Green; while strong efforts are made to save the remaining portions of Epping forest from enclosure. Greenwich, Richmond, and Bushy parks are all beautiful resorts. The Kensington gardens, E. of Kensington palace, present a charming variety of surface in wood and water and extensive ground, the general beauty of which is unequalled in any part of the world. They are separated from Hyde park by a bridge over the Serpentine. The Kew botanic gardens are 5 m. from Hyde Park corner, on the road to Richmond, with 170 acres of pleasure grounds adjoining, laid out in half garden, half park style. The Chiswick and S. Kensington gardens (adjoining the museum) are to horticulture what those of Kew are to botany; the former is celebrated for its highly fashionable garden parties. The other principal gardens are the botanic in Regent's park, Surrey, Walworth, Cremorne (Chelsea), North Woolwich, Rosherville (near Gravesend), People's (Willesden), the Temple gardens, and the superb pleasure grounds at Sydenham. Vaux-hall gardens were closed in 1859. Among the many attractive places in almost all directions from London are Harrow, Hampstead, Highgate, Blackheath, Greenwich, Woolwich, Blackwall, Gravesend, Richmond, Hampton Court, Epping Forest, Twickenham, Sydenham, and Windsor. - Besides St. Paul's cathedral, Westminster abbey, and three chapels royal (respectively in St. James's palace, Whitehall, and the Savoy), there are about 600 parish and district places of worship belonging to the established church.

The chapels of the Wes-leyan and other Methodists number about 400, and a recent decision of the Methodist conference (1873) favors the annual erection of a number of chapels, to meet the demands of the increasing population. The Baptists have about 300, and the Congregationalists nearly 150. The Roman Catholics possess 100 churches and chapels, besides St. George's cathedral, Southwark, and the recently opened church of Our Lady of Victory, Newland terrace, Kensington, serving as a pro-cathedral in place of St. Mary's, Moorfields, pending the completion of the projected "metropolitan cathedral" in Westminster. The English and other Presbyterians have about 25. Recently it was proposed to build 40 new Presbyterian churches, to cost not less than £3,000 nor more than £5,000 each. The Unitarians have over 12. The Swedenborgians, who have since Sweden-borg's time met in Cross street, Hatton garden, recently purchased a site in Camden road, for the erection of schools and a church as the chief centre of the denomination, and they have several chapels besides. The church of Scotland has a number of chapels, besides the national Scotch church, Little Russell street. The German Lutheran, Reformed Wesleyan, and Reformed have altogether about 12 chapels.

The society of Friends have five houses, the Plymouth Brethren three, and there are chapels for Swedish, Swiss, Dutch, French, and other foreign Protestants, and for miscellaneous denominations. The Greek merchants sustain a fine church in London Wall, near Fins-bury square, and the elegant chapel of the Russian embassy is in Welbeck street, West End. The Jews have over 20 synagogues, and the number is constantly increasing. The "great synagogue," under the chief rabbi, is in Duke's place, in the City, and has had since 1870 a branch in Portland road, West End; the latter is a rich and remarkable structure which cost over £24,000. There are altogether about 1,500 places of worship within the metropolitan limits, and nearly 2,500 including those in the outlying regions. Among the most ancient and interesting churches are the following: St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield, dating from 1102, was restored 1865-'7. Opposite St. Bartholomew's gate is the site of the stake where the victims of intolerance perished during the reign of Queen Mary. St. Saviour's, Southwark, became a parish church under Henry VIII., and ranked next to Westminster abbey for its specimens of early English; but nothing remains of the ancient edifice excepting the choir and the Lady chapel, the restored building being of an inferior kind.

It contains a monument of Gower, who founded a chantry and is buried here, as were Edmund, the youngest brother of Shakespeare, Lawrence Fletcher, one of Shakespeare's associates, John Fletcher, Beaumont's associate, and Massinger. The Temple church, near Temple Bar, consists of the Round church and the choir, and was the place of worship of the knights templars. The choir is reserved for the students and benchers. The learned Selden is commemorated by a marble monument, and he and Oliver Goldsmith are buried here. St. Giles's, Cripplegate, one of the oldest churches, is the burial place of Milton, in whose honor it was restored in 1864. The 14 bells of the tower are celebrated for their chimes, which are played every three hours. St. Mary-le-Savoy, down the Savoy steps between the Strand and the river, one of the chapels royal, is used as a district church; it was built under Henry VII. on the site of the palace of Savoy, originally erected for Peter, count of Savoy, uncle to Queen Eleanor, wife of Henry III.; it contains monuments and tombs of eminent persons. It was partly burned in 1864, rebuilt in 1865, and temporarily closed in 1874, pending its restoration.

St. Paul's, Covent Garden, built by Inigo Jones, was burned in 1795, and subsequently restored by the architect Hardwick. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was baptized, and Samuel Butler, the author of "Hudibras," was buried here. St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, popularly known as "Bow church," has a modern steeple, 235 ft. high, which is one of Wren's masterpieces. The far-reaching sounds of the bells led to the saying of " children born within the sound of Bow bells." The register of Milton's baptism and other relics will be removed to this church in the event of the proposed demolition of All Hallows, Bread street, known as John Milton's church. St. Bride's or St. Bridget's, Fleet street, another of Wren's most celebrated achievements, has a fine steeple and elegant interior. The novelist Richardson is buried here. St. Stephen's, Walbrook, in the rear of the mansion house, is another monument of Wren's genius, especially the interior. It has a circular dome on an octagonal base resting on eight pillars. St. Magnus, London bridge, and St. James's, Piccadilly (one of the most fashionable churches), by the same architect, are likewise much admired, and especially the latter, which has an airy, elegant, and extensive interior, comfortably accommodating 2,000 persons.

The beautiful marble font is the work of Grinling Gibbon. St. Martin's-in-the-Fields (near Trafalgar square), built by Gibbs, is mainly remarkable for its fine portico. St. George's, Hanover square, the most fashionable church for marriages in London, was built by John James as one of 50 new churches in the early half of the 18th century. The duke of Wellington attended this church, and was constantly in requisition for giving away brides. St. Stephen's, Rochester row, near Tothill Fields (Westminster), dating from 1849, is a fine specimen of modern Gothic architecture. Whitefield's chapel, near Tottenham Court road, built in 1756 under his auspices, is the place where he first preached to a large indoor congregation, and where his wife is buried. The cathedral-like "Apostolic church " (Irvingite) is in Gordon square. Spurgeon's mammoth tabernacle is near the Elephant and Castle tavern; and a new tabernacle in Burdett road, Stepney, is a sort of foster child of the former, and calculated to accommodate 4,000 persons.

The ritualistic All Saints' church, Margaret street, Regent street, is a masterpiece of modern mediaivalism, of which Dr. Pusey laid the foundation stone in 1850, and which was consecrated in 1859; it cost £100,-000, of which the architect Butterfield contributed £60,000, a banker gave £30,000, and Mr. Beresford Hope £10,000; and the marquis of Sligo presented the marble font and baptistery. Rowland Hill's or Surrey chapel, Black-friars road, was opened in 1783, and the Rev. Mr. Hill, one of Whitefield's followers, was its first pastor for 50 years. The present incumbent, the Rev. Newman Hall, had the foundation stone of Christ church, Lambeth, laid June 26, 1873, for the removal of his congregation. The old and popular brick parish church of Kensington, where Macaulay had a pew while residing at Holly lodge, was pulled down in 1874 to make room for a new and elegant building by the architect G. G. Scott, in the "late first pointed style," with a lofty spire. Among the noteworthy new churches are the cruciform Smithfield martyrs' memorial church, St. John street, West Smithfield, with a tower 120 ft. high, and sculptured reliefs in commemoration of the martyrs of Smithfield during the persecutions under Mary; St. Philip's, Queen's road, Battersea park; St. Peter's, Harrow road; and St. Columba's, Kingsland road, the largest and finest of the many new brick churches.

St. Stephen's, S. Hampstead, is rather a picturesque building, and St. Jude's, S. Kensington, accommodates 1,600 persons. St. Saviour's, for the deaf and dumb, at the corner of Queen street, Oxford street (opened in 1873), is smaller, but of striking appearance, being of red brick and stone, a Maltese cross in plan, an octagon above, and with groined ceiling and a tall roof. St. Luke's, Redcliffe square, S. Kensington, will accommodate over 1,000 persons; and St. Patrick's, Cromwell road, is a spacious Romanesque edifice, completed in 1874. The architecture of the Congregationalists ranks next to that of the established church, and among their new churches in course of completion (1874) are the "Memorial hall," Farringdon street; the " City temple," near St. Andrew's church, Holborn; and Christ church, Westminster bridge road. The stately new Marylebone Presbyterian church was opened in 1874. Among the conspicuous new chapels of the Wesleyan Methodists, one of the largest is near Highgate hill, and one of the most ornamental is Barry road chapel, Peckham rise. Other recent places of worship are St. Agnes, Kennington park, and All Hallows, near Bow station, the latter the first of three new churches to be erected from the proceeds of the site of All Hallows, Mark lane.

The reconstruction of the well known Hampstead church was proposed in 1874, and the same year witnessed, along with many other demolitions, that of St. James's, Duke's place; the bodies buried there were removed to Hford cemetery, and its monuments to St. Catharine Cree, Leadenhall street, to which church the parish of St. James is now affiliated. - But however great the variety and the interest of the many churches of London, they are all eclipsed by St. Paul's cathedral and Westminster abbey. The former stands on the site of old St. Paul's, the origin of which is traced back to the beginning of the 7th century, and which was destroyed by the great fire of 1666. The present cathedral was completed in 1710. (See Cathedral.) Among its monuments are those of Nelson, John Howard, Dr. Johnson, and Sir Charles Napier. In the crypt are the tombs of Nelson and Wellington. The great memorial in honor of the latter is in course of completion (1874). Reynolds, Turner, and other illustrious painters, and many eminent persons, are also buried here.

Under the dome is the " whispering gallery," communicating with the stone gallery on the outside of the dome, whence the outer golden gallery at the apex is reached, which affords a noble view of the metropolis and its vicinity.

Trafalgar Square.

Trafalgar Square.

Albert Memorial Monument.

Albert Memorial Monument.

St. Paul's Cathedral.

St. Paul's Cathedral.

The whole ascent is by 616 steps, of which the first 260 are comparatively easy and well lighted. In the S. W. tower are the clock room and the great bell, the diameter of which is about 10 ft. The restoration of St. Paul's after Wren's original designs for the internal decoration has been projected for several years past; the fund for that purpose was raised to £60,000 by contributions on occasion of the national thanksgiving for the recovery of the prince of Wales in 1872, when an imposing ceremony of thanksgiving on the part of the queen and the prince took place here (Feb. 17). Many improvements have already been made, and others are in progress. The annual singing of 5,000 metropolitan charity children on the first Thursday in June was characterized by Haydn as the most powerful effect he ever experienced from music. Divine service is performed in the chapel thrice every day: at 8 and at 9.45 A. M., and at about 4 P. M.; and since 1859 there has also been an evening service on Sundays under the dome, with seats for 3,000 persons. St. Paul's is the cathedral church of the see of London. Its administration is under the charge of a dean and chapter, consisting of four resident canons, four prebendaries, and various minor officers.

Westminster abbey existed before the end of the 8th century, and is traced to the early part of the 7th. The larger portion of it in its present condition was completed in the middle of the 13th. It is in the form of a somewhat irregular cross. Its length, exclusive of Henry VII.'s chapel, is 511 ft.; extreme breadth at the transept, 203 ft.; height of the nave 102, and of the towers 225 ft. Soon after the revolution the abbey, which had suffered much during the civil wars, was repaired, and the western towers were added by Wren, but in a mixed Grecian and Gothic style which occasioned much criticism. On approaching Victoria street from Parliament street, the buttresses and pinnacles and the whole expanse of the abbey gradually open to view. The British sovereigns, from Edward the Confessor to Queen Victoria, have been crowned in Westminster abbey, and many of them are buried there, some with, others without monuments. Surrounding the E. end in a semicircle are nine chapels, the most interesting of which are those of Edward the Confessor, beyond the altar, and of Henry VII, which forms the eastern extremity of the abbey. The centre of the former chapel is occupied by the shrine of Edward the Confessor, formerly richly inlaid with mosaic work.

Henry VII.'s chapel is a fine specimen of the architecture of the time of that monarch, who founded it. The monuments of Queen Elizabeth and Mary Stuart are in the N. and S. aisles of the chapel respectively. In the S. transept, in and near Poets' corner, are monuments to most of the great poets of the country; and here, as well as in both aisles of the nave and choir, are monuments of other illustrious Englishmen. Among those buried there most recently are Macaulay, Dickens, Bulwer, and Livingstone. Religious service is performed daily in the abbey, and the services on Sunday are numerously attended, though the voice of the preacher is not generally audible. Westminster abbey is officially called the collegiate church of St. Peter's, Westminster, and is governed by a dean and chapter of eight prebendaries, and other officers. The cathedral windows have been lately provided with painted glass, but not with sufficient effect to encourage similar embellishments for the chapter house, which latter was completely restored in 1872._ The most interesting among the various works relating to religious edifices is the "History of the three Cathedrals dedicated to St. Paul in London," by William Longman (London, 1873). - Most celebrated among the many religious associations of London is the British and foreign Bible society, with thousands of branches all over the United Kingdom, the British colonies, and in other parts of the world; its annual circulation of volumes is about 4,000,000, and it distributes the Scriptures in 200 foreign languages.

Since 1868 it has occupied an extensive building in the street leading from the mansion house to Blackfriars bridge. (See Bible Societies.) - The total number of persons relieved in the second week of August, 1874, in connection with workhouses and almshouses, was 33,274 indoor paupers and children, 34,-389 outdoor paupers, and 24,026 under 16; total, 91,689, against 118,803 in 1871,101,630 in 1872, and 97,984 in 1873, the relative decline being much greater in view of the increased population. Conspicuous among other public dispensers of relief is the society for the suppression of mendicity, established in 1818, reconstructed on a larger scale in 1869 under the title of " The Society for organizing Charitable Relief and repressing Mendicity," having offices close to the poor-law relieving offices throughout the metropolis, with the design of compelling the poor-law officers to do their duty. A committee in each parish or district superintends the operations, which are carried out through a special charity agent in conjunction with the relieving officers, the local charities, the police, the clergy, and the district visitors. Tickets are supplied to beggars, and on their presentation they get food and also work.

Confirmed beggars and vagrants are sent to the poor-law guardians or legally prosecuted. The chief aim of the society is to procure work, to extirpate professional mendicity, and to detect and expose begging-letter impostors. Prominent among similar district associations of the kind, pledging themselves to seek out the sick and afflicted, and to supply visitors in parishes where the ordinary residents are unable to meet the wants of the population, are the metropolitan visiting and relief association (formed in 1843), and the society for the relief of distress and to furnish work for the poor (1860). A powerful impulse has been given to London charities in the present generation by the writings of Charles Dickens and his followers, the munificence of Lady Burdett-Coutts, the care of Florence Nightingale for the sick and wounded, George Peabody's donations for improved dwellings for the poor working classes, and the influence of the queen and other members of the royal family. The total number of char-itable institutions is over 1,000. Their united income has been computed at about £5,000,-000, half of which is given in the shape of food and clothing, and the rest for the relief of the infirm and for the promotion of general improvement.

Alms and other relief afforded by private individuals raise the total amount spent on charities to nearly £6,000,000, of which nearly one third is provided by poor rates, and the rest chiefly by bequests, donations, and voluntary contributions. - The principal general hospitals are St. Bartholomew's, Smith-field (present structures opened in 1547), Westminster (1719), Guy's (1721), St. George's (1733), London (1740), Charing Cross (1818), Royal free (1828), North London or University (1833), Metropolitan free (1836), Middlesex (1836), King's College (1839). St. Mary's (1851), Great Northern (1856), West London (1856), and the new St. Thomas's (1871). St. Bartholomew's. Smithfield, occupies the site of a priory which was founded in 1102. Subsequently the hospital was enlarged, and now contains about 600 beds and affords relief to over 70,000 patients annually. Its income is about £40,000 a year. Connected with it are a school of medicine and many medical and surgical museums. Among its celebrated teachers and lecturers was Harvey, and its most munificent benefactor was Dr. Radcliffe, physician to Queen Anne, who bequeathed to it a perpetual annuity of £500 for improving the hospital diet, and £100 for the purchase of linen.

Guy's hospital, near London bridge, was endowed by Thomas Guy, a bookseller, and its chapel contains the tomb of the celebrated surgeon Sir Astley Cooper. It treats annually about 80,000 patients, and the number of inmates is usually about 500, but occasionally much larger. The lectures and practice attract many medical students. St. Thomas's hospital originated from an almshouse established in 1213. It was connected with a hospital in 1552, restored in 1706, and removed to High street, Southwark. It now has 44 wards, with accommodation for about 500 patients, the total number of indoor and outdoor patients being 50,000 annually. The income is £32,000. The Southeastern railway bought the building and its grounds in 1862 for £296,000, for the use of their London bridge terminus extension to Charing Cross. It was rebuilt between 1868 and 1871 on ground gained from the river on the right bank of the Thames, between Lambeth palace and Westminster bridge. It consists of seven detached blocks of red brick buildings, four stories high, 125 ft. apart, and raised on lofty foundations, and occupies a large area of the new Thames embankment. Connected with Guy's and some of the other hospitals are lying-in asylums.

Among other general institutions of the kind are the French hospice, originally founded for the relief of Huguenot refugees, and removed in 1866 from its old site, Old street, St. Luke's, to Victoria park, S. Hackney, and rebuilt in the style of a French chateau; the German hospital, Dalston, annually relieving about 20,000 Germans; and the seamen's hospital ship Dread-naught, moored in the river off Greenwich. (For the celebrated Chelsea naval and Greenwich military hospitals, see Chelsea, and Greenwich.) Among special hospitals are those for smallpox in Upper Holloway, for consumption in Brompton and other localities, for cancer in Brompton, and for diseases of the eye in Finsbury and Charing Cross; the royal orthopedic institution in Oxford street; the national hospital for the paralyzed and epileptic in Whitechapel; Lock hospital, chapel, and asylum, Westbourne Green, for the cure of female diseases and for the redemption of abandoned women; Magdalen hospital, for which a new building was opened in 1869 in Leigham Court road, Streatham, for penitent prostitutes; St. George's, Hyde Park corner, a general hospital, but in which the lame are specially cared for; and the hospital administered by women for women and children, and intended in 1874 for removal to Mary-lebone road.

There are altogether nearly 100 distinct organizations of hospitals, infirmaries, and surgical societies for special objects, and for attending to all classes of diseases, besides the soldiers' hospital at Woolwich, the Jewish hospitals, and the establishments under the control of homoeopathists and mesmerists; and there is also a galvanic institution. There are five institutions for confirmed invalids, of which the most important are the royal hospital at Putney heath, founded in 1850, with 150 inmates, and contributing £20 a year each for the outdoor relief of about 300 other incurables; and the British home, founded in 1861, with 100 inmates, and giving pensions in 150 cases. In 1872 initial measures were taken for the establishment of a national hospital for London incurables, to be erected in Oxfordshire. Private asylums for confirmed female invalids are in Great Ormond street (Miss Twining's institution), and at Mount Greville, Kilburn. Of asylums and almshouses for the aged there are over 120, mostly of remote foundation, some as early as the loth century, and the majority in existence at the end of the 18th century.

Exclusive of a few asylums for members of certain trades and for widows of soldiers, there are hardly any of recent foundation excepting the royal dramatic college and Honnor's home, both founded in 1859, and Dr. Rippon's, in 1866. Prominent institutions of this kind are the London almshouses at Brixton and the licensed victuallers1 asylum. Among other institutions are those for the blind, St. George's-in-the-Fields, Surrey, and in Avenue road, St. John's Wood; the asylum for deaf and dumb children, Old Kent road, Surrey; and the Alexandra institute, Oxford street, founded in 18(53. There are altogether 23 institutions for the blind in London, and 5 leading ones for the deaf and dumb. Florence Nightingale having declined to receive £50,-000 collected for her in reward of her services in the Crimea, except on the condition that the money should be appropriated to the establishment of a training school for nurses, such an institution was founded in connection with St. Thomas's hospital, where about 25 women are maintained and instructed previously to serving in hospitals and infirmaries. Similar institutions are supported by the establishment, such as the "Nursing Sisters," Devonshire square, Bishopsgate (opened in 1810), with 100 inmates dressed in a peculiar costume.

The London diocesan deaconesses' institution (founded in 1861) devotes itself mainly to nursing, but also to other benevolent purposes, after the model of the Roman Catholic sisters of charity. The multiplicity of hospitals for children is especially remarkable. The Evelina hospital was founded in 1869 on the Southwark bridge road by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild in memory of his wife, after whom it is called, and other similar institutions have arisen within the last few years. There were in 1874 about 60 dispensaries strictly limited to residents, relieving over 60,000 out patients, and they are increasing in every part of the metropolitan districts. There are nearly 50 convalescent homes, affording relief to the hard-working classes of the overcrowded localities, where the impure atmosphere or inadequate water supply and imperfect drainage would render their recovery from illness almost impossible. Many new convalescent hospitals are completed or in course of erection. There are nearly 160 benevolent and provident funds and pension societies, supported by various trades and professions; and there are many other associations of the same kind.

The so-called "patriotic funds" are devoted to soldiers; the principal one, managed by a royal commission for relieving the widows and orphans of Crimean soldiers, received over £1,000,000 of contributions in 1854, half of which had been spent in 1868. The Victoria asylum at Wandsworth was established in 1859 for the maintenance and education of 300 orphan daughters of soldiers and sailors. The Indian mutiny fund's accounts on Dec, 31, 1871, showed that £250,000 had been disbursed, and the total sum raised during the mutiny was £440,000. The Franco-German war of 1870 - '71 called into life many organizations for the relief of the sufferers among the respective nationalities. The British national society for aid to the sick and wounded is the most wealthy institution of the kind, and there are more than 10 others for soldiers and their children, and about 25 for sailors and their families. There are nearly 50 orphanages and asylums for fatherless children. The most recent are the metropolitan police and the Stockwell orphanages, the latter under Mr. Spurgeon's direction. The adult orphan institution trains the daughters of clergymen and naval and military men for governesses.

There are eight principal shoe-black societies, founded from 1851 to 1869, which in 1870 employed 368 boys, who earned £10,197, and saved £874. They are chosen according to merit from the ragged school union. The best known lunatic asylum, the name of which has often been generally applied to establishments for the insane, is Bedlam, or more properly Bethlehem hospital. (See Bedlam.) The patients are here treated with great skill and kindness; the women are supplied with pianos and the men with billiards and other amusements. A few cells are lined and floored with India rubber and cork, against which the most insane person may fling himself without possibility of injury. It accommodates about 600 persons. Two remote wings are reserved for the most unmanageable patients. Within a distance of 6 to 8 m. from London are the Col-ney Hatch asylum, covering 120 acres on the Great Northern railway, and Hanwell asylum, on the Great Western railway. A large lunatic asylum for middle-class patients was established in 1874 by Thomas Holloway on St. Anne's heath, near the Wokingham branch of the London and Southwestern railway; and the same philanthropist proposes to found two additional asylums in the vicinity of the metropolis, one for imbeciles.

The most recent miscellaneous institutions comprise a parochial infirmary at Camberwell; the poor clergy relief corporation, Southampton street, Strand; the Princess Mary's village at Addlestone, Surrey, so called after its patroness the princess Mary of Cambridge, Duchess Teck, for the benefit of children of convicted criminals; the cripples' home, Marylebone road; the royal association of the deaf and dumb, which however is only a new name for the comparatively old establishment of St. Saviour's, Oxford street; and the clergy orphan corporation. Of homes and reformatories there are in round numbers 70, besides the "house of charity," Soho, and similar institutions, which supply a night's lodging and food free of expense, actual want being the only condition of admission. An increasing number of infant nurseries, popularly known under the French name of creches, take care of children while their mothers are engaged in their daily labors. - The principal foundling hospital, Guilford street, opened in 1756, founded chiefly by Capt. Coram and much patronized by Handel the composer, was originally mainly educational.

Soon afterward it became a home for illegitimate children, and now maintains 500 of them at an annual expense of £14,000. The infant orphan asylum at Wanstead, near London, founded in 1827, maintains orphaned and abandoned children till their 14th or 15th year. (See Foundling Hospital.) - The "Metropolitan Association for improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes" and the " Society for improving the Condition of the Laboring Classes" were the pioneers of the movement for the object indicated by their names. The first named association was established about 1844 by Dr. Southwood Smith and others, and after many trials it lately reached a dividend of 5 per cent., derived from the rents of about 800 tenements, with an average population of nearly 4,000, and with a mortality from 6 to 10 Per cent. below that of crowded metropolitan districts. The least remunerative lodgings were those provided for single men, and the most profitable those occupied by families. The second named organization was originally termed the "Laborer's Friend Society," and has been in operation since 1843. It has converted Wild court, one of the worst purlieus of Drury lane, into a decent locality; and it has promoted various similar improvements.

It possesses a number of model dwellings for families and single men, to whom it lets houses and rooms at moderate rates, and is assisted by donations and voluntary contributions. The "Improved Industrial Dwellings Company," originated in 1863, under, the auspices of Alderman (afterward Lord Mayor) Waterlow and others, has a share capital of £125,000 fully subscribed, and a borrowed capital of equal amount. It has erected over 2,000 tenements in some of the most densely populated districts. The average weekly rental of a room is 2s. 6d., and of dwellings for superior classes of artisans near the city, with three rooms each, 7s. Those in Ebury street, on the duke of Westminster's estate near Eaton and Belgrave squares, are of a superior style, and relieve the overcrowded and numerous mews in the rear of those fashionable squares, chiefly inhabited by butlers, footmen, coachmen, and other persons employed in those localities. Lady Burdett-Coutts's improved dwellings in Columbia square (dating from 1862), consisting of four immense blocks of tenements, for the first time familiarized the workmen of Bethnal Green with a certain degree of comfort.

George Peabody's first gift of £150,000 provided for about 500 tenements, with space for 2,000 persons, in four groups of dwellings in Spitalfields, Islington, Westminster, and Shadwell, besides 70 tenements in Chelsea and Bermondsey. His additional donations bring up his total contributions to £500,000, and cover the cost of new buildings in Brixton, Chelsea, and other localities, as well as the grounds on the extensive Magdalen hospital estate, Southwark, now known as Peabody square. The Peabody dwellings accommodated, as far as completed down to 1874, 6,000 persons, at the average weekly rent of Is. lOd. per room. The first estate built by the "Artisans', Laborers', and General Dwellings Company" (established in 1866) is called Shaftesbury park, in honor of Lord Shaftesbury, the earliest promoter of such enterprises. The City corporation and several other new societies have also engaged in erecting dwellings of this class. - Education is rapidly improving under the endowed schools act of 1869 (subsequently amended and enlarged), dealing with schools for the upper and middle classes, and placing them on a more popular and useful basis; and under the elementary education act of 1870, organizing hundreds of new establishments through the medium of already existing or projected voluntary institutions, but mainly through the foundation of rate-supported schools under the direction of public school boards. (See Education.) The latter act divides the metropolis into 10 school districts, represented in the central school board of 49 members, elected by ballot, as follows: Marylebone, 7; Finsbury, 6; Westminster, Lambeth, Tower Hamlets, and Hackney, each 5; the City, Southwark, Chelsea, and Greenwich, each 4. The first election, Nov. 29, 1870, returned Prof. Huxley and other eminent men, and Dr. Elizabeth Garret-Anderson, and the board comprised three Roman Catholics, one Baptist clergyman, and members of other denominations, the largest number however belonging to the established church.

The district boards in 1874 included about 300 members, and the number augments in proportion to the increase of population and the need of new schools. The school funds are raised in about equal proportions from parents, public taxes, and local funds, the latter consisting of voluntary subscriptions; and deficiencies are met by an educational rate added to the poor rate of a maximum not exceeding 3d. in the pound, or by extra parliamentary grants. The charges to parents are remitted in well attested cases of pecuniary disability. The school boards have the power of either providing new schools or assisting those already established, provided the latter are in good condition and adopt the requisite conscience clause establishing the widest religious liberty and banishing sectarian differences. They are authorized to compel the attendance of children between the ages of 5 and 12. As lately as 1869-70 there were 30,000 children out of 40,000 within the space of a square mile in the East End growing up in complete ignorance; and of 45,000 children in the ragged schools in 1870, only 900 attended for a whole year. The education act of 1870 defines the school age between 3 and 13, and includes both sexes, though they are instructed separately.

The number of children of school age within the districts was estimated in 1874 at 782,000. Besides hundreds of schools under the direction of the district boards, London contains a vast number of other district, parochial, ward, national, industrial, and charitable public schools, besides about 50 exclusively for Roman Catholics, and over 600 private schools of various grades for boys and girls. - The university of London confers degrees on the pupils of all the proprietary collegiate institutions of England. (See Colleges.) Its new buildings were opened May 11,1870. University college, Gower street (originally London university), opened in 1828 for persons of all religious denominations, was attended in 1873-'4 by 1,542 pupils (893 in the college and 649 in the school). A new wing was added to it in 1873. King's college, Somerset house, opened in 1831, is a similar institution, except that divinity is taught there under the auspices of the established church. The school connected with the college was attended in 1873-'4 by 521 students, against 456 in 1872 - '3, and the evening classes in the former year by 550. The royal commissioners' report for 1874 recommends to King's college to apply for a new charter, cancelling the moderate proprietary rights of its shareholders, and abolishing all religious restrictions on the selection of professors; and it is hinted that any aid from government will be conditional on such a reconstruction of the college as will effect these objects.

Measures for its enlargement were instituted in 1874. The college for Independents possesses a faculty of theology and a faculty of arts. St. Paul's school, founded in 1509, where Milton was educated, was rebuilt in its present form in 1823. The new Roman Catholic college in Kensington was opened Oct. 15, 1874. Among the other noteworthy educational institutions are St. Peter's college, or Westminster school, where Ben Jonson, Dryden, Locke, and Gibbon received their education; the Charterhouse school, removed in 1874 to the hilly region of Godalming, a new chapel being in course of construction; the school called Christ's hospital (see Christ's Hospital); and Merchant Taylors' school, founded in 1571, supported by that company, and instructing 260 boys at an annual rate of £10. The City of London school for the respectable middle classes was established in 1835. A government school of design or department of practical art dates from 1837, and the new female school of art has 200 pupils. The Wesleyan normal college, Westminster, was established in 1850; and there is another normal school at Fulham. Medical and surgical schools are attached to the great hospitals, and there are several distinct colleges for these and other sciences, including among other new institutions one for civil engineers, and the Indian civil engineering college, Cooper's hill, instituted in 1871. The royal school of naval architecture and marine engineering was opened in 1864, and closed at the end of April, 1873, owing to the establishment of the royal naval college at Greenwich. The college of physicians in Pall Mall and that of surgeons in Lincoln's Inn Fields hold examinations for licenses or diplomas. - Besides many valuable private libraries, there are nearly 50 accessible to the public, that of the British museum being the largest.

Among various interesting libraries is the India library, East India house, with 3,000 Sanskrit and 5,000 other volumes of manuscript; and many libraries are connected with colleges, clubs, and various institutions and societies. The new City library was opened in the guildhall in 1873, and one is projected for the mansion house. London is particularly rich in circulating libraries, one of the largest (St. James's square) containing 80.000 volumes. Mechanics' and various other institutes and associations for promoting knowledge are constantly increasing, as well as periodicals and newspapers of every description. (See Newspapers, and Periodicals.) - The palace for the learned societies, in the new Burlington house, which is nearly completed, is to be occupied by the royal, Linnaean, geological, astronomical, and chemical societies. The geographical society has a wide celebrity for its promotion of explorations; and other important institutions are the antiquarian, Asiatic, ethnological, philological, statistical, archaeological, microscopical, and zoological societies, the social science association, and the British association for the advancement of science. The last two have annual sessions in different cities.

The royal society, incorporated in 1663, is among the oldest and most distinguished on account of its connection with Newton, Herschel, Sir Humphry Davy, and other illustrious men, whose portraits adorn its rooms, together with interesting scientific relics. It consists of about 800 fellows, and awards periodically to essays or discoveries of the highest merit in various branches of science two royal medals, a gold medal founded by Count Rumford, and another by Copley, which last was characterized by Davy as the ancient " olive crown of the royal society." The society removed in 1856 from the Somerset to the Burlington house. This society must not be confounded with the royal institution of Great Britain in Albemarle street, comprising a library, reading and lecture rooms, and chairs of chemistry and other sciences. It was founded in 1800 through the influence of Sir Joseph Banks, and Count Rumford was its earliest promoter. The weekly courses of lectures throughout the season, on chemical science, philosophy, physiology, and other departments of science, literature, and art, have powerfully promoted the progress of knowledge; and eminent persons deliver popular lectures on Friday evenings, to which non-subscribers are admitted upon tickets signed by members.

Members are elected by ballot, and a two-thirds majority is required for admission. Sir Humphry Davy made here some of his great discoveries, by the aid of the extensive galvanic apparatus of the establishment. Its renown in the present century was brilliantly sustained and increased by Faraday, and its master spirit at the present time is Prof. Tyn-dall. - The British museum, with its reading rooms, library, and art treasures, has a worldwide reputation. (See British Museum.) The South Kensington museum in Brompton, a mile from Hyde park corner, was projected in 1852 by Prince Albert, and built upon a site purchased with the surplus fund of the exhibition of 1851, as a national museum of art, and of manufactures allied to art. It was finished in 1858; a new museum for mediaeval and modern art and for a depository of articles loaned for exhibition was added in 1869, the latter filling two large glazed courts and other divisions; and two architectural courts were opened in 1873. The museum contains schools of art (a branch of the government department of science and art), of music, and other branches of knowledge, and magnificent collections of oriental and naval articles, of armor, regalia, and relics, of porcelain and enamels, and of a great diversity of skilful and ingenious fabrics, which are all grouped in separate courts, galleries, and cloisters.

The picture galleries include the Vernon and Sheepshanks collections of British works of art, which belong to the national gallery, the cartoons of Raphael formerly at Hampton court, the renowned Dutch and Flemish pictures belonging to Mrs. Hope, and other fine paintings. The compartment of sculptures and antiquities contains Italian and other masterpieces, wood carvings, majolica, ivories, etc.; and there are many displays of metallic and various other works interesting to manufacturers. A temporary museum of patents is filled with machines and models, and contains the portraits of distinguished inventors. The art library has over 30,000 works, including many richly illustrated; and there are reading and dining rooms and many other conveniences in the buildings. The number of visitors from the opening down to September, 1874, was over 3,000,000. Admission is free half the week, and the price on other days is only 6d. This museum is the most important nucleus in England for the diffusion of varied information in relation to art, science, manufactures, and almost every kind of tasteful and skilful handicraft. No less than 180,000 works were sent to it for competition at the examination of 1874 from the various schools of art in the country.

Adjoining the museum is the Royal Albert hall or South Kensington amphitheatre, opened March 29, 1871. It is devoted to exhibitions of industry and art and to music, and with its beautiful oval form and external frieze and cornice, modelled after the Elgin marbles, it is at the present day the most magnificent palace of art in the world. Opposite to it are the new and interesting gardens of the horticultural society. All around the museums are groups of new buildings for schools of science, and the number of institutions connected with them is increasing not only in this vicinity but in remoter rural districts. The East Indian museum, India office, is remarkable for its collections relating to the arts, manufactures, armor, and natural productions of India, and for its antiquities and historical relics. The United Service museum, Whitehall, is a repository of objects of art and science and of books relating to the army and navy, of the arctic relics of Sir John Franklin, and of military and naval trophies; and lectures are given in it. The royal school of mines and museum of practical geology, in Jermyn street, dates from 1835, and a new and handsome building was opened in 1851. Lectures are delivered here to working men illustrative of the extensive mineralogical collections.

The museum of the society of antiquaries, Somerset house, and the new museum, guildhall, contain interesting antiquarian collections. A natural history museum is in course of construction after the designs of the architect Waterhouse, on the site of the old exhibition building of 1862, to be completed in 1876, and to consist of a great central hall 170 ft. long and 97 ft. wide, and of various galleries and other divisions. The principal front of the edifice is to be constructed of terra cotta and 675 ft. long. A lofty tower and other ornaments have been abandoned to reduce the cost from £500,000 to £350,000. The Soane museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields, was built in 1812 under the direction of Sir John Soane, and contains 24 rooms, with Egyptological collections and many remarkable relics, and Hogarth's "Rake's Progress " and other celebrated works of art. The new museum in Bethnal Green is numerously attended by the working classes. Prominent among the institutes is that for architects. The polytechnic institution is a favorite resort for popular scientific entertainments and instruction, and contains collections of machinery and models and lecture rooms, which are open daily. - The national gallery of paintings of all schools, Trafalgar square, was completed in 1838 from the designs of Wilkins, at a cost of nearly £100,000; and the erection of new rooms on the site of the old workhouse, at the rear of the present gallery, is in progress.

It originated with the Angerstein collection of 38 pictures, and contains now over 800, part of which are exhibited in South Kensington for want of room here. It contains 11 rooms for the various schools of art, the 9th and 10th rooms being devoted to Turner's works, and the 11th to the select productions of the most renowned British masters. The national portrait gallery, provisionally established by Lord Stanhope in Great George street in 1858, exhibited between 1866 and 18G8 about 3,000 portraits. In 1870 a new gallery was opened for it in connection with the national gallery, Trafalgar square. The total number of portraits owned by the gallery, including paintings, medallions, and sculptures, is over 300. The royal academy of arts was removed in 1868-'9 from Trafalgar square to Burlington house, in which are the schools of art, and in the rear of which are 13 halls for the annual exhibition of works of modern artists in painting and sculpture. This academy was instituted in 1708, with Sir Joshua Reynolds as first president. Each member on his election presents one of his pictures or statues to the collection, which is consequently always increasing; and it includes masterpieces of Reynolds and Wilkie, and fine originals and copies of some of the great Italian masters.

The attic floor added to the royal academy has unfavorably changed the aspect of old Burlington house, which Sir William Chambers regarded as one of the finest pieces of architecture in England, and of which the poet Gay wrote: "Beauty within, without proportion reigns.1' Other exhibitions are those of the societies of British artists, Suffolk street, Charing Cross, and of painters in water colors, Pall Mall East; the institute of painters in water colors, Pall Mall; the exhibition of French works, Pall Mall and New Bond street; the Dulwich gallery and the collections at Hampton court, Windsor; the crystal palace at Sydenham, etc. The most celebrated private galleries are the duke of Wellington's, Apsley house; the Bath gallery (Lord Ashburton's), Piccadilly; the Bridgewater (earl of Ellesmere's), St. James's; the duke of Bedford's, Belgrave square; Baring's, Upper Grosvenor street; the Devonshire, Piccadilly; the Dorchester (Mr. R. S. Holford's), Park lane; the Grosvenor (duke of Westminster's), Upper Grosvenor street; Holland house; the Lansdowne, Berkeley square; the Montague (duke of Buccleuch's), near Whitehall; Norfolk house, St. James's square; Sir Robert Peel's, Privy Gardens; Lord Over-stone's, Carlton Gardens; and Stafford house (duke of Sutherland's), St. James's park.

Among the most splendid collections is that of the late marquis of Hertford (who resided in Paris), in Manchester house, Manchester square. This and Holderness house, Park lane (Earl Vane's), are among the most sumptuous mansions of the West End, with fine works of art and vertu. Chesterfield house, the town house of the earl of Chesterfield, who had let it to the duke of Abercorn, was sold in 1869 to Mr. Maguire for conversion into various buildings. It was remarkable for its libraries, vases, bronzes, and other works of art, few but very select. Northumberland house was likewise celebrated for its masterpieces of art. Among other collections are those of the late Mr. Mun-ro, Hamilton place, Piccadilly, and Barry's gallery at the society of arts, Adelphi, near the Strand. - The monuments of London include, besides the Albert memorial in Hyde park, the finest of them all, the celebrated column on Fish street hill, finished in 1677, after the designs of Wren, in commemoration of the great fire of 1666. It stands near the spot in Pudding lane where it originated, and is known as "the Monument." It consists of a fluted hollow Doric column, 200 ft. high. The top is reached by a staircase of 345 steps, and the urn on the top is 40 ft. high.

The bass-relief on the pedestal was carved by the father of Colley Cibber, and the four dragons at the four angles by Edward Pierce. The original Latin inscriptions were prepared by Dr. Gale, dean of York, but those subsequently inserted, denouncing Papists as the authors of the conflagration, were finally removed in 1831 by the City authorities. There are statues of Charles I., by Lesueur, at Charing Cross; James II., by Grinling Gibbons, behind Whitehall; Fox, by Westmacott, Bloomsbury square; Canning, by the same sculptor, near Westminster hall; George III., Cockspur street, and Wellington, Hyde park corner, by Wyatt; Pitt, Hanover square, George IV., Trafalgar square, and Wellington, royal exchange, by Chantrey. Among new statues are those of the queen, Mr. Cob-den, and Mr. Peabody (the last by Story), in the royal exchange; Foley's statues of Sidney Herbert, in front of the war office, Pall Mall, and of Hampden and Sir Charles Barry, in Westminster palace; the late earl of Derby and Lord Palmerston, placed in 1874 in Parliament square; Foley's model for the colossal seated statue for the Albert memorial, Hyde park; the equestrian statue of the same prince on the W. approach to the Holborn viaduct; a statue of the queen by Noble in the new St. Thomas's hospital (1874), and various other works in honor of her, of Prince Albert, and many distinguished Englishmen. - A rival to the royal academy of music is springing up in an extensive national training school, near the Albert hall, in connection with the South Kensington institution, and with the training colleges, where the music teachers of primary schools are instructed.

Among the principal musical entertainments are the orchestral concerts and Handel celebrations at the crystal palace in Sydenham; the performances of the philharmonic, new philharmonic, and British orchestral societies, and the Exeter hall sacred harmonic society; the popular concerts and those of the choral society at the Albert hall; at the Alexandra palace, Muswell hill, destroyed by fire June 9, 1873, two weeks after its opening, and subsequently rebuilt on an improved plan; the musical union matinees at Willis's rooms; Ella's concerts of the highest order of instrumental music; the popular Monday and Saturday concerts and musical evenings during the season; the orchestral promenade concerts at Covent Garden theatre during autumn, under the direction of M. Riviere, on the plan of Jullien and Mellon of former days, attended by overwhelming audiences; and the private concerts at Hanover square rooms, Al-mack's, and St. James's hall. The two Italian opera houses were Her Majesty's theatre, or the opera house, in the Haymarket (burnt in 1867 and rebuilt in 1869, but never reopened), intended for 1,800 persons; and Covent Garden theatre, or the royal Italian opera house (burnt in 1856 and rebuilt in 1858), accommodating 2,000. Drury Lane theatre has of late years been used as an Italian opera house, in place of Her Majesty's. These are the most fashionable houses, the boxes and the parquet being filled with the highest classes, and nobody being admitted to the pit and the more expensive seats unless in full dress; but this etiquette does not extend to the cheaper seats in the galleries.

English opera and foreign opera Anglicized are given occasionally at the crystal palace, while operas of the lighter sort are performed in English at several of the minor theatres, and in French at the St. James's theatre, but the latter is devoted during the season mainly to dramatic performances. The Lyceum and Alhambra theatres combine comic opera with plays, and the latter with pantomimes and ballets; an opera comique theatre was completed in 1871, and the Philharmonic is also devoted to comic opera and ballet. The principal theatres are the Haymarket, Adelphi (rebuilt in 1858), Princess's, Olympic, Royalty, and Strand; and among new ones are the Prince of Wales's, Gaiety, Globe, Vaudeville, New Bel-gravia, the Court, and the Criterion (opened in 1874 in connection with a large restaurant). All these are chiefly in the regions around Covent Garden. In other parts of London are the Holborn; Sadler's Wells, St. John's street road, long noted for Shakespearian performances; Shoreditch, rebuilt in 1867 on the site of the old Curtain theatre, where Ben Jon-son acted; Victoria, Waterloo road, Lambeth, popularly known as the Vic, with a gallery for 2,000 persons; Surrey, Blackfriars road, rebuilt in 1866; Alexandra, Highbury park; Grecian, City road; New Queen's, Long Acre, originally built in 1850 for Hullah's concerts, and rebuilt as a theatre after the fire of 1860; Pavilion, Whitechapel road; Britannia, Hoxton; New East London, Whitechapel road; and Ast-ley's amphitheatre, Westminster bridge road, thrice burnt between 1794 and 1841, and rebuilt.

There are several other theatres, the total exceeding 40, and the number changing from the closing of old and establishment of new ones, some having only an ephemeral existence owing to theatrical business being overdone. Madame Tussaud and son's wax works, Baker street, the Egyptian hall, Piccadilly, and other resorts attract numerous persons. There is a gymnastic club in Pall Mall, on the site of the British institution; and a German gymnasium was established in 1866 in Old St. Pancras road, King's Cross, on the system of Jahn, for the use of a private association. Lord's cricket ground, St. John's Wood road, Regent's park, is the principal one of the kind. The most popular periodical amusements are the races, when all London seems to be on the move; the Thames regattas; the shooting matches on Wimbledon common; the military reviews in Hyde park, at the artillery ground near Fins-bury square, and at Aldershott; and the national and international exhibitions; while the parks and the rural and riverside regions give boundless opportunities for outdoor recreation. - Few traces remain of the old taverns and coffee houses, which latter were once called penny universities on account of the penny admission fee and of their diffusion of political, literary, and general information.

The St. James's coffee house was frequented by Addison and Steele as the headquarters of the whigs. Willis's or Urwin's was, as Macaulay says, "sacred to polite letters." Epicureans who gathered during part of the night in the coffee houses formed convivial clubs, and soon arose the Kit Cat and other famous literary clubs. (See " Club Life of London, with Anecdotes of the Clubs, Coffee Houses, and Taverns of the Metropolis," by John Timbs, 2 vols., London, 1866.) These coffee houses and clubs were the precursors of the large club houses of the present day. White's, founded in 1730, and originally called White's chocolate house, is the oldest and most aristocratic club house, averaging 500 members, who are admitted without regard to political opinions. Brooks's (1764, 600 members) was long the great whig rival of Boodle's renowned tory club. Arthur's dates from 1765, with 600 members. The Guards' club was established in 1813, with nearly 300 members, for the officers of the three regiments of foot guards only. The United Service (1815, 1,600 members), for officers not under the rank of major in the army and commander in the navy, is the most select professional club.

Its offshoots are the Junior United Service (1827, 2,000 members), the Army and Navy (1838, 2,300), the Naval and Military (1862, 1,500 members), and the new Junior Naval and Military (1874). The Athenaeum (1824), with 1,200 members, is the resort of the learned professions, the highest order of artists and authors, and the upper clergy; and the Junior Athenaeum (1864) has 600 members. The conservative Carlton club (1832) has 950 members, and its offshoot the Junior Carlton (1864) has 2,000, exclusive of peers and members of parliament; another offshoot is the City Carlton (1869), with 400 members. The Conservative (1840) has 1,200 members. The Reform (1834, liberal), with 1,400 members, acquired additional celebrity through its culinary department as organized by Soyer; and a Junior Reform is projected. The Travellers' club (1819), having about 700 members, is frequented by distinguished explorers and scientific and literary men, and is a favorite resort of foreign ambassadors, who alone have free admission to all clubs.

The United University (1822) has about 1,100 members; the Oxford and Cambridge (1830), about 1,200; New University (1864), 1,000, half Oxford and half Cambridge men; and the Thatched House or Civil Service (1865), about 700. The Oriental (1824), with 800 members, and the East India United Service (1848), with about 2,000, are the chief centres of the East India service. The Garrick (1831), with about 700 members, and the Junior Garrick (1867), with about 500, are favorite resorts of authors and artists. The Union (1822), with 1,000 members, is frequented by lawyers, merchants, bankers, and gentlemen at large, but is declining under the rivalry of more fashionable clubs. The City of London (1832), with 800 members, and the New City (1862), with 6()0, are frequented by City men; and the City Liberal (1874), with 1,000 members, now in Queen street, is to be permanently located in Walbrook. Among miscellaneous clubs are the Windham (1828, 650 members), Gresham (1843, 600), Cocoa Tree (1853, 350), National (1815, 500), Whitehall (1865, 800), and Medical (1866, 700). The new St. Stephen's, at the corner of the Thames embankment, for members of parliament, was completed in October, 1874; among other clubs are the Temple, Arundel, and Whitefriars. Purely political clubs exist, such as the Fox and Cobden, and exclusively artistic, like the recently established Burlington fine arts club; and there are various professional and scientific clubs.

A new athenaeum with lecture rooms and music halls was opened in Camden road in 1873; and in the same year arose in George street, Pimlico, the Grosvenor, the first club ever established for the distinct use of working men. The headquarters of the London swimming club is at the City of London baths. There are several clubs for chess players, who also frequent the cigar divan in the Strand. The Carlton, Reform, Army and Navy, United Service, Athena3um, and Travellers' are the most magnificent of all the club houses. The Army and Navy has externally the most gorgeous, and the Travellers' and United Service the most graceful appearance. - Of the hotels of London, Claridge's (late Mivart's), Brook street, is patronized by royal personages; and the Clarendon, Bond street, is also frequented by persons of the highest rank. Long's, in the latter street, is famous for its wines and for being patronized by sportsmen; St. James's, Piccadilly (Francatelli's), for elegance and superior cuisine. Maurigy's, Regent street, is much frequented by the clergy and gentry. The Palace hotel, opposite Buckingham palace, is large and fashionable. Fenton's, St. James's street, and the hotels in Albemarle, Dover, Jermyn, and Cork streets, are more or less frequented by the higher classes.

Others in Piccadilly, Cock-spur street, Charing Cross, and the Strand are less fashionable and cheaper. The Piazza and other old-fashioned hotels in Covent Garden are noted resorts of connoisseurs of old port and sherry wines. There are also many reputable commercial hotels in the City. Foreign refugees and other aliens abound in the hotels and lodging houses in and around Leicester square. The Westminster Palace hotel, opposite the abbey, is much frequented by railway and business men. The Langham, Portland place, is a favorite resort of Americans. Morley's (Trafalgar square) and other formerly famous hotels have found powerful rivals in new hotels near the railway termini and the new embankments, especially the Charing Cross and Grosvenor. Among the most recent and extensive of these is the St. Pancras, inside the colossal terminus of the Midland railway. Crockford's, once a famous club noted for desperate gambling, was afterward devoted to other purposes, being for a time a dining room; and restaurants abound in all the fashionable and miscellaneous regions of the west, as well as in the Strand and in the City, where some of the taverns and the excellent chop and steak houses enjoy a high reputation, and where Crosby hall, hallowed by interesting memories, has been converted into a dining room.

Blackwall and Greenwich hotels are famous for their fish dinners, and the Star and Garter at Richmond is a favorite resort. Lodging houses of all descriptions exist in the cross streets of Regent and Oxford streets and Piccadilly, and all over London, except in the most select quarters of the nobility. - The royal palaces are far less attractive than either the large club houses or the mansions of the nobility mentioned in connection with art treasures, or even those of the principal ambassadors, such as the French, Albert gate, Hyde Park corner; the German, Carlton House terrace, formerly known as Prussia house; the Russian, Chesham house, Belgrave square; and the Austrian, Belgrave square. The queen's town palaces are: Buckingham palace, which she only visits on great occasions; St. James's palace, where receptions are held; and Kensington palace. Her out-of-town residences are at Windsor, at Osborne, Isle of Wight, and at Balmoral, in the Scottish highlands. Buckingham palace was commenced under George IV. and completed under William IV., who however was so displeased with it that he would not live in it.

Subsequently it was enlarged and improved; the marble arch was removed to Hyde park, the whole building was converted into a quadrangle by the erection of an eastern front, and the conservatory was converted into a chapel. The grand staircase is of white marble. The magnificent ball room was completed in 1856, accommodating over 2,000 persons. The throne room is 64 ft. long, hung with striped crimson satin, with coved ceiling, emblazoned with arms, and with a white marble frieze representing the wars of the roses. The picture gallery, chiefly formed by George IV., includes now Sir Thomas Baring's Dutch and Flemish collection and other first-rate works. In the adjoining stables is an extensive riding school. St. James's palace, an irregular brick edifice, was the only royal mansion from the time of the destruction by fire of Whitehall, in the reign of William III., till the removal of Queen Victoria to Buckingham palace. The drawing-rooms and levees are held here, though in spite of the enlargement of the palace it is too small for such receptions.

Kensington palace, where the queen was born and held her first cabinet council, was purchased from the second earl of Nottingham by William III. soon after his accession to the throne, and is chiefly remarkable for the many royal personages who have died there, including William III. and his wife, Queen Anne, and George II. The orangery is the work of Wren. The famous Kensington collection of pictures has been removed to other palaces. Marlborough house, in Pall Mall, now the residence of the prince of Wales, was built by Wren for the duke of Marlborough. In 1817 it was purchased by the crown for Princess Charlotte and her husband, the future king of the Belgians, Leopold I.; she died at Claremont before the assignment was made, but her husband lived here for some time, and Queen Adelaide, the widow of William IV., subsequently made it her home. The duchess of Cambridge resides at Kew palace, and there are various mansions for other members of the royal family. The archbishops of Canterbury, primates of England, have had their London residence for many centuries at Lambeth palace (see Lambeth); and London house, St. James's square, is the residence of the bishops of London and the property of the see. - The houses of parliament, or the new palace of Westminster, on the left bank of the Thames and between the river and Westminster abbey, occupy the site of the old palace which was destroyed by fire Oct. 16,1834. They cover an area of eight acres, and contain 1,100 apartments, 100 staircases, and two miles of corridors.

The foundation stone was laid April 27, 1840. The house of lords, 100 ft. long and 45 ft. in width and height, was opened in April, 1847, and is one of the most gorgeous legislative halls in the world. It contains the throne for the queen, a chair for the prince of Wales, and the woolsack (a chair cushioned with wool) in the centre of the house for the lord chancellor. Facing the throne is the reporters' gallery, and over the latter is the strangers' gallery. At either end of the chamber are three compartments covered with fine frescoes, executed by Dyce, Horsley, and Maclise. In the windows, which are filled with stained glass and lighted at night from outside, are 12 figures; and 18 niches between the windows and at either end of the chamber contain statues of the barons who compelled King John to grant Magna Charta. The entrance for the queen is at the Victoria tower; her robing room, containing Dyce's frescoes from the legend of King Arthur, faces the river, and from it she passes through Victoria gallery, a richly decorated chamber 100 ft. long, and the prince's chamber, another superb apartment, to her seat on the throne. The gallery directly fronting the throne is reserved for ladies.

Since the gunpowder plot of 1605 the cellars underneath the house are always examined two hours before the sovereign's arrival. The house of commons, of the same width and height (45 ft.) and 60 ft. long, is a more austere building. It occupies the site of old St. Stephen's hall, its former chamber, and was opened in February, 1852. The strangers' and the speaker's galleries (the latter for distinguished visitors) are opposite the speaker's chair, behind which is the reporters' gallery. The royal or Victoria angle (the S. W. angle of the palace), 75 ft. square and 340 ft. high, finished in 1857, is a magnificent work. The central spire, 300 ft. high and 60 ft. in diameter, rises above the grand central octagonal hall and the admirable groined stone vault, and is supported without a single pillar. The clock tower or belfry, 40 ft. square and over 300 ft. high, abuts on Westminster bridge, the palace clock showing the time upon four dials 30 ft. in diameter, while those of St. Paul's are only 18 ft. The great Stephen bell, cast in 1858, weighs over eight tons, but is defective, like the previous monster bell known as Big Ben. The roof is finely decorated, and the subordinate towers enhance the general picturesque-ness of the effect.

At the Westminster bridge end of the edifice are the rooms of the speaker and sergeant at arms, and at the Vauxhall bridge end are those of the usher of the black rod and of the librarian of the house of lords.

Westminster Abbey.

Westminster Abbey.

Buckingham Palace.

Buckingham Palace.

The upper floors accommodate parliamentary committees. The cloister court, girdled by a richly groined and traceried cloister with two floors, is one of the masterpieces of the palace, though it is chiefly a restoration. Westminster hall, 200 ft. long, 110 high, and 08 wide, and despite its size unsupported by pillars, occupies the site of the old hall of the royal palace, where some of the early parliaments were held, and which abounded in historical associations and trophies. The highest law courts of England, established in 1224 under Henry III., are still held in the renovated hall, though sooner or later they are to be removed to another locality. A small staircase leads from the E. corner of the hall into the restored crypt of St. Stephen's, beneath the modern St. Stephen's hall, which is the only relic saved from the fire of 1834, and is used as a chapel.

Houses of Parliament.

Houses of Parliament.

The modern St. Stephen's hall, 95 ft. long, 5G high, and 30 wide, so called from occupying the site of St. Stephen's chapel of the ancient palace, contains 12 statues of illustrious statesmen. Upward of 200 elaborately carved bosses are in the central or octagon hall (80 ft. high), from which corridors lined with fine paintings extend right and left to both houses of parliament. The poets' or upper waiting hall contains frescoes illustrative of English poetry. Mr. Barry is the principal architect of the houses of parliament. The total cost is estimated, so far as the works are completed (1874), at about £4,000,000. The decay of the stone outside and of the frescoes inside the building causes considerable uneasiness, and the general architecture of the palace and its surroundings has always been a bone of contention. The ground immediately beyond the Victoria tower has been secured, the unsafe old tenements have been pulled down, and an embankment on the river side and a new building are in course of construction for the enlargement and safety of the structure. - The principal executive department of the government is the treasury, Whitehall, between the Horse Guards and Downing street; this is the official residence of the chancellor of the exchequer.

The treasury includes the board of trade and privy council offices. A new and extensive building finished in 1870 by the architect Scott, between Downing and Charles streets, and extending thence to St. James's park and Parliament street, contains the new and elegant foreign, home, colonial, and India offices; and other improvements and extensive government buildings are projected. Military affairs are managed in the war office, Horse Guards, and in the old ordnance office, originally built for the duke of Cumberland, brother of George III., to which Buckingham house has been added. The naval department has been managed in the admiralty, Whitehall, since 1626. Somerset house, in the Strand, forming a quadrangle with over 3,000 windows and with rooms for nearly 1,000 offices, contains the branch offices of the admiralty, the audit office, and the registrar general's offices; nearly one half of the vast building is occupied by the inland revenue office, or the excise, stamp, legacy, duty, and property-tax offices; and the W. wing, fronting Wellington square, added in 1856, belongs to the latter bureaus. - The four inns of court, which have been described as palladiums of English liberty, consist of the Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn; and affiliated with them are 19 inns of chancery. (See Inns of Court.) The stately new hall of the Inner Temple was opened May 14, 1870. The great civil tribunals are the courts of queen's bench, common pleas, and exchequer, the high court of chancery and of admiralty, and the courts of probate and divorce and of bankruptcy.

The new palace of justice, intended to contain all the great law courts, for which a site was purchased near Temple Bar several years ago, was recently commenced after various delays and controversies. It is expected that the eastern block of buildings will be finished in 1877, and the larger western block in 1880 or 1881. The ground includes an area of eight acres, of which an acre and a half is to be laid out as a garden. The buildings will form an irregular square, having a front of about 500 ft. on the Strand, and a depth nearly as great from the Strand to Carey street. Mr. Street is the architect. The central criminal court holds its periodical sessions in the Old Bailey, a street running from Ludgate hill to Newgate street; other sessions are held at the guildhall, Tower Liberty, Westminster, and elsewhere. Newgate, at the corner of Old Bailey and Newgate street, is the oldest London prison, and derives its name from that of a gate of which the original building was the tower. Penn, Defoe, and other celebrated persons, as well as notorious criminals like Jack Shep-pard, were lodged in old Newgate, which was destroyed by fire during the " no popery" riots in 1780. The present building was completed a few years afterward, and made the scene of public executions instead of Tyburn, the first taking place Dec. 9, 1783. The interior was remodelled in 1858 on the cellular system.

Executions are no longer public, having since 1868 been performed within the walls, a black flag being hoisted as the only outward sign. The building holds about 200 prisoners. Millbank, on the left bank of the Thames, close to Vauxhall bridge, has the aspect of a citadel, and is the largest London prison, with room for 1,100 prisoners, but generally contains about 700; its inmates are sentenced to penal servitude, and hence it was originally called the penitentiary. Horsemon-ger lane jail, Southwark, is the county jail for Surrey, where the Mannings were hanged in 1849; but now, as at Newgate, executions take place only within the walls. Bridewell prison was demolished in 1862, and among numerous buildings named bridewells after it is the new police station in Brick lane, Fleet street (1874). The great City of London prison at Holloway (1855) is a castellated building in mediaeval style, averaging about 350 inmates. The model prison at Pentonville was completed in 1842 with 1,000 separate cells; here the prisoners are detained during two years, and trained to useful trades. The house of correction, Cold Bath Fields, and that of Westminster for females, hold respectively about 1,200 prisoners, and are under the control of the Middlesex magistrates and the home secretary.

The Surrey house of correction, Wandsworth common, is for convicted criminal prisoners, except those sentenced to penal servitude or to death; and there are female convict prisons at Fulham Refuge, and at Parkhurst, Isle of Wight. The prison for debtors in White-cross street was in 1874 converted into a railway freight station. - The government of the greater part of the metropolis is under the charge of the home secretary, and administered under his instructions by the commissioners of police; but that portion known as the City is under the exclusive control of the corporation of London, one of the most influential and wealthy municipal bodies in the world. It includes the lord mayor, 25 aldermen exclusive of the chief magistrate, 4 sheriffs, and 20G common council men. The lord mayor is elected annually from the court of aldermen; he must have previously served as sheriff, and may be reelected. The aldermen hold office for life; they are elected one for each of the 26 wards of the City, and all resident freemen are entitled to a vote in the respective ward elections, whether liverymen or not. The number of liverymen varies between 6,000 and 8,000. Their guilds number upward of 80, 30 of which have separate halls, the rest meeting in the guildhall or in taverns.

Among these are 12 formerly called honorable companies, and still holding a certain preeminence; they are the mercers, grocers, drapers, fishmongers, goldsmiths, skinners, merchant tailors, haberdashers, salters, ironmongers, vintners, and cloth-workers. The guild of saddlers is traditionally the oldest of them all; saddles were known in London as early as A. D. 600. Many of the guilds are possessed of large property, and dispense the most lavish hospitality in their halls. Fishmongers' hall, mercers' hall, grocers' hall, merchant tailors' hall, the new clothworkers' hall in Mincing lane, and, above all, goldsmiths' hall, are among the finest. These guilds are intimately connected with the corporation of London. Next in importance to the corporation are the metropolitan board of works, the local boards of works, and the parish vestries, all elective bodies, which have been compared to local parliaments. The guildhall, in which the civic deliberative assembly meets, is a large but not remarkable building. The lord mayor is the representative of royalty in the civil government of the City, chief commissioner of its lieutenancy, and conservator of the river Thames; and on the death of a sovereign he becomes pro tem, a member of the privy council.

The day on which he enters upon office (Nov. 9) is kept as a partial holiday in the City. He then proceeds in state to Westminster hall, where he is sworn in; and in the evening he gives a sumptuous banquet in the guildhall, which is attended by ministers and other public personages. - The metropolitan police force consisted on Jan. 1, 1874, of 9,855 persons, including 4 district superintendents, 26 superintendents, 298 inspectors, and 3,981 sergeants. The expenditures for the year ending March 31, 1874, comprised £26,897 for the cost of the offices, £797,135 for wages and equipment of the force, £527,000 for police stations, etc, and £74,878 for pensions. The receipts, including a surplus of £163,934 from the preceding year, consisted of £602,028 contributed by the parishes, £230,052 by the state, £114,-584 by public institutions, £17,584 by associations and private individuals, and £1,777 by managers of theatres. The register of the police, established in 1869, contained in 1874 the names of 117,568 suspicious characters, including all petty offenders who have undergone punishment in preceding years. - The metropolitan fire brigade in 1874 employed 396 firemen, 3 floating steam and 104 land engines, of which 21 were worked by steam and 83 by hand.

The engines have generally seven-inch barrels with eight-inch stroke. Small engines are drawn by hand or by one horse; two horses are used for distances under 6 m. and four for remote localities. Two engines are united in cases of emergency, and together throw 180 gallons in a minute; one of the floating engines throws 1,400 gallons. The pumps are worked by levers, and horizontal bars enable a large number of firemen to operate at the same time upon the same pumps. The number of large fires in 1870 was 276, and of small fires 1,670; altogether 1,946, or 555 above the average of 10 preceding years. In 1873 there were 105 fire escape stations, 181 day and 90 night watches in the metropolis, and 1,548 fires. - The tower of London, the most celebrated citadel of England and the only fortress of the metropolis, is of very ancient origin, and has been traced to Julius Caesar, but without sufficient authority. It contains a renowned collection of armory, in the galleries known as the Horse armory and as Queen Elizabeth's armory. The regalia of the English monarchs is in the jewel room.

Among the most memorable spots are the traitors' gate, now closed, through which Raleigh, Sidney, Russell, and other eminent men were ushered into the tower, and the fine arch of which was restored in 1866; the bloody tower opposite the gate, where the sons of Edward IV. were murdered at the instigation of Richard III., and which the duke of Wellington regarded as the securest place of imprisonment; and the white tower, the oldest relic of the building, constructed by William the Conqueror, and externally remodelled by Wren, but almost unchanged in the interior. Beauchamp tower, where Anne Boleyn and Lady Jane Grey were detained, and named from Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, was restored in 1853. On Tower hill, N. AY. of the tower, is the site of the scaffold, and most of the eminent persons executed there were buried in the adjoining St. Peter's church. The lieutenant governor resides in the bell tower, and the governor is called constable; the duke of Wellington held the latter office for some time.

The former banqueting hall and council chamber have been appropriated to a collection of 60,000 stand of rifles, and the old St. John's chapel has been converted into a record and archive office. (See " Historical Memorials of the Tower," by Lord de Ros, London, 1866 - '7.) The Wellington barracks, a large and rather clumsy building, was established in 1845 by the duke of Wellington, on the N. side of the white tower, on the site of the great storehouse laid out by William III., which had been burned in 1841, together with about 300,000 stand of muskets and small arms. At the present time there are vast stores of ordnance in the tower. The number of soldiers in the various barracks is over 8,000. The duke of Wellington frequently called attention to the exposed condition of the metropolis in the event of a foreign invasion. The Franco-German war of 1870-71, and the appearance of a publication entitled "The Battle of Dorking," with an imaginary description of a German invasion, revived these discussions, and resulted in an increasing efficiency of the militia, and in forming organizations of volunteers. - The metropolitan cattle market, Copenhagen Fields, between Islington and Camden Town, which has replaced old Smithfield market, was opened in 1855, and extends over 30 acres, half of which is enclosed for the accommodation of the animals; the annual sale of cattle, sheep, and pigs is estimated at nearly 5,000,000. The foreign cattle market is near the Commercial docks.

The new metropolitan meat and poultry market, Smithfield, opened Dec. 1, 1SG8, has superseded Newgate as the great carcass market of London. It is a fine building flanked by four corner towers, covering 31/2 acres, 630 ft. long by 246 wide, with a roof of iron and glass 30 ft. high, sup-ported on wrought-iron pillars. It is provided with stalls for the sale of meat. Underneath the building is a railway depot, with cellars for storing meat, which communicate with underground railways and with the cattle market. Leadenhall market is a large market for meat, poultry, and live stock. Of the minor markets, the Hungerford and Far-ringdon are the largest. The latter is the great market for water cresses, and is crowded with the masses of the poorer population, particularly early on Monday morning. Oxford and King's Cross are the other principal general markets. The Great Northern railway market, York road, King's Cross, and that of Spitalfields, are for potatoes. The exhibition of cattle by the Smith-field club and agricultural shows are held at Christmas in the capacious agricultural hall, between Liverpool road and Islington green, which was opened in 1861. Owing to the compulsory closing of private slaughter houses, additional public ones will be erected near the metropolitan cattle market.

Inferior horses are sold every Friday in the cattle market, and the most valuable horses are sold at Tatter-sail's, Grosvenor place, so called after Richard Tattersall, originally a training groom of the duke of Kingston, who made his fortune by purchasing for £2,500 the celebrated horse Highflyer. During the races Tattersall's presents a most animated appearance, the betting there regulating that of the whole country. In connection with Tattersall's is a subscription room under the superintendence of the Jockey club in Old Bond street, which is attended by all the patrons of the turf. Billingsgate, the great fish market, a little below London bridge, has been famous since the days of Queen Elizabeth, though it was not formally established as a market till 1699, under William III. Fish of all kinds, but especially salmon and shell fish, are sold here in immense quantities. The corner stone of a new market was laid in Billingsgate in the autumn of 1874. Columbia market, a gift of Lady Burdett-Coutts, was publicly accepted by the lord mayor and corporation for use as a fish market, Nov. 4, 1871.

Somerset House.

Somerset House.

The Tower.

The Tower.

Besides £109,000 for the western extension of the metropolitan meat market, and £28,393 for that of Billingsgate, the City spent in 1873 £87,231 for the maintenance of various markets, of which £75,284 was derived from the two great metropolitan markets, and about £10,000 from the others. Covent Garden has been since the middle of the 17th century the principal market for fruits, vegetables, and herbs, and the present market place dates from 1830. Early on summer mornings it is especially animated and fragrant. A flower market covered with glass, the finest in the world, was erected in 1859, on the S. side of the Covent Garden opera house, and is accessible both from the fruit market and from Bow street; it is proposed to remove it to another locality. The other London fruit and vegetable markets are the Borough and the Farringdon. Rag fair is held in Middlesex street, near Tower hill, and is almost exclusively devoted to the sale of old wearing apparel. Another market of the kind in Hounds-ditch occupies a square open area a little off the street, and is of a somewhat more miscellaneous character; broken umbrellas, old iron, bones, pieces of old harness, all sorts of wearing apparel, and articles of the meanest description, are gathered and sold here.

The most celebrated commercial marts are the coal exchange in Thames street, the corn market in Mark lane, and the colonial produce market in Mincing lane. A wool market was opened in 1874 near the guildhall, in an elegant building with extensive accommodations, and there are various other special localities for markets and salesrooms. - The port of London extends nominally and legally 6 1/2 m. below London bridge, to a point called Bugsby's Hole, over against Blackwall; but the port itself does not reach beyond Limehouse, though the port sanitary jurisdiction extends over 88 m., with 8 sets of docks and 13 creeks. The " Pool" commences just below London bridge, where the river is divided into two channels by the treble range of colliers anchored in it to discharge their cargoes. Only a certain number of the colliers are admitted into the Pool at once, the remainder waiting in the lower pool until the flag which denotes that it is full is lowered, when those enter whose turn is first. Close to London bridge there is water sufficient for vessels of 800 tons. The legislature has placed the shipping of the port and their moorings under the direction of harbor masters nominated by the City corporation and ratified by the Trinity house.

The society of the Trinity house, on Tower hill, incorporated in 1815, possesses great wealth; it has the superintendence of the placing and repairs of landmarks and buoys to indicate the channels, and of the whole English lighthouse system, and the appointment and control of pilots. Although the conservation of the river is in some measure under the care of the City corporation, Trinity house has concurrent jurisdiction. The principal docks of London are the West India, East India, London, St. Katharine's, Victoria, and Commercial. (See Dock.) A little below the tower are the St. Katharine's docks, enclosed by warehouses, over which the masts of the larger shipping are observable. Next are the London docks, with famous wine vaults. On the opposite shore is the grand Surrey dock, devoted together with the Commercial docks to the timber and corn trades. A little below the Pool, where the river bends abruptly in its course at Lime-house reach, is one of the entrances to the West India docks, which run across the base of the tongue of land called the Isle of Dogs and open into Blackwall reach, the vast number of masts seen across the pasturage resembling a forest of leafless trees.

The East and West India docks have been recently extended by the construction of a new south dock covering 33 acres, with many quays, jetties, warehouses, etc, and four pairs of gates, the main lock being 300 ft. long, 55 ft. wide, and 30 ft. deep at high tide. Other extensions and tunnels for the convenience of intercommunication between the great docks are in course of construction. The total number of wet docks in London is now 28. The authorized share capital of the East and West India dock companies (1874) is £1,005,688; of the London and St. Katharine's, £5,756,697, besides £1,062,-500 in debenture stock; of the Milwall, £500,-000; and of the Surrey Commercial, £964,-813. Opposite Greenwich are many ship builders' yards. Below Greenwich the shores on either side are exceedingly flat as far as Blackwall, where are the East India docks, full of the largest merchant ships. Still further down the river is Woolwich arsenal, the largest government ordnance depot; and here also is a depot for convicts. Gravesend, the last town on the banks of the Thames, is about 20 m. from London. Parallel to the basin near Dog and Duck stairs, sometimes called the East Country docks, leading to the Commercial docks, is the Surrey canal, which communicates with the Croydon canal.

The Regent's canal (9 m. in length, and provided with 12 large locks) communicates with the Grand Junction canal, and passes from Paddington by a tunnel under Maida hill to Regent's park, thence to Islington, under which it is carried by a tunnel 3/4 m. long, and so on to Hoxton, Hackney, and Limehouse. Some of the local traffic is carried on by means of these canals. The principal commerce passes through the docks. At Deptford, 3 m. S. E. of London bridge, and contiguous to Greenwich, is the victualling department of the navy; but the royal dockyard and ship-building establishments were closed March 13, 1869 (see Dept-ford), and those at Woolwich on the following Oct. 1. A new royal dockyard was opened at Chatham, 30 m. S. E. of London, June 21, 1873, where as well as at Portsmouth extensive preparations for additional docks are in progress. The custom house, in Lower Thames street, dates from 1817, but the original centre subsequently gave way, and a new front facing the river was erected. It contains an appropriately named long room, being nearly 200 ft, long and 66 wide, in which about 2,500 persons are employed. The annual amount of duties received varies from £10,000,000 to £12,000,000, generally exceeding half of the average customs revenues in all the other ports of the country.

The royal mint, on Tower hill, soon to be removed to another locality, in 1872 struck 52,841,048 coins, and 672 tons of metal passed through the melting department during that year. The amount of money coined fluctuates considerably, the lowest since 1855 having been £723,-540 in 18G7, and the highest £16,426,663 in 1872. The amount paid for gas was £2,544,-132 in 1873. It is a monopoly of nine great companies, and it is suggested to place in future the gas supply of the metropolis under the direction of the board of works. Upward of 4,000,000 tons of coal reached London in the first seven months of 1874, and the duty of 9d. per ton produced in 1873 £224,891, and the City's duty of 4d. £99,951, both amounts being appropriated to local improvements. - The bank of England, Threadneedle street, is the most important of the banks (see Bank); and among the other establishments are the Union bank of London, the London and Westminster, the London and Southwestern bank, the London and County banking company, and many others of great importance.

The bankers' clearing-house return for the week ending March 6, 1873, was the highest on record, amounting to £161,770,000. The overflowing abundance of capital makes London the regulator of the world's money markets, and draws thither consignments from all parts of the globe, upon which money is advanced, as well as upon floating cargoes. Except at the stock exchange (enlarged in 1873, and then consisting of 1,787 members besides 1,146 clerks), where gambling in stocks and shares produces recklessness of manner, business of immense amount is transacted everywhere with little or no excitement, and with most decorum at the royal exchange (see Exchange), though bills for fabulous sums, crops of great continents, and charter parties for whole fleets of merchant vessels pass here from hand to hand within barely one hour in the afternoon. Intensely national and homogeneous everywhere, London is cosmopolitan only in the City, where all nationalities are represented: the Greeks in the Levant, Mediterranean, and transoceanic trade; the Germans in the Baltic and other foreign trade; and there are French, Italian, Dutch, Swiss, Russian, Scandinavian, Belgian, Spanish, American, and other foreign merchants.

The important East and West Indian, Australian, American, and domestic trade, however, is chiefly in the hands of the indigenous houses. The most influential JewsofLondonarethe Rothschilds, Sir Moses Montefiore, the baronet Goldsmid, and several German financiers. The principal insurance, telegraph, gas, mining, and other companies, and many banks, are authorized to issue shares, which increase the speculative business and that for permanent investment. Many colonial and foreign securities, bonds, and shares are negotiated here, and there are few undertakings in any part of the world which do not look to London capital for support. The financial and commercial operations vary according to the ebbs and tides in agricultural and other productive and manufacturing resources, and in the general condition of the empire and the world. There has been great prosperity within the last few years, the absorption of American shipping during and since the civil war in the United States, and the progress of Australian and other colonies, vastly increasing the activity of the London markets. The registered merchant shipping of the port, Jan. 1, 1874, comprised 1,993 sailing vessels of 694,-218 tons, and 846 steamers of 447,839 tons.

The total number of vessels that entered during the year ending Dec. 31, 1873, was 38,-810, of 7,843,041 tons, including 11,017 vessels, of 4,547,934 tons, from foreign countries and British possessions, and 27,793 vessels, of 8,295,107 tons, in the coastwise trade. The total number of clearances was 18,895, of which 10,284 were in the coastwise trade. The imports of foreign and colonial merchandise were valued at £127,560,447, on which the customs revenue amounted to £10,103,085. The-exports of British produce amounted to £57,199,-098. The exports to the United States in the year ending Sept, 30, 1871, amounted to £8,-658,037; 1872, £8,671,985; 1873, £7,579,073. In 1873, 29 vessels, of 6,881 tons, were built here. The average number of ships in the port is 1,000, and in the docks 600 to 700. The emigrant traffic is considerable, 21,400 having left for New Zealand alone in the first six months of 1874; and a new emigrant bureau was recently opened in Blackwall. - The leading manufacture of London is silk, which employs over 100,000 persons, mostly females. The other principal articles made are telegraph wires, carriages, clocks, watches, jewelry, gold and silver plate, mathematical, surgical, and musical instruments, refined sugar, and particularly ale and porter.

The largest breweries are those of Barclay, Perkins, and co., Southwark, extending over 11 acres, and of Truman, Hanbury, Buxton, and co., Spital-fields; the quantities of malt annually used in these establishments varies from 120,000 to 150,000 quarters, and in the other extensive breweries from 18,000 to 60,000. - The telegraph act of 1868 placed the electro-telegraphic system of the country under the control of the government. The central station, is to be in the new general post office in St. Martin's-le-Grand, the most imposing of the recent additions to city architecture. There are now over 400 telegraph offices in the metropolis, mostly post offices, and the metropolitan gallery at the central station is made the medium of communication between them all. The pneumatic despatch tubes form an important adjunct to the telegraph system for carrying sheets of paper on which messages are written, and also constitute a sort of metropolitan parcels conveyance system. An improved method, extending the working of the same tube over several stations, has been in operation since 1871. The central station is connected with receiving offices in the principal centres of business.

The employees of the British post office department consisted in 1872 of more than 40,000 persons, of whom 10,000 were engaged in telegraph work, 12,000 were postmasters, 9,000 clerks, and 19,000 letter carriers, messengers, and sorters. Those engaged in London alone include 5,000 in St. Martin's-le-Grand and 4,500 in the postal districts. Of the 20,600 post offices and public boxes in the United Kingdom, London possesses 1,500. The total number of post office telegrams from all the stations in the kingdom numbered 399,852 in the week ending Aug. 22, 1874. The number of letters delivered in the postal districts of London is over 6,000,000 annually, of newspapers over 70,000,000, and of book parcels about 8,000,-000. The letter deliveries are numerous and admirably arranged all over the metropolis and its outskirts. The money order offices, also serving as savings banks, were 4,600 in the kingdom in 1872, and 14,000,000 orders were issued, to the extent of £24,000,000; the depositors in the post office savings banks numbered 1,440,000, and their aggregate deposits were from £17,000,000 to £19,000,000. The expenditure of the post office in 1872 was £3,685,000, and the net revenue about £2,150,-000. A large proportion of all these figures concerns London alone. - A girdle of railways and a double circle of iron ways, chiefly underground, encompass London. The metropolitan or underground railway runs on a level with or below the gas pipes and water mains, and consists of 3 1/2 m. of tunnels and cuttings from Paddington, near the Great Western terminus, to Moorgate, near the bank of England, running under the New road and other central thoroughfares.

The trains run from early in the morning till midnight at intervals of 15 to 20 minutes, communicating at King's Cross station with the Great Northern terminus, and at Farringdon street with the prolongation line to the Chatham and Dover railway. Among the principal metropolitan and suburban railway lines are the Charing Cross, to the City and London bridge; the West London, Hammersmith, and Metropolitan, from Finchley road to Victoria station; the Victoria, from Pimlico to Ludgate hill; the North London, Hampstead junction, and North and Southwestern junction, from Broad street, City, to Acton station beyond the Hammersmith station; the London and Blackwall; the Waterloo, to Richmond; and the East London, commencing at the Wapping end of the Thames tunnel, and terminating at Deptford. The Metropolitan District railway, with many remarkable viaducts and similar works, runs parallel with the N. Thames embankment, extending from Tower hill to Westminster bridge. The Metropolitan and St. John's road extends from Baker street to within a mile of Hampstead. The total number of railway stations in metropolitan districts has increased from 3 in 1838 to about 300 in 1874, and the aggregate traffic includes hundreds of millions of passengers and stupendous quantities of freight.

The Great Eastern began in 1873 its enormous terminus at Broad street; the Midland railway has opened the large St. Pancras station; the East London is engaged in tunnelling under the London docks; and other new termini are completed or projected. Street tramways, after meeting with a strenuous resistance, and still opposed by the corporation of the City, were sanctioned by parliament in 1869 for various parts of the metropolis, and subsequently for others. - The Thames tunnel, two miles below London bridge, connects Wapping on the left bank of the Thames with Rotherhithe. It consists of two arched passages, 1,200 ft. long, 14 ft. wide, and 16 1/2 ft. high, separated "by a brick wall 4 ft. thick with G4 arched openings. The crown of the arch is 16 ft. below the bottom of the river. The descent and ascent are effected by stairs winding round cylindrical shafts 38 ft. wide and 22 ft. deep. It is the greatest achievement of the elder Brunei, and was commenced March 2, 1825, interrupted by an inundation Aug. 12, 1828, recommenced in January, 1835, and opened March 25, 1843. The total cost was £408,000. The penny toll and other receipts were under £G,000 annually, and the constant influx of land springs caused considerable expenditure.

The tunnel was consequently sold in 1865 for £200,000 to the East London railway company for connecting the Great Eastern and North London railways with those on the south of the Thames; and it was altogether closed as a public footway on July 10, 1869. A new tunnel, known as the Thames subway, was commenced Feb. 16, 1860, by breaking ground for the shaft on Tower hill; and in February, 1870, a number of persons were already conveyed from one shaft head to the other; the cost was only £20,000. It is 25 ft. below the bed of the river; the passage is accomplished by a tubular displacement of about 8 ft. in diameter, and its entire course is through the impermeable London clay. The shafts are less than 60 ft. deep and 10 ft. in diameter, and are lined partly with cast-iron cylindrical rings, and partly with brickwork in cement. The omnibus runs upon a railway of 2 ft. 6 in. gauge, and is lighted by colza oil lamps, as are also the lifts and the waiting room. The subway is remarkable for its dryness, but the temperature is high.

Its success led to the construction of another subway or tunnel from Arthur street to St. George's church, Borough, passing under the principal districts of the city of London and of South-wark. An additional tunnel from Poplar to Greenwich, entering close to the East and West India docks, is intended to benefit the traffic between the N. and S. parts of the river. - Penny and twopenny steamers ply between London bridge and the West End bridges, and stop at many piers, including Greenwich; but, though still overcrowded, especially in summer, they are destined gradually to disappear before the more speedy means of communication. Boats for Margate and Ramsgate start from London bridge; and the steamers for continental ports start from the same point, and from St. Katharine wharf or Tower stairs. Many lines of packets leave London for Australian, East Indian, American, and other transoceanic ports. - The omnibus service comprises about 100 metropolitan and suburban routes, and employs nearly 1,200 coaches and 12,000 horses. The annual receipts are estimated in the aggregate at £1,000,000, and the number of passengers at over 80,000,000. The vehicles traverse a circuit of about 300 streets, and about 24,000,000 miles annually, the daily average for each omnibus being 60 m.

The coaches are slow and uncomfortable, and are shunned by ladies, but they are nevertheless overcrowded. The London general omnibus company, the largest, runs about 600 coaches. The drivers are employed from 12 to 16 hours a day. Hackney carriages were till 1869 under the control of the board of inland revenue, and were subsequently placed under that of the commissioners of police. The taxes have been reduced considerably, and the horse duty has been abolished altogether. Cabs have consequently increased from 5,687 in 1869 to 7,341 in 1870, 7,818 in 1871, 8,160 in 1872, and 9,655 in 1873; and the number running in the autumn of 1874 comprised 3,641 Hansom and 4,223 Clarence cabs, altogether 7,864. Stringent regulations have been passed to insure safety, speed, and comfort; and since Jan. 1, 1874, the cushions are required to be of horsehair and other good material, and not as formerly stuffed with hay, straw, seaweed, or whalebone shavings. There are 2,800 proprietors, of whom only 89 own more than 20 cabs each. The proprietor lets them out by the day to licensed drivers at an average price of 18 shillings during the season, and as low as 6 shillings at slacker periods. The number of licensed drivers is 10,093, exceeding that of the cabs.

The rates of fare are strictly regulated by law, and the cabmen complain of hardship and risks, especially as they are often obliged to pay the proprietors in advance. The number of persons run over and killed by these and other conveyances in 1872 was 118, which was below the average of the six preceding years; the maimed or injured were 2,677, a number much above previous averages. - The main drainage of London has been carried out since 1859 by the metropolitan board of works, through a series of large sewers under streets and buildings on both sides of the river, at right angles with the old and defective sewers and a little below their level, in order to intercept the sewage and prevent it from contaminating the river in its passage through London. The termini of the sewers are at Barking creek, on the left bank, and at Crossness, near Plum-stead, on the right bank of the Thames, where they discharge through a general outfall channel. Much of the sewage is carried away by gravitation, excepting that of the low levels, which must be pumped up by steam engines into the outfall channels after having gone through a process of deodorization.

The high-level Clapham channels, S. of the Thames (10 m. long), unite with the low-level Putney channel (11 m. long) at Deptford creek, whence they run to Erith over a distance of 7 m. The three great Hampstead, Kilburn, and embankment sewers, N. of the Thames, form a junction on the river Lea. The bridges, aqueducts, culverts, and conduits are on the largest scale, especially at Bow creek, below Black-wall; and one of the finest pumping stations is at Abbey mills, West Ham, where the low-level drainage is lifted by steam to the upper level. The sewers formerly emptied into the Thames, and during the rise of the tide over their orifices the whole drainage was stopped until the ebb set in, converting the sewers into cesspools. At present the sewers are diverted to reservoirs. Much of the sewage is utilized for agricultural purposes. The average daily amount discharged on the N. side of the river is estimated at over 10,000,000 cubic feet, and on the S. side over 4,000,000. The whole system was nearly completed in 1874. - The fluctuations in the water supply give rise to periodical alarm in the overcrowded districts, and schemes are proposed from time to time to increase the quantity and to improve the quality by artificial supplies from mountain regions.

But the basin of the Thames continues to be the great reservoir of London, and it is believed that only careful filtration, removal of old cisterns, and other improvements are needed to make the water adequate to all requirements. It is supplied by eight companies, five on the N. and three on the S. side of the river, on the so-called intermittent system. The supply pipes are not attached to mains in which the water is always under pressure, but to smaller pipes into which it is daily turned on for one or two hours. The average quantity supplied daily in July, 1874, was 127,-563,243 gallons. The royal commissioners on the water supply believe that the amount may be increased by the existing companies to 180,-000,000 gallons, which they deem sufficient for a maximum of 5,000,000 residents at the height of the season. Drinking fountains are also increasing in number in public thoroughfares and parks. Extensive new swimming baths were opened near Hungerford bridge in 1874, and a similar establishment is in course of construction near Pimlico pier. - The law has been made stringent in regard to the immediate removal of offensive burial grounds; and the increasing demolition of old churches leads to the removal of the dead to cemeteries, although many of the churchyards in the older parts of London remain undisturbed.

Many new cemeteries are required in addition to the present number, which includes Bunhill Fields, near Finsbury square (for dissenters); and there is a general tendency to lay them out in fine localities, as Norwood, Kensal Green, Brompton, and Highgate cemeteries, and in remoter rural districts. The public health act of 1872 was the complement of the local government board act of 1871, and both were results of the royal sanitary commission of 1869-'70. The mean temperature of the year is 50-5°; that of the surrounding country about 48°. In January it averages 36.34°, February 39.6°, March 42°, April 47.61°, May 55.4°, June 59.36°, July 62.97°, August 61°, September 57.7°, October 50.79°, November 42.4°, December 38.71°. The temperature in summer seldom rises to 80° in the shade, though occasionally going above 90°, and seldom falls in winter to 20° during the day, but has sunk as low as 5° below zero at night. The mortality reached the annual rate of 23.1 in 1,000 in 1871, and declined to 20.7 in 1872, 20 in 1873, and 19.9 in the year ending June 30, 1874, being 2.6 lower than the average rate in the urban districts generally, 2.3 lower than that in the 18 large towns, 1.1 below the rate for the whole of England and Wales, and only 0.8 higher than the rate in the rural districts.

Of 123,-990 who died during the spring quarter of 1874, nearly 60,000 had escaped the perils of infancy, but were cut off before they attained old age. - London has a great drawback in its moist climate, though it is not considered unhealthy. The sufferings and hard realities of life are also more glaring in this overwhelming concentration of people in one and the same community than among more scattered populations. The noises, too, in the centres of traffic are bewildering. But there are not a few spots of idyllic stillness in the midst of perpetual motion, and London is on the whole the city of all cities where persons of all degrees and tastes can live in perfect independence, without being interfered with as long as they do not interfere with others, well protected in their lives and property, and with many reasonable opportunities of uncostly enjoyments. The metropolis presents the most edifying spectacle at early dawn, when caravans of wagons arrive with provisions for the still sleeping millions; the most dazzling late in the evening, when the popular thoroughfares swarm with the multitude, and are ablaze with light; and the most ominous during the night, when the dangerous and degraded classes prowl through the streets.

During great processions the dangerous classes still constitute a formidable mob, such as alarmed the queen at the time of her coronation. The East End supplies the contingent of roughs, and the West End that of drones and idlers. Apart from the many criminals in the prisons, there are thousands on the verge of crime and without visible means of existence. - The first authentic notice of the existence of London (Lon-dinium) occurs in Tacitus. About 100 years after Julius Caesar's invasion, it was taken by the Romans under Claudius, called Augusta, and placed under a Roman administration. In A. D. 61 the Britons under Boadicea captured and burned the city, which was however soon rebuilt. It is supposed to have remained unprotected by fortifications until the reign of Constantine the Great, who, judging from many coins which have come to light, is believed to have constructed the walls of London and to have erected it into an episcopal see. The walls commenced in the vicinity of the present tower, and their compass was completed by another wall along the banks of the Thames. Gates were added to these walls, and roads laid out which led to different parts of the country.

The names of the gates are perpetuated in various localities; a considerable portion of the old New gate was excavated in 1874. The great Roman roads Watling street and Ermin street had their termini at the Roman milliarium or London stone. A portion of the stone still exists, and is inserted in the most prominent part of St. Swith-in's church, Cannon street. Under the Saxons London is believed to have become the capital of the East Saxon kingdom, and to have quickly recovered from the disasters to which it had been subjected after the departure of the Roman troops from England. Bede calls it even at that early period "a princely town of trade." St. Paul's and St. Peter's, Westminster, were founded almost immediately after the introduction of Christianity. Under Egbert London became the metropolis of the united Saxon monarchies, or of the consolidated kingdom, so that the metropolitan character of London has existed 1,000 years. The Danish invasion was disastrous to the prosperity of London, but it soon recovered under the glorious reign of Alfred. William the Conqueror, to whom the city submitted after the battle of Hastings, granted it a charter which is still extant.

A new charter was given by Henry I. in 1100, which is said to have served as a model for Magna Charta; it restored the privileges which the Londoners had enjoyed before the conquest, and permitted them to elect their own magistrate. In 1191 the chief magistrate was for the first time addressed by the court of aldermen by the title of lord mayor. The insurrection of Wat Tyler in 1381 produced a temporary alarm. In the wars of the roses, London sided chiefly with the house of York, in consequence of which the lord mayor and sheriff and a number of aldermen were knighted by Edward IV. after the battle of Barnet (1471). About this time Caxton introduced the printing press. Intellectual and religious zeal was powerfully fostered by the reformation; educational and charitable institutions were introduced; the refugees of the Low Countries naturalized their industrial arts and manufactures in London; and the prosperity of the city advanced with rapid strides during the reign of Elizabeth. The chief part of the metropolis consisted then and during the reign of James I. of Newgate street, Cheapside, the Poultry, and Cornhill, and the crooked streets and dingy alleys leading from them to the river. Both sides of the Strand, toward Westminster, were flanked with houses.

The south river side of the Strand was then the headquarters of the aristocracy. The other parts of London did not yet exist, except from Charing Cross toward Whitehall palace and Westminster abbey. There were but few buildings in Lambeth and Southwark, and only a small number of scattered houses from Horsleydown to Tooley street. A majority of the corporation took a decided part with the commons during the civil war. After the restoration London began to revive, but the plague, which had already visited it in 1349 and in 1604, again raged in the city from June till the end of December, 1665, carrying off upward of 60,-000 persons. Fire, which had nearly consumed the city in 893 and at various other periods, especially 1077 and 1087, broke out a year after the visitation of the plague, commencing Sept. 2, 1666, in Pudding lane, Monument yard, and ending at Pie corner, Giltspur street, having lasted four days and nights, and reduced to ashes five sixths of the whole city within the walls. The city was however rebuilt within four years, and the calamity was commemorated by the monument previously noticed.

The population was then about 200,000. The first stone of St. Paul's was laid in 1675. In 1685 many French Protestants, whom the revocation of the edict of Nantes had driven from France, found an asylum in London, and settled in Spitalfields, introducing the silk manufactures which have since become of the utmost importance. In the reign of Anne an act was passed (1711) for building 50 new churches, in consequence of the increase of the population. Clerkenwell, Soho, and other streets and districts were then annexed to the metropolis. Street lamps had been used as early as 1416, but the streets were first generally lighted under the reign of Anne. Some additions to London in the time of George I. were followed by important enlargements during that of George II. Grosvenor square, Westminster bridge, and new streets were then built, and great roads laid out in several directions. Extension and improvement became still more the order of the day under George III. Black-friars bridge was built, and many new dwellings were erected on the Surrey side. The American war caused a suspension of activity, which however after the peace in 1783 was doubly increased.

Owing to the increase of trade with the United States and other parts of the world, the ground near the water side was soon covered with buildings, and docks were constructed, while fashionable squares and streets soon sprung up in the west in rapid succession. From the regency in 1811 dates the astonishing progress of London in the elegance of its parks and new streets. Regent's park was then formed and surrounded with handsome terraces, and many improvements gradually took place. The discovery of gold in California, and at a later period in Australia, marked new eras in the march of progress, which in more recent periods has further advanced with giant strides. - The great associations of London with the history and literature of England invest the quaint localities and buildings in the antiquated parts of the metropolis with varied interest. Hardly any of them can be passed without meeting with interesting curiosities and great memories of the past. Some of the streets teem with remembrances of Oliver Cromwell. Hampden, and Milton; others with those of Bacon and Newton, Spenser and Shakespeare. In the same street (Bread street, Cheapside) where Milton was born stood the Mermaid tavern, frequented by Shakespeare, Raleigh, and Ben Jonson. Not far from the Cockpit in Charing Cross, where Oliver Cromwell lived for some time, died the poet Spenser. Lord William Russell was beheaded in Lincoln's Inn Fields. The earl of Strafford, Algernon Sidney, and other eminent men were put to death on Tower hill, and Anne Boleyn, Catharine Howard, and many others near the tower of London. Charles I. was executed in the street facing the banqueting house at Whitehall. The Tabard inn, Southwark, which has been pulled down, was the starting place of Chaucer's pilgrims.

In the Inner Temple lane is the house where Pope and Warburton first met. Fielding wrote his "Tom Jones " in Bow street, Covent Garden, in a building now occupied by a police court. The regions of Fleet street, with the Mitre tavern, where Johnson and Boswell met, and of Temple Bar and the Strand, abound with associations of Dr. Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, and their contemporaries. Temple Bar and old Smithfield were full of antiquarian interest, the latter in connection with religious persecutions and with executions; and it was in Leicester square that the unfortunate queen of Bohemia (the so-called queen of hearts) and other royal personages once resided, and where afterward art flourished in the studios of Hogarth and Reynolds, science under the roof of Newton, and surgery in the schools of Hunter and Bell. (See "Leicester Square, its Associations and its Worthies," by Tom Taylor, London, 1874.) - The general and special works on different periods and on the history, curiosities, characteristics, and works of art of London are very numerous; but even the instructive and interesting illustrated "London," edited by Charles Knight (new ed., 6 vols., 1851), is becoming rather antiquated in view of the new improvements.

The finest recent pictorial illustrations of London are by Dore, with text by Blanchard Jerrold (1872).

Royal Exchange.

Royal Exchange.

London #1

London, a city and inland port of entry of Canada, capital of Middlesex co., Ontario, situated on the river Thames, at the junction of the Sarnia and Port Stanley branches with the main line of the Great Western railway, and at the terminus of a branch of the Grand Trunk line from St. Mary's, 105 m. W. S. W. of Toronto, and the same distance E. N. E. of Detroit, Mich.; pop. in 1852, 6,034; in 1861, 11,-555; in 1871, 15,826; in 1874, 18,113, besides 7,000 in the suburbs. It is regularly laid out, with wide streets crossing each other at right angles and lighted with gas, and has many handsome buildings. The crystal palace is a tine structure, erected for exhibition purposes, with extensive and well adapted show grounds. The Great Western railway depot is a fine brick building, and the company has workshops here also. The other principal public buildings are the custom house, post office, court house, jail, city hall, Covent Garden market, the banks, and several of the churches. At the foot of Dundas street are white sulphur springs, famed for their medicinal properties, which in summer attract large numbers of invalids and tourists. The city is the centre of a fine agricultural district, and has an important trade in wheat and other produce.

Its manufactures are considerable, embracing the products of extensive iron founderies and machine shops, mills, breweries, chemical works, petroleum refineries, and tanneries; besides boots and shoes, soap and candles, musical instruments, cabinet ware, carriages, etc. There are six branch banks and several hotels. The value of imports for the year ending June 30, 1873, was $2,555,767; of exports, $1,629,532. London is divided into seven wards, is governed by a mayor and aldermen, and has an efficient police force and fire department. The charitable institutions are a lunatic and an idiot asylum, the city hospital, orphan asylum, and the society for the deserving poor. There are three colleges under Episcopal management, occupying handsome brick buildings on an eminence in the N. part of the city, surrounded by extensive grounds, viz.: Huron college, established in 1863; Hellmuth college, in 1865; Hellmuth ladies' college, in 1860; and a commercial college. The Roman Catholic convent has a young ladies' seminary connected with it.

There are nine public schools, three daily, one tri-weekly, and five weekly newspapers, three monthly periodicals, and 19 churches, including the church of England and Roman Catholic cathedrals.